Renal physiology

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Can you name the Renal physiology?

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What is the average percentage of body weight contributed by TBW?
 
What fraction of TBW is intracellular fluid?
 
What is an aquaporin?
 
What is the term for the hyrostatic pressure required to oppose the movement of water across a semi-permeable membrane in response to a concentration gradient?
 
When I express osmotic concentrations as mOsm solute/ kg of solvent, what am I using?
 
When I express osmotic concentrations as mOsm of solute per L of solvent, what am I using?
 
I have calculated an osmotic concentration from known concentrations. What is it?
 
If you have the concentration of sodium ions in the ECF, what would you multiply it by to get the approximate osmolality?
 
what is the more proper term for 'effective osmolality?'
(The sum of the concentrations of all solutes with an ability to exert osmotic force across the membrane.) 
What ion concentraiton is low inside cells compared to the plasma or interstitium? Which one is high?
 
 
What is the principle determinant of extracellular and intravascular fluid volume?
 
What type of fluid therapy involves administering fluids with a similar composition to ECF?
 
If you wanted to insure that osmotically active particles remained in the plasma compartment, would you administer colloids or crystalloids?
 
If you wanted ONLY to increase the volume of the ECF, what type of fluid would you administer? Give an example?
 
 
If you want to increase the volume of both the ECF and ICF, and it is acceptable for the ECF to decrease in osmolality, what type of solution would you administer?
 
If you want to dramatically increase the volume of the ECF, and don't mind decreasing the ICF volume, what would you administer?
 
 
What is an example of a hypotonic solution?
 
What percentage of the kidney is required for it to function?
 
What does BUN stand for?
 
Aside from the afferent and efferent arterioles, what are the other components of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?
 
 
 
True or false: the juxtaglomerular apparatus is important in controlling both systemic and local vascular resistance, but individual nephrons have no ability to regulate their GFR.
 
What is the volume of plasma filtered by all glomeruli over a given time referred to as?
 
True or false: 2-4 mL/kg/min would be a normal volume of plasma to be filtered by all the glomeruli in a 10kg dog?
 
True or false: a 500 kg horse produces 720 to 1440 L of urine per day?
 
True or false: over 99% of glomerular filtrate is reabsorbed
 
Will a negatively charged molecule between 2 and 4 nm be more likely to escape through the filtration barrier of the glomerulus than a positvely charged one?
 
True or false: the ultrafiltration coefficient may be altered by the contraction of mesangial cells in response to calcitonin and angiotensin I
 
A patient presents with marked proteinuria, mild hematuria, hypoalbuminemia, and peripheral edema. What is your most likely differential diagnosis?
 
Fill in the blanks: Between ___ mmHg and ____ mmHg, autoregulation will maintain a near-constant GFR.
 
 
By the myogenic reflex, increased arterial wall tension leads to ____
 
The myogenic reflex is modulated by prostaglandins and stretch receptors. True or false?
 
Which of the following is not a vasoconstrictor of renal vessels? Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone, ANF, Endothelin
 
The two outcomes of sympathetic stimulation on renal vessels are:
 
 
Fill in the blanks: Renin, released by the ___ ____, converts angiotensinogen, released by the ____, into angiotensin I, which is then converted by ____ into angiotensin II.
 
 
 
Which of the following is not an effect of Angiotensin II? Increased reabsorption of Na+, Cl- and K+, increased aldosterone secretion, arteriolar vasoconstriction or increased ADH
 
True or false: the macula densa secretes unknown paracrine factors which can decrease the GFR by causing the afferent arteriole to constrict?
 
What is the term for the rate at which a substance is cleared from plasma?
V x Ux/ Px=? 
What substance can be used to ascertain GFR from its clerance, because it is neither secreted nor reabsorbed?
 
True or false: due to slight tubular secretion, creatinine leads to a slight underestimation of GFR if you calculate clearance?
 
What is an increased concentration of urea and creatinine in plasma/serum termed as?
 
Approximately what percentage of filtered water is reabsorbed in the proximal tubule? What percentage of Na+?
 
 
True or false: ~100% of all filtered glucose is reabsorbed in the proximal tubule?
 
Where does water enter after leaving the lumen of the descending loop of henle?
 
Which is more permeable to water, the descending or ascending loop of henle?
 
True or false: 30% of the Na+ filtered is reabsobred in the ascending loop of henle?
 
What hormone primarily is in control of the variable water reabsorption in the collecting duct?
 
True or false: the fractional reabsorption rate and the fractional excretion rate, when added together, make 100%
 
Fractional excretion or clearance rate is equal to clearance of x over clearance of _____?
One might use creatinin or inulin... 
With what section of the nephron lumen would you associate an extensive brush border?
 
what enzyme's activity can be used to gauge injury to proximal tubular cells?
 
symport and antiport are both types of?
 
true or false: glucose is reabsorbed from the lumen of the proximal tubule to the circulation by a two step process including GLUT1 and 2 passively transporting it on the apical me
 
If glucose is reabsorbed in the proximal tubules, how can diabetic patients have glucosuria?
 
What defect in tubular transport would you associated most with middle-aged basengji dogs?
It is still somewhat rare, and involves numerous defects in tubular reabsorption and secretion 
True or false: glucosuria can be a non-diagnostic component of renal failure?
 
Why does the overall osmolality of filtrate not change after the PCT?
 
Cells in the thin-walled descending limb of henle are permeable to ____ and ___ but impermeable to ____
 
 
 
How are sodium, potassium and chlorine ions reabsorbed in the ascending limb of loop of henle?
 
True or false: Urea, together with sodium, potassium and chlorine ions are concentrated in the ISF of the renal medulla?
 
Furosemide is a powerful diuretic. What does it block?
 
With which urea transporter would you associate the inner medullary collecting duct? What hormone mediates its activity?
 
 
True or false: the distal tubule is permeable to water
 
What class of drugs inhibits sodium-chloride symporters in the distal tubule?
 
Which of the two types of cells found in the distal convoluted tubule is associated with potassium and hydrogen ion regulation and acid base balance?
target of carbonic anhydrase inhibitor diuretics 
Within the collecting duct, aldosterone enhances ______ reabsorption and ______ excretion.
 
 
After ADH binds to the basal receptors and activates a cAMP second messenger system, what type of aquaporin is inserted into the lumenal membrane?
 
When ADH is present, urine will be _____
 
Vasopressin is released from the _______, regulated by _____.
 
 
What is the specific gravity range of isotonic urine?
____ to ____ 
What are the two types of diabetes insipidus?
 
 
True or false: primary renal disease is likely in dehydrated patients with dilute urine?
 
Angiotensin II causes _____ of afferent and efferent arterioles, and stimulates the ____ to take up Na+ and water
 
 
Aldosterone works on all segments of the nephron from _____ onwards, and enhances Na+ _____ and K+ ____
 
 
 
What hormone works in opposition to Angiotensin II? What is the ultimate result?
 
 
Calcitriol and PTH promote reabsorption of calcium in what two segments of the nephron?
 
 
What hormone works in opposition to calcitriol and PTH?
 
True or false: the ECF volume (sodium content system) is dependent upon a functional osmolality (H2O) system?
 
Where are low-pressure mechanoreceptors located?
 
 
Where are high-pressure mechanoreceptors found?
 
 
What two influences affect sodium reabsorption in the PCT?
____ and ___ 
What two influences affect sodium reabsorption in the distal nephron?
____ and ____ 
True or false: angiotensin II and norepinephrine stimulate the Na+/H+ exchanger in the basal membrane?
 
Which of the following hormones does not affect Na/H exchangers: NE, angiotensin II, aldosterone
 
Which of the following hormones does not work in the collecting duct: ANF, angiotensin II, ADH
 
Osmotic sensors are to ADH as volume sensors are to?
 
True or false: Hyperkalemia can be a complication in patients who are taking diuretics for a prolonged amount of time?
 
What is the name for the rapid uptake of potassium by cells of the body to prevent increases in serum potassium concentration, followed by a slow measured release?
 
What do epinephrine, insulin and aldosterone have in common?
 
True or false: Exercise can increase potassium concentration in serum without underlying pathology
 
Where in the nephron do the potassium channels allowing for secretion reside?
 
true or false: potassium directly stimulates its own secretion, as well as indirectly by increasing aldosterone release?
 
What cells within the kidney produce EPO?
 

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Created Apr 9, 2012ReportNominate
Tags:physiology