Fluids, Acid/Base, Anticonvulsant, Shock and Monitoring

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Can you name the Fluids, Acid/Base, Shock and Monitoring?

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Which of the following is NOT a method of monitoring circulation?
a)pulse b)pulse c) auscultation d) blood pressure e)EKG f) cardiac output g) none of the above 
Which of the following is NOT a method of monitoring oxyenation?
a)mucous membrane colour b) pulse oximetry c) auscultation d) blood gases 
Which of the following is NOT a method of monitoring ventilation?
a)auscultate b) EKG c) reservoir bag movement d)thoracic wall movement e) capnography f) monitor blood gases 
Minimum acceptable values for blood pressure under general anesthesia (mmHg) are __ systolic, __ diastolic and __ for average
 
 
 
Which species has a pulse rate of 100-160 bpm?
 
How many beats per minute would you expect the pulse rate of a healthy horse to be?
Foals would be 60-90, this is adults... 
What species has a pulse range of 60-140 beats per minute?
 
Stroke Volume x Heart Rate=?
 
If I multiply Total Peripheral Resistance by Cardiac Output, what would I get?
 
Which of the following is NOT an indirect method of checking BP?
a) doppler b)catheterization of artery c) oscillometric d) both b and c 
True or false: doppler has a tendency to overstimate Systolic BP?
 
Vasoconstrictors tend to _____ BP and can ____ CO
 
 
If I multiply tidal volume by respiratory rate, what do i calculate?
 
True or false: dogs and cows have expected respiration rates of around 6-40 bpm?
 
True or false: capnography measures CO2 in exhaled gases and may provide a rough estimate of CO?
 
True or false: when comparing exhaled carbon dioxide to PaCO2, PaCo2 tends to be higher?
 
An oxygen saturation (SpO2) measurement of around 100 corresponds with which of the following ranges of PaO2 in mmHg?
a) 90-100 b) 53-60 c) 130-660 d) 45 
Which of the following gases has the highest MAC?
a) NO b) sevoflurane c) halothane d) isoflurane 
Prior to the _____ (alternating, rapid contraction and relaxation) phase of a convulsion, there is a brief ____ phase (continual contraction
 
 
What si the name for a series of seizures in rapid succession, with no intervening periods of consciousness?
can last over half an hour and do brain damage or kill 
True or false: massive tonic-clonic seizures (grand mal) form the only noticeable symptom of epilepsy?
 
Why does phenobarbital have a decreasing half life over time with therapeutic use?
 
True or false: with prolonged use of PB, one might expect to eventually have to give a nephrotoxic dose?
 
Which of the following is NOT an advantage of PB?
a)cost-effective b) efficacy in seizure treatment c)sedation (sometimes transient) d)not metabolized in liver  
Early on, it is best to measure PB levels in blood at their ____, but later on you should do it when it is ______
 
 
If weaning an animal off PB, it is safe to reduce blood levels by 10% every _ weeks?
 
Why is PB used more often in cats?
 
True or false: potassium bromide is not sold as a pharmaceutical and must be compounded?
 
True or false: KBr falsely elevates chloride ion concentration on blood profiles?
 
Which of the following is not a disadvantage of KBr?
a)hepatotoxicity b)ataxia c)narrow therapeutic index d)dyspnea in cats e)long time required to titrate to correct therapeutic levels f) pancreatitis, rarely 
True or false: diazepam can be used at home to stop seizures, and should be given during the prodromal phase?
 
True or false: diazepam is a viable choice for long term seizure prevention, but is prohibitively expensivve?
 
True or false: primidone would rarely be used, because it causes worse hepatic toxicity than its derivative, PB?
 
With phenytoin, the ______ makes it unviable, with clonazepam, the problem is _____.
 
 
True or false: levetiracetam is proven effective when used alone
 
What percentage of body weight is expected to be composed of fluids?
 
What fraction of the body fluids (_ out of _) does the intracellular fluid constitute?
 
Which of the following substances would you not expect to be in higher concentration intracellularly compared to the ECF?
a)potassium b)phosphate c) protein d) sodium e) sulphate 
3/4 of the extracellular fluid compartment is ____ fluid, and most of the remaining quarter is ____
 
 
What is the expected pH of the extracellular fluid?
 
For most species, blood volume is _% of BW, for the cat it is _-_%.
 
 
Blood loss of less than __% can be effectively treated with crystalloids
 
Maintenance solutions should be given at a rate of 2-4mL/kg/h. True or false?
 
What is the normal rate in mL/kg/h for giving replacement solutions? Shock rate?
 
 
Which of the following is NOT a replacement solution?
a)plasmalyte-56 b) LRS c) plasmalyte-A d)Plasmalyte-148 
Which of the following is NOT a maintenance solution?
a)NaCl 0.45% b)plasmalyte-56 c)normosol-M d)normosol-R 
What percentage of administered replacement solution will remain in the vascular compartment after 1-2 hours?
Remember you should give 3 times the blood lost when administering replacement crystalloids 
True or false: plasma and blood are classified as colloids, but not synthetic.
 
What is the replacement ratio for colloids with blood loss? (_:_)
 
What is the maximum amount of synthetic colloids that should be administered in one day?
in mL/kg/day 
When treating dehydration, the dosage in mL is equal to BWx1000x?
 
% of ______ is calculated off total body weight, whereas _____ volume is around 8 percent body weight, based on a fraction of total body water?
 
 
If I multiply the deviation of HCO3- from normal concentration by 1.2, what do I get?
 
Which of the following is a volatile acid?
a)ketoacids b)carbonic acid c)various organic acids d)lactic acid 
80% of CO2 in the blood is in _____ form, 13% in ______ form and 7% as dissolved CO2 or H2CO3
 
 
_____ _____ is caused by excessive acids from tissues or hyperchloremia, or both.
 
What is the normal range of ABE?
-_ to _ 
In acute uncompensated metabolic acidosis, we expect ___, ____ and ____ _____ to be lower, and PCO2 to be _____.
 
 
 
 
A patient is suffering from a metaolic alkalosis. You multiply the HCO3- concentration by 0.9 and add 9. You find the PaCO2 is higher than this. What has occured?
 
In terms of respiratory acidosis, for every __mmHg increase in CO2, expect bicarb to increase by 1.3
 
SID= [Na+] + [K+] - [ __ ]= ____(in a normal patient)
 
More than this= metabolic alkalosis, less than this=metabolic acidosis 
True or false: storng ions are dissociated, and their concentraitons are not affected by other ions?
 
Anion gap, although it is not to be trusted, should equal about 20. If it is less, it is ____ _____, if it is more, it is _____ ____.
 
 
What other concentration is subtracted from sodium and potassium to get anion gap instead of SID?
 
Why do proteins affect the anion gap?
 
True or false: the SIG corrects the anion gap for proteins?
 
True or false: (TPx0.25)= Unmeasured Ions?
 
Which of the following is not a clinical sign of shock in at least some veterinary patients?
a)bradycardia b)tachycardia c)cold extremities d)poor peripheral pulse e)prolonged CRT f)decreased urine production g)none of the above 
Which two hormones are released as the immediate endocrine response to shock? Which hormone is released within minutes? What system takes hours to activate?
___ and ___ 
 
 
Which of the following areas of the body will not experience vasoconstriction during shock?
a)skin b)skeletal muscle c)hepatic arteries d)renal arteries e)splanchnic organs 
What are the two main causes of death during shock?
 
 
__-__% dehydration or __-__% loss of blood will yield hypovolemic shock
 
 
In which two species will splenic contracture temporarily bolster the falling PCV during interstitial fluid shifts in the first hour of hypovolemic shock?
 
Cardiac tamponade would be a potential cause of what kind of shock?
 
Which of the following is not a likely cause of distributive/vasodilatory/hyperdynamic shock?
a)massive trauma b)tension pneumothorax c)sepsis d)hypoadrenocorticism e)anaphylaxis 
Which form of shock will unusually be initially characterized by fast CRT, brick red mucous membranes and warm extremities?
 
True or false: patients may suffer from multiple types of shock simulatenously?
 
What is the best and most current way to monitor positive responses to therapy for shock?
 
True or false: intravascular volume support is appropriate for all forms of shock?
 
What are the four types of shock?
 
 
 
 
What is an acceptable percentage reading for pulse oxymetry?
 
When amdinistering crystalloids, the dose is 3x blood loss. The dose rate is between 60 and 90mL/kg. What percentage of the dose should be administered over 15 minutes, before reas
 
The maximum daily dose of synthetic colloids for dogs is 20mL/kg/day. In what time would you administer 5mL/kg before reassessing?
 
True or false: endpoint of fluid therapy for shocky patients is the administration of the calculated volume of fluids?
 
Blood transfusions are indicated with PCVs of less than __-__%, or TS of less than _._-_._g/L
 
 
Over-aggressive fluid resuscitation therapy may cause which of the following?
a)reperfusion injury b)fluid extravasation into damaged tissues c)increased intracranial pressures d)excessive hemodilution e) all of the above 
What is the main class of drug for analgesia during shock?
Think minimal CVS and respiratory depression 
If pH remains below 7.2 after appropriate resuscitation, what might you administer?
Give 0.3x BW x (normal bicarb-patient bicarb)... start with 1/3-1/2 calculated dose 
True or false: norepinephrine is less potent than dopamine, but may be useful for septic patients
 
What are the primary uses of dobutamine?
 
 

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Created Mar 17, 2013ReportNominate
Tags:acid, base, monitoring, shock