Osteology of limbs and hindlimb

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Can you name the Osteology of limbs and hindlimb?

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Ulna is to Radius as fibula is to?
 
The carpal joints may also be known as what in the horse?
 
What is the name for the process of the ulna projecting caudodorsally from the forelimb?
 
What is the most proximal forelimb bone which contacts the scapula? What is the most proximal hindlimb bone which slots into the hip?
 
 
Which of the three carpal articulations is immobile in the horse, being fused rather securely?
 
Name the components of the more proximal layer of carpal bones in the horse? (craniomedial to caudolateral)
 
 
 
 
Which two bones of the more distal layer of carpal bones are fused in the horse?
____ and ____ 
Counting the fused bones as one, how many component bones are there in the equine carpus? (Don't count the radius/ulna or the metacarpals)
 
How many bones are there in the canine carpus?
 
How many complete digits in the horse? How many have not disappeared completely?
 
 
What equine bone is commonly referred to as the short pastern?
 
How many complete digits in cows? How many are not completely gone?
 
 
what digits are reduced in cows? List them in order. (____, ____, ....)
 
What two metacarpals are fused in the cow to produce a single cannon bone?
 
What are the two components of the most proximal row of the equine tarsus?
 
What bone bridges between the second and third levels of the equine tarsus?
 
Name the joints of the hindlimb starting from hip, all the way to distal interphalangeal
 
 
 
 
 
 
why would large animals adapt to lose digits?
 
What manner of standing tends to have a longer ELL... digitigrade or unguligrade?
 
What muscle originates from the lumbar vertebrae, passes medial to the wings of the ilium, then attaches on the lesser trochanter of the femur?
In reference to the hindlimb, this muscle functions to advance it, flexing the hip joint. 
What canine muscle is a narrow muscle covering the caudal part of the middle gluteal, inserting on the third trochanter of the femur?
Acts as a hip extensor or a limb retractor. 
What innervates the muscle described in the previous question?
 
What is the largest gluteal muscle?
Originates from the outer ilium and gluteal fascia and inserts on greater trochanter. Acts as a hip extensor/limb retractor and can also abduct the limb. 
What muscle is completely covered by the middle gluteal and inserts on the cranial part of the greater trochanter?
More of an abductor, but can also act as a hip extensor/limb retractor. 
What muscle, present in the horse,attaches by an aponeurosis to the intertrochanteric line of the femur, and passes over the cranial part of the greater trochanter, cushioned by th
 
What muscle originates from the coxal tuber and ilium and extends over the cranial thigh to insert into lateral femoral fascia? What nerve supplies it?
This muscle acts as a flexor of the hip or limb advancer. 
 
List the muscles of the medial hindlimb? Do not include the sartorius. (____, ____, ____, ...)
These muscles function to adduct the hindlimb and prevent unwanted abduction. 
What nerve tends to supply the adductor muscles?
 
Which nerve supplies the sartorius? What does it branch from?
On a side note, the sartorius primarily functions to flex the hip/extend the limb, but it can also work to extend the stifle joint and adduc the limb. 
 
What two muscles form the popliteal fossa? What structure is located here?
_____ and ____ 
 
What is the name for the combination of the largest caudal muscle and the superficial gluteal found in large animals?
 
What lateral/caudal muscle of the hindlimb has vertebral and pelvic heads in large animals, only the pelvic head in dogs and cats?
Functions as a hip extensors/limb retractor, but also has an abductor potential 
What caudal muscle of the hindlimb inserts on the medial aspect of the proximal extremity of the tibia and on the calcaneus?
 
What medial/caudal muscle fo the hindlimb inserts on the medial femoral condyle and the medial tibial condyle?
Functions as a hip extensor/limb retractor, but also has an adductor potential. 
What other actions can the caudal muscles of the hindlimb perform aside from hip extension/abduction/adduction? (answer: (action) the (joint))
When the foot is on the ground/fixed 
when the foot is free to move. 
Only when not performing the previous two functions, especially in the horse. (Prevention by reciprocal mechanism) 
What muscle acts as the primary extensor of the stifle, and consists of four parts?
 
What head of the principal extensor of the stifle originates from the shaft of the ilium just cranial to the acetabulum?
This head alone has the potential to flex the hip? 
What head of the principal extensor of the stifle lies deep to the muscle from the last question, and arises from the cranial aspect of the femoral shaft?
 
What is the common attachment point for the four heads of the primary extensor muscle of the stifle?
it appears to be the patella, but in fact the muscles are continued distal to this point by patellar ligaments. 
What nerve supplies the principal extensor of the stifle?
 
What three muscles form the borders of the femoral triangle?
 
 
 
What are the two structures found in the femoral triangle?
_____ and _____ 
what bursa is found in the cow near the caudal aspect of the stifle?
 
What nerve runs between the the psoas muscles, exits in a dorsocaudal corner of the flank and iliopsoas muscles, and runs between the sartorius and pectineus within the thigh?
The saphenous is its one major branch, and damage to this nerve results in a non-weight baring limb, with no compensation possible. 
What nerve is frequently damaged during femoral fractures as a result of its close proximity, and can also be compressed during parturition? What is the likely result of this injur
 
 
What nerve passes between the middle and deep gluteal muscles , then runs into the thigh caudally, protected byt he greater trochanter of the femur?
It continues to run between the biceps femoris and semitendinosus... 
What are the common peroneal nerve and the tibial nerve branches of? Of these two nerves which runs more cranially?
 
It passes over the lateral head of the gastrocnemius and divides into superficial and deep branches near the head of the fibula 
What nerve supplies the flexors of the hock and extensors of the digits?
 
What nerve runs between the heads of the gastrocnemius? What is the result of damage to this nerve?
 
____ of the ____ and _____ of the _____ 
Will severe damage to the sciatic definitely render the leg entirely useless?
 
What is the femoral artery a continuation of (after it departs from the abdomen)?
 
What are the two branches of the pudendoepigrastric trunk? (Which is itself a short branch of the deep femoral within the abdominal cavity)
 
What significant branch of the femoral artery detaches around the midthigh and branches further to supply dorsal crural muscles, caudal muscles around the hock and digits?
 
What general shape are the femoral caputs of the horse and dog? The cow?
 
 
In addition to the ligament of the head of the femur, what other two ligaments are found only in the horse in the area of the hip joint?
 
What ligament passes between the femoral epicondyle and the proximal part of the tibial, somewhat caudally on the stifle joint?
 
What ligament arises from the lateral condyle of the femur within the intercondylar fossa and runs craniodistally to the tibia?
 
What ligament runs caudodistally within the intercondylar fossa to attach on the tibia near the popliteal notch?
 
What ligament crosses the stifle joint and holds the most proximal sesamoid bone of the hindlimb in place? In what relevant species are there three separate divisions (medial, inte
 
 
The intermediate or single _____ ligament (see last question) constitutes the insertion tendon of which muscle?
 
Fill in the blanks: In horses, the patellar locking mechanism involves the ______ cartilage and the ___ ____ ligament hooking over the enlarged ____ ____ ridge
 
 
 
What is the continuation of the femoral artery after it passes through the stifle joint? What is the branch of this artery which supplies the cranial muscles between the stifle and
 
 
What muscle originates from the distal extremity of the femur and follows the lateral border of the tibialis cranialis?
Its tendon crosses the dorsal surface of the hock, and is held down by retinacula, afterwards branching for each digit. 
What muscle arises from the head of the fibula, crosses the lateral aspect of the hock and enters the most lateral functional digit?
in the dog, it terminates on the proximal phalanx, in the horse it joins the long extensor tendon. 
In the horse, the distal ends of the tendons of which two muscles split then intertwine 'like the legs of sleeping lovers?'
The first is a flexor of the hock with a secondary supinator role in other species and lies immediately cranial to the subcutaneous surface of the tibia. 
the second coordinates the actions of the stifle and hock joints, and if it is ruptured, the the hock may extend while the stifle is flexed. It runs from femur to metatarsus 
What muscle arises from the distal part of the lateral collateral ligament of the stifle, crosses the lateral aspect of the tarsus and turns medially to end on the proximal medial
It is a cranial muscle of the hind limb. 
What nerve supplies the caudal muscles between the stifle and hock?
 
What three arteries supply the caudal muscles between the stifle and hock joints?
___, ___, ____ 
The triceps surae together refers to what two muscles?
 
 
What two headed muscle fuses into a single tendon which is the principal component of the common calcanean/Achilles tendon?
 
In what species is the soleus somewhat significant?
 
What muscle originates deep to the gastrocnemius but later winds medially around to run superficial to it?
this muscle flexes the digits and extends the hock. 
What is the pulley surface on the calcaneus? What slides over it?
 
 
In ungulates, two tendons of the DDF are combined into the common. What are the three in small animals?
 
 
 
What small broad muscle is found on the caudal aspect of the stifle joint, rotates the limb in some species, and flexes the stifle in all species?
Innervation by the tibial nerve... 
What tarsal ligaments extend from the tibia and fibula to the proximal extremities of the metatarsus?
 
 
What ligament extends from the plantar surface of the cacaneus over thef ourth tarsal bone to the metatarsus?
 
What two bursae are found at the hock?
____ and ____ 

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Created Mar 24, 2012ReportNominate
Tags:limb, osteology