Temple SOM Block 3: Female Reproductive System

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Can you name the components of the female reproductive system?

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Definition
cells that express StaR/P450 scc, 3beta HSD and P450 c17; give androgen precursors to granulosa cells
placenta expresses this eznyme and aromatase both of which help synthesis of estriol from maternal and fetal adrenal precursors
this hormone can be synthesized by granulosa cell after it expresses LH receptor; LH surge stimulates granulosa cells to make this hormone
granulosa cells lack this steroidogenesis enzyme even after LH receptor is expressed on granulosa cell surface
expression on granulosa cell allow it to make progesterone; expression stimulated by E2 and FSH during menstrual cycle
indicator of fetal well-being
source of 16OH-DHEA-SO4
converts 16OH-DHEA-SO4 to estriol
drop in this hormone signals parturition
placental CRH stimulates this hormone which increases placental estrogens and prostaglandins
loss of feedback inhibition by this hormone as well as estradiol cause increased FSH and LH in menopause
type of tissue that can make E1 from androstenedione; so, E1 doesn't drop as much as E2 in menopause; considered main source of estrogen E1 in menopause
due to menopausal decrease in granulosa and theca cell synthesis of estrogens and their precursors, DHEAS from this organ supplies estrogen precursors
large portion of postmenopausal conversion of DHEAS into androgens and estrogens occurs in this organ
low levels of this cause increased bioavailability of testosterone
aside from Vitamin D from sun, this is considered a major basis for osteoporotic fractures
estrogen increases this cellular antagonist to inhibit activation of osteoclasts
prevents integrins of osteoclasts from interacting with bone matrix
primary descriptor of menopause; causes increased cholesterol (LDL) and vasoconstriction among other well-known symptoms such as hot flashes
synthesized in placenta during pregnancy from fetal liver's 16OH-DHEA-SO4
type of estrogen that declines in menopause but not as steeply as E2 due to synthesis by adipose
Definition
in menopause, loss of this hormone's negative feedback causes elevated levels of GnRH, LH and FSH
peptide neurotransmitter that is normally inhibited by E2; menopause reduces normal inhibition on this neuropeptide causing increased GnRH, FSH, LH
corpus luteum produces these two hormones
stimulates secretion of milk into lumen
stimulates ejection of milk
the shorter acting of the two 'suckling hormones'
inhibits release of prolactin from pituitary cells via G protein coupled receptor; hyperpolarizes cell which in turn decreases intracellular Ca2+ levels
act to stimulate exocytosis of prolactin from pituitary cells, reversing inhibitory G protein receptor mentioned above
blood side of alveolar cells in breast detect elevated Ca2+ levels and lower levels of this hormone
2/3 of calcium in milk is complexed with phosphates and is encased in these
causes growth, hypertrophy and branching of alveolar tissue; also, stimulates synthesis of milk proteins
this anterior pituitary hormone's receptor is very similar to PRL receptor as well as receptors of the other cytokine receptor superfamily (IL, hCS)
binding of this anterior pituitary hormone causes dimerization of JAK/STAT receptor mechanism
an inhibitory nerve type responsible for robust negative feedback loop on GnRH and its downstream hormones seen in early childhood
adrenarche is marked by increased maturity of this zone of the adrenal cortex
appetite suppressing hormone that could act in stimulating GnRH release; also activates Kiss-1 gene of Kisspeptin-10 secreting nerves
Kisspeptin-10 released from amygdala neurons interacts with these G protein receptors which stimulating GnRH release
in puberty, neurons from this brain region become less sensitive to negative feedback by FSH, LH; they also have a lowered threshold to trigger GnRH release
increased outward Cl- current make these neurons more sensitive to depolarization; result is less inhibition on GnRH releasing neurons
term that describes the 8-12 hour delay in the nocturnal secretion of melatonin and its inhibition of GnRH mRNA
area of the brain responsible for the production of Kisspeptin-10 neurocrine

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