Acid/base physiology

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Can you name the Acid/base physiology?

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Define volatile acid, or provide an example?
True or false: Ketone bodies and lactic acid, as well as the byproducts of protein metabolism, are all examples of non-volatile acids
The urine of carnivores and omnivores tends to be _____, while that of herbivores is more often ____
True or false: the normal range of pH in a healthy animal is 6.9 to 7.8?
Place the following in order of decreasing speed of regulation of pH: kidneys, buffers, respiratory system
___, ___, ____ 
A mixture of a weak acid and its salt would produce?
Which has a higher pKa, the phosphate or bicarbonate buffering system?
True or false: carbonate in bone may become involved in buffering with chronic metabolic acidosis?
What percentage of CO2 is transported as HCO3-?
What enzyme is responsible for converting CO2 and H2O into carbonic acid?
What equation describes the derivation of pH as a measure of acidity (pKa) in biological and chemical systems?
helps find equilibrium pH in acid/base reactions and estimate pH of a buffer solution 
At normal blood pH, what is the approximate ratio of bicarbonate to H2CO3?
What do kidneys do over days to normalize blood pH?
What are the three mechanisms by which the kidneys may regulate HCO3- and H+?
Which section of the nephron reabsorbs the most bicarbonate (~85%)?
In what section of the nephron is new bicarbonate regenerated?
How do intercalated cells in the collecting duct alter the rate of H+ excretion?
Acidosis will stimulate increased ___-___ exchanger in proximal tubule, enhanced _____ production and increased H+-ATPase activity in ____ ____
What hormone stimulates luminal H+-ATPase?
True or false: hypokalemia leads to increased secretion of H+ which is exchanged with bicarbonate?
What is the amount of strong acid that must be added to a litre of oxygenated blood at 37*C to return it to pH 7.4 termed?
True or false: Actual base excess is affected by pCO2
True or false: sodium bicarbonate should never be used to treat metabolic acidosis
What are the four types of simple acid/base disturbances?
What three parameters are taken into account when making a nomogram? What is it used to calculate?
___, ___, ___ 
Hyperventilation commonly causes what type of acid/base disturbance?
What is the most common kind of acid-base imbalance?
Which of the following is NOT a common cause of metabolic acidosis? Complications of diabetes, shock, lactic acid accumulation, pneumonia, starvation, kidney failure?
Which of the following is NOT a common cause of metabolic alkalosis? Constipation, vomiting, diabetes, antacid medications
Rate and depth of breathing are elevated in response to metabolic ____?
If a patient is suffering from respiratory acidosis, and the kidneys have had time to compensate, pCO2 and bicarbonate will be?
What is the term for increased pCO2?
Proteins, phosphate, lactate and sulphate collectively fill what?
Why might AG not be elevated in cases of metabolic acidosis?
It normally elevates with increases in uremic acids, ketoacidosis, lactic acids and some poisons 
Would you associate elevated AG with organic or inorganic metabolic acidosis?
Why might a hemorrhage cause a patient with metabolic acidosis to not have an elevated AG when they normally would?
What kind of ions do not readily combine iwth others?
What two parameters are measured by subtracting the strong anions from the strong cations?
Administering large doses of NaCl solution carries what risk?

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