Metabolic disorders

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Can you name the Metabolic disorders

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The peri-parturient period runs from _ weeks before birth to _-_ weeks after.
 
 
Milk fever and parturient paresis are both terms indicating?
 
Which of the following is not a potential pathophysiology of milk fever?
a)reduced PTH receptors due to age b)reduced PTH receptors due to breed c)reduced PTH receptor function due to alkalosis d)Reduced PTH receptor function due to acidosis e)reduced PTH receptor function due to hypomagnesemia 
What organ is responsible for synthesis of 1,25-(OH)2 vitamin D?
 
The following is a list of symptoms potentially assocaited with ________ _______
Hypocalcemia, mastitis, metritis, rumen acidosis, uterine tears, uterine prolapses, ruptured uterine arteries, retained placenta, displaced abomasum, ketosis, hepatic lipidosis, traumatic reticuloperitonitis, musculoskeletal injuries. 
What percentage of the body pool of calcium resides in bone?
 
True or false: roughly 5x the plasma pool of calcium is required PER MILKING in early lactation?
 
Which of the following is not a function of calcium?
a)stabilize nerve cell membrnaes b)smooth muscle cell contraction c)skeletal muscle cell contraction d)release of acetylcholine at NMJ e)all of the above require calcium 
True or false: binding of PTH to its receptor cannot occur with hypomagnesemia?
 
Where in the bowel does calcium absorption mainly occur?
 
What is the incidence of hypocalcemia in high producing dairy cattle?
 
With metabolic alkalosis, PTH receptors won't function because?
 
What breed is predisposed to hypocalcemia more than others?
Past the third parity incidence increases across the board. 
What kind of diet should be avoided during the dry cow period to avoid alkalosis?
 
Which of the following clinical signs would not be associated with Stage I hypocalcemia (prodromal stage)?
a)ability to stand b)decreased feed intake c)hyperexcitability, restlessness, slight ataxia d)slow PLR and mydriasis e)reduced rumen contractions, decreased urination and defecation 
Focal muscle tremors, depression and anorexia, variable rectal temperature, weak pulse, increased HR, and bloat are all signs of what stage of hypocalcemia?
 
Which of the following is not a sign of stage III hypocalcemia?
a)sternal recumbency b)flaccid paralysis c)comatose d)bloat, aspiration e)poor anal tone 
______ _______ comes in 500 mL bottles, and is a good treatment for milk fever.
It must be adminsitered slowly however, with concurrent cardiac auscultation, and should not be used in endotoxemic cows, due to cardiotoxic potential. 
With positive response to calcium therapy, the animal should immediate have ____ _____, and stand within _ hours.
 
Reassess if standing takes longer than 8 hours, realize that 25-30% relapse in 24-48 hours. 
If seeking to prevent relapses of milk fever, one should not use subcutaneous calcium with high _____ solutions.
 
_____ _______ in propylene glycol is a good oral calcium treatment to help prevent relapses.
 
Which of the following is a likely secondary complication of milk fever?
a)dystocia b)retained placenta or prolapsed uterus c)LDA d)mastitis e)nerve dysfunction after compression f)all of the above 
In late dry cow period, one should seek to prevent milk fever by _____ the diet.
 
_____ ______ is lowest in potassium compared to ____ which are high in it.
 
 
If I add sodium and potassium ions and subtract chlorine and sulfur, this would give me?
 
Why would you administer anionic salts in a total mixed ration?
You should give these 3-5 weeks pre-partum. 
Which of the following is NOT an anionic salt that might be used to prevent alkalosis?
a)magnesium sulfate b)HCl c)calcium chloride d)ammonium chloride e)Aluminum hydroxide 
5.8-6.2 is the ideal urine pH in the late dry cow period for _____, all others are optimal at 6.0-6.5
 
True or false: Hyperphosphatemia would be normal with hypocalcemia?
 
Grass staggers, grass tetany and lactation tetany are all more colourful terms for?
 
True or false: grass tetany is more common in dairy cattle?
 
What condition should be considered in downer cows refractory to calcium administration?
They'll be alert, with a good appetite, and recumbent for no apparent reason. 
Which of the following would not be a risk factor for hypomagnesemic tetany?
a)first 6 weeks of lactation b)high producers c)summer season d)cow over 6 yo e)young animal (2-4 months old) 
True or false: a normal magnesium level in the blood does not rule out grass tetany?
 
If you had to sample a cow that had died 14 hours ago, and you wanted to see if hypomagnesemic tetany was the cause, what fluid would you sample at this time?
 
Which of the following is not a sign of hypomagnesemic tetany?
a)high stepping b)bradycardia c)sudden death d)convulsions e)bruxism 
How long will response to magnesium treatment take with grass tetany?
The lag is due to CSF equilibriating with blood. 
You have just successfully treated a cow for hypomagnesemic tetany. What should you supplement her herd mates with? What should you treat her with to prevent relapse?
 
 
Which of the following would not likely form a part of your herd's prevention plan for hypomagnesemic tetany?
a)planting legumes b)salt blocks with magensium c)supplementation with roughage or magnesium oxide d)making sure the pasture is well fertilized with potassium rich fertilizers e)reducing stress due to inclement weather 
What organ produces 1-hydroxyvitamin D, which is converted by hte kidneys to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D?
 
Within minutes PTH exerts its effect on the _____, the effect on _____ takes days
 
 
True or false: hypomagnesemia decreases the amount of PTH released in response to hypocalcemia?
 
True or false: Cows normally intake more dry matter in preparation for parturition, as an evolutionary mechanism to reduce hypocalcemia?
 
What is the term meaning the process of filling the udder with air to reduce milk production? (A treatment for hypocalcemia)
Thank you Emma for knowing what this is. 
Which of the following is NOT a test you should perform on a cow sick in the periparturient period?
a)CMT b)serum biochemical profile c)abdominal percussion and auscultation d)rectal palpation e)milk ketone test f)none of the above 
Why might you hobble a cow's limbs when nursing it due to hypocalcemia?
 
What would one be attempting to do if adding zeolite or vegetable oils to the diet of a cow that will be calving out soon?
 
True or false: dextrose containing fluids will actually make hypophosphatemia worse, compared to most diseases of downer cows?
 
This ailment has been associated with hypophosphatemia, likely due to decreased ATP activity along RBC membranes, and disruption of osmotic gradient.
 
True or false: due to the horrible complications of hypophosphatemia, diets should contain over 80 grams of phosphorus per day?
 
True or false: a low concentration of magnesium in the urine is abnormal and indicative of hypermagenesemia?
 
Intraruminal boluses of these growth potentiating antibiotics may help prevent hypomagnesemic tetany?
 
Which of the following is not a volatile fatty acid (VFA) produced from starch in ruminants?
a)proprionate b)acetate c)beta-hydroxybutyrate d)butyrate 
Which of the VFAs is the most important? Why?
 
 
The liver of ruminants stores a small amount of this chemical, which is quickly depleted in the face of increased demands for energy.
 
Some of the decrease in DMI in the peri-parturient period is explaiend by hormones, the rest by this?
 
In late gestation and early lactation the cow requires __-__% more energy than normal, and takes in __-__% less DMI.
 
 
8-10 weeks post-partum, the ___ peaks.
 
What does NEFA stand for?
 
The average dairy cow loses 30-100kg in the first _ months of lactation?
This is the period when disorders of energy homeostasis are most often seen. 
Please name all the components that come out of triglycerides at the level when glucose is produced (i.e. what are NEFAs made into)?
The question refers to the products of comlete and incomplete oxidation in hepatocytes. This one's for free. I mentioned it in the question. 
 
 
 
If NEFAs cannot all be transported into mitochondria of hepatocyes, they are re-esterified into triglycerdies and packaged into?
They are then used as energy sources by body tissues. 
Ketosis occurs when _______ exceeds ____ as an ____ source.
 
 
 
True or false: all cows get fat accumulation and ketosis during late gestation and periparturient period?
 
What happens if triglycerides are forced to accumualte in the cytoplasm of hepatoctes because enough VLDLs cannot be generated?
Think excessive mobilization from adipose tissue in response to normal hormone signals, for example. VLDL formation requires cholesterol, phospholipid and apolipoprotein A. 
Name another tissue in which fat deposits will occur during hepatic lipidosis?
 
Of the components of VLDLs, which one is hypothesized to be insufficient when fatty liver occurs?
 
Hepatic lipidosis is likely to occur in the ____ week after calving, associated with another disease causing anorexia, whereas ketosis will present in the ____ or ____ week after c
This is a generality. Boh may happen at any time in the close-up period and throughout lactation with significant energy crisis. 
 
Ketosis and _______ _______ go hand in hand in the post-partum period.
A history of either predisposes to the other. 
True or false: ideally all cows would be fat close-up to parturition, so they have lots of energy stores when they decrease dry matter intake?
 
Why does winter predipsose to ketosis?
 
_______ frequency of feeding is better for optimal rumen health?
 
Silage high in _____ acid can exacerbate ketosis
 
A primary or accompanying disease entity exists in __-__% of all cases of ketosis
 
Dry cow diets should contain at least _% protein (DM basis)
 
Pregnancy toxemia most frequently occurs in ewes with this increased source of risk
 
What condition are beef cows at highest risk for in winter, with inadequate feed supply or quantity, and when pregnant with twins?
Ewes and beef cattle are more frequently affected by energy disorders in late gestation as opposed to early lactation. 
What is the 'undetectable' decrease in milk associated with subclinical ketosis (in kg/day)?
It's a range, but the answers accept any ._ value within that range. (That is, if the range is 2.5-3.0, i'll accept 2.5,2.6,2.7, etc.) 
Subclinical ketosis predisposes cows to this reproductive tract problem, as well as decreased cycling.
 
A realistic aim for subclinical ketosis prevalence in a high producing dairy herd is under __ percent?
 
An animal with clinical ketosis will gradually develop anorexia, starting with refusal to eat ____, then ____, then finally _____.
 
 
 
Which of the following is nto a clinical sign of uncomplicated clinical ketosis?
a)gradual decrease in milk production b)loss of condition greater than normal during early lactation c)dull attitude d)agitation e)tachycardia 
True or false: Every vet worth their salt should be able to diagnose ketosis by odour of milk, breath, or urine?
 
Which of the following is not a differential for nervous ketosis?
a)rabies b)lead toxicity c)hypercalcemia d)hypomagnesemia e)listeriosis 
Which of the following is not a clinical sign of nervous ketosis?
a)hypoglyemia b)hyperglycemia c)elevated blood isopropyl alcohol d)pica e)head pressing, tilt f)bellowing g)tremors or tetany 
True or false: Cows suffering from hepatic lipidosis have similar clinical signs as with ketosis, but more severe.
 
Between 1400 and 3000 umol/L of Beta-OH butyrate would be ______ ketosis
 
Ketones in urine are called? In blood? Milk?
 
 
 
_______ may falsely increase the value for b-OH in serum, ______ may decrease it.
 
 
Cowside tests for ketonuria have high ______.
 
____ levels of ketones will be half that of serum, ____ levels will be 2-20x as high.
 
 
Milk tests for ketones have moderate _____ and high _____
 
 
If I had to choose a screening test and a confirm test for ketones, I'd test _____ to screen and ____ to confirm.
 
 
True or false: you may see leukocytosis and left shift due to hepatic lipidosis?
 
With _____ liver enzymes are normal, with _____ they are likely high?
 
 
Why would a test for muscle enzymes be indicated in a downer cow with hepatic lipidosis?
 
Which of the following would you not use to test the liver of a cow if you suspected hepatic lipidosis?
a)liver biopsy to compare triacylglycerol to glycogen b)bromosulfophthalein retention c)bile acids d) identifying fat globules on histopathology from a liver biospy e)necropsy to look for friable yellow liver f)all of these are legit tests 
Which of the following would not likely form a part of your treatment plan for mild clinical ketosis?
a)aggressive fluid therapy b)a single dose of corticosteroids c)dextrose IV bolus dosing once or twice d)oral propylene glycol administration for several days e)none of the above 
True or false: C-section is indicated in PEM but not pregnancy toxemia?
 
If given as a continuous rate infusion over 1-2 days, __% of IV dextrose stays in the cow.
With bolus dosing most is lost in less than 2 hours in urine, and 40% relapse. 
Glycerol and sodium propionate are alternatives to this oral source of propionate?
 
What is a side effect of using dexamethasone to decrease tissue uptake of glucose?
 
In the cow, these three tissues do not require insulin.
____, ____ and ____. This allows repartitioning of glucose use to other tissues! 
What additional effect might prompt one to treat neurological signs iwth chloral hydrate over an alpha 2?
Ultimate result is increased liver gluconeogenesis. By what mechanism? (You should use injectible sedatives first to control nervous ketosis.) 
Which of the following has the worst prognosis?
a)subclinical ketosis b)nervous ketosis c)clinical ketosis d)hepatic lipidosis e)PEM 
Please give two other names for nutritional myopathy?
_____ _____ _____ and ______ __________ 
Nutritional myopathy is a condition that arises when dams are fed a diet deficient in what?
 
Vitamin E acts as an ______ to prevent lipid hydroperoxide formation and prevent damage to lipid membranes and proteins.
 
Selenium acts as a coenzyme for ___-__ which destroys peroxides that have already formed?
 
True or false: Nutritional myopathy mainly affects 2-4 month old animals, rarely adults?
 
Which of the following is not a risk factor for selenium deficiency?
a)feeding legumes b)plants from spring and early summer c)heat drying d)acidic soil with high sulfur content 
True or false: white muscle disease can affect the skeletal muscles or the myocrdium causing acute heart failure?
 
What two muscle enzymes will be elevated to aid in diagnosis of nutritional myodegeneration?
This one has a rapid rise and a short halflife 
This one rises slower, but sticks around longer. 
What renal abnormality may be noticed with white muscle disease?
 
Even if an animal recovers from the skeletal form, what might they be chronically affected by?
They may also suffer from aspiration pneumonia, decubital lesions, etc. 
True or false: the onset of white muscle disease is more or less random?
 

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Created Nov 13, 2013ReportNominate
Tags:disorder