Birth Defects

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Can you name the birth defects associated with the descriptions?

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DescriptionBirth DefectFun Facts
oddly shaped head and braindue to abnormal early skull closure
intestines fail to retract after herniation in development, covered by membranedue to failure of gut retraction
short bones in digitsmany causes
urethral opening on ventral side of penisdue to failure of urethral fold fusion
small jaw, downward slanting eyesdue to defects in first branchial arch derivatives
double uterusdue to failure of mullerian duct fusion
multiple little spleens or no spleen at alldue to problems in asymmetric development
cystic mass in neckdue to persistence of cervical sinus
abnormal remnant of yolk sac on small intestineusually asymtomatic
narrow, non-existent anus
blockage in pyloric sphincter of stomachresults in vomiting
midline head and facial defect ranging from cleft lip to cyclopiadue to defect in hedgehog signaling in midline
extra fingers or toesmany causes
bladder opens externallydue to failure in abdominal wall
protrusion of brain or membranes into large cyst on headdue to partial failure of neural tube closure in head
enlarged colon, lack of innervation in distal digestive tractdue to neural crest migration failure and lack of peristalsis
blockage of esophagusdue to failure of foregut septation
intestines protrude into scrotum
abnormal connection between trachea and esophagusdue to failure of foregut septation
narrowed pulmonary trunk from heartdue to misplaced outflow tract septum, results in cyanosis
fingers or toes attached togethermany causes
absence of sacral, lumbar vertebrae
intestines herniate through abdominal wall defect, not covered by membranedue to defect in abdominal wall
reduced or absent limb bonesassociated with thalidomide, due to lack of FGF4 and FGF8
hands and feet missing digits, have median cleftsdue to loss of AER expression of FGF4 and FGF9
legs fused together (mermaid syndrome)associated with bladder and kidney problems
various upper limb malformations, heart defectsdue to insufficient TBX5
misshapen nails, kneecaps, elbowsdue to insufficient LMX1B
bone syndactyly, maxillary hypoplasia, craniosynostosis, oral/craniofacial abnormalitiesdue to mutations in FGFR2
heart shaped uterusdue to partial failure of mullerian duct fusion
ring-shaped pancreas around the gutdue to lateral portion of foregut not being prevented from developing into a pancreas
accumulation of fluid in skull, large head
pulmonary stenosis, ventricular septal defect leading to right ventricle hypertrophy, overriding aortaresults from pulmonary stenosis and VSD
aorta and pulmonary trunk on wrong sides of heartdue to lack of outflow tract rotation
testes fail to descend into scrotum
reversed body orientationdue to abnormal ventral node cilia
aorta and pulmonary trunk not separateddue to lack of outflow tract septation
defect in lumbar vertebrae leading to protrusion of meninges or spinal corddue to failure of neural tube closure in spine
abnormal openings between lips or roof of mouthdue to failures of palate shelf fusion
absence and degeneration of brain and skulldue to failure of neural tube closure in head
rectum, urinary tract, vagina fuseddue to failure of urorectal septum

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