early 14c., from O.Fr. burniss- prp. stem of burnir, metathesis of brunir 'to make brown/bright, polish,' from brun 'brown, polished,' from a Germanic source (cf. O.H.G. brun, O.N. brunn 'bright, polished, brown;' see brown).
'drug user,' by 1972, slang, from burn + out. Meaning 'mental exhaustion from continuous effort' is from 1975.
style of facial hair consisting of side whiskers and a mustache (but clean-shaven chin), 1875, from U.S. Army Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside (1824-1881) who wore them.
1932, n. and v., Amer. Eng., apparently imitative. The transitive sense of the verb is first recorded 1940.
see burka.-->1836, from Hindi, from Arabic burqa'.
'rough sound of the letter -r-' (especially that common in Northumberland), 1760, later extended to 'northern accented speech' in general. Possibly the sound of the word is imitative of the speech peculiarity itself, or it was adapted from one of the senses of bur (q.v.), perhaps from the phrase to have a bur in (one's) throat (late 14c.), which was a figure of speech for 'feel a choking sensation, huskiness.' The Scottish -r- is a lingual trill, not a true burr.
1934, from Sp., lit. 'little burro' (see burro).
1800, from Sp. burrico 'donkey,' from L.L. burricus 'small, shaggy horse,' probably from burrus 'reddish-brown,' from Gk. pyrros 'flame-colored, yellowish-red,' from pyr (gen. pyros) 'fire.'
'rabbit-hole, fox-hole, etc.,' c.1300, borewe, from O.E. burgh 'stronghold, fortress' (see borough); influenced by bergh 'hill,' and berwen 'to defend, take refuge.' The verb is first attested 1610s. Related: Burrowed; borrowing.
mid-15c., 'full of burs;' see bur + -y (2).
from M.L. bursa 'bag, purse,' from Gk. byrsa 'hide, skin, wineskin, drum' of unknown origin; cf. purse.
'treasurer of a college,' 1580s, from Anglo-L. burser 'treasurer' (13c.), from M.L. bursarius 'purse-bearer,' from bursa (see purse).
'treasury,' 1690s, from M.L. bursaria 'treasurer's room' (see bursar).
1834, medical L., 'inflammation of the bursa,' apparently from L. bursa mucosa 'mucus pouch,' from M.L. bursa 'bag, purse,' from L.L. bursa, variant of byrsa 'hide,' from Gk. byrsa (see purse).
`O.E. berstan 'break suddenly' (class III strong verb; past tense bærst, pp. borsten), from a W.Gmc. metathesis of P.Gmc. *brestanan (cf. O.Fris. bersta, M.Du. berstan, Low Ger. barsten), from PIE base *bhres- 'to burst, break, crack.' The forms reverted to brest- in M.E. from influence of O.N. brestan/brast/brosten from the same Gmc. root, but it was re-metathesized late 16c. and emerged in the modern form, though brast was common as p.t. through 17c. and survives in dialect.
see burden. -->O.E. byrðen 'a load, weight, charge, duty;' also 'a child;' from P.Gmc. *burthinjo 'that which is borne' (cf. O.N. byrðr, O.S. burthinnia, Ger. bürde, Goth. baurþei), from PIE *bher- (1) 'carry, give birth.' The shift from -th- to -d- took place beginning 12c. (cf. murder). Archaic burthen is occasionally retained for the specific sense of 'capacity of a ship.' Burden of proof is recorded from 1590s.
O.E. byrgan 'to raise a mound, hide, bury, inter,' akin to beorgan 'to shelter,' from P.Gmc. *burzjanan 'protection, shelter' (cf. O.N. bjarga, Sw. berga, Ger. bergen, Goth. bairgan 'to save, preserve'), from PIE base *bhergh- 'protect, preserve' (cf. O.C.S. brego 'I preserve, guard'). The O.E. -y- was a short 'oo' sound, like modern Fr. -u-. It normally transformed into Mod.Eng. -i- (cf. bridge, kiss, listen, sister), but in bury and a few other words (merry, knell) it retains a Kentish change to 'e' that took place in the late O.E. period. In the West Midlands, meanwhile, the O.E. -y- sound persisted, slightly modified over time, giving the standard modern pronunciation of blush, much, church.
1832, abbreviation of omnibus (q.v.). The English word is simply a Latin dative plural ending. The verb meaning 'transport students to integrate schools' is first recorded 1961. Verb meaning 'clear tables in a restaurant' is first attested 1913, probably from the four-wheeled cart used to carry dishes. Related: Bused; busing. To miss the bus, in the figurative sense, is from 1915. Busman's holiday 'leisure time spent doing what one does for a living' (1893) is probably a reference to London bus drivers riding the buses on their days off.
1913, from bus (v.) in the restaurant sense + boy.
'fur hat worn by hussars on parade,' 1807, earlier 'a kind of bushy, tall wig' (1764), of unknown origin, though it is both a place name and a surname in England.
'many-stemmed woody plant,' O.E. bysc, from W.Gmc. *busk 'bush, thicket' (cf. Du. bos, Ger. Busch). Influenced by or combined with cognate words from Scandinavian (cf. Dan. busk) and O.Fr. (busche 'firewood,' apparently of Frankish origin), and also perhaps Anglo-L. bosca 'firewood,' from M.L. busca (whence It. bosco, Fr. bois), which apparently also was borrowed from West Germanic.
1908, from bush in the slang sense of 'rural, provincial,' which originally was not a value judgment.
'tired,' 1870, Amer.Eng., perhaps from earlier sense of 'lost in the woods' (1856), from bush.
early 14c., measure of capacity containing four pecks or eight gallons, from O.Fr. boissel (13c., Mod.Fr. boisseau), probably from boisse, a grain measure based on Gallo-Romance *bostia 'handful,' from Gaulish *bosta 'palm of the hand' (cf. Ir. bass, Bret. boz 'the hollow of the hand'). The exact measure varied from place to place and according to commodity, and since late 14c. it has been used loosely to mean 'a large quantity or number.'
1898, from Japanese, lit. 'military-knight-way.'
'metal sleeve fitted into a machine or hole,' 1839, from gerundive of bush 'metal lining of the axle hole of a wheel or touch hole of a gun' (1560s), from M.Du. busse 'box' (cognate with the second element in blunderbuss).
1785, from South African Du. boschjesman, lit. 'man of the bush.'
1920, U.S. slang, euphemistic for bullshit.
1809, Amer.Eng., lit. 'one who beats the bushes' (to make his way through), perhaps modeled on Du. bosch-wachter 'forest keeper.' In American Civil War, 'irregular who took to the woods' (1862), variously regarded as patriot guerillas or as freebooters.
late 14c., 'overgrown with bushes,' from bush (n.) + -y (2). Of hair, etc., from 1610s.
O.E. bisignes (Northumbrian) 'care, anxiety, occupation,' from bisig 'careful, anxious, busy, occupied, diligent' (see busy) + -ness. Sense of 'work, occupation' is first recorded late 14c. Sense of 'trade, commercial engagements' is first attested 1727. Modern two-syllable pronunciation is 17c. Business card first attested 1840; business letter from 1766.
1826, from business + man. Man of business is recorded from 1660s.
'to prepare, to dress oneself,' also 'to go, set out,' c.1300, probably from O.N. buask 'to prepare oneself,' reflexive of bua 'to prepare' (see bound (adj.2)). Most common in northern M.E. and surviving chiefly in Scottish and northern English dialect. Related boun had the same senses in northern and Scottish M.E.
'itinerant entertainer,' 1857, from busk (v.) 'to offer goods for sale only in bars and taprooms,' 1851 (in Mayhew), perhaps from busk 'to cruise as a pirate,' which was used in a figurative sense by 1841, in reference to people living shifless and peripatetic lives. The nautical term is attested from 1660s (in a general sense of 'to tack, to beat to windward'), apparently from obs. Fr. busquer 'to shift, filch, prowl,' which is related to It. buscare 'to filch, prowl,' Sp. buscar (from O.Sp. boscar), perhaps originally from bosco 'wood' (see bush), with a hunting notion of 'beating a wood' to flush game. Busker has been mistakenly derived from buskin in the stage sense.
'half boot,' c.1500, origin unknown, perhaps from O.Fr. brousequin (14c., Mod.Fr. brodequin, by influence of broder 'to embroider') or M.Du. brosekin 'small leather boot.' Figurative senses relating to tragedy are from the word being used (since mid-16c.) to translate Gk. kothurnus, the high, thick-soled boot worn in Athenian tragedy; contrasted with sock, the low shoe worn by comedians.
1851, slang, described variously as selling articles or obscene ballads in public houses, playing music on the streets, or performing as a sort of informal stand-up comedy act in pubs, perhaps from an earlier word meaning 'to cruise as a pirate' (see busker).
'a kiss,' 1560s; probably of imitative origin, as are Welsh and Gael. bus 'kiss, lip,' Fr. baiser 'kiss' (12c., from L. basiare), Sp. buz, Ger. dial. Buss.
1690s, 'sculpture of upper torso and head,' from Fr. buste (16c.), from It. busto 'upper body,' from L. bustum 'funeral monument, tomb,' originally 'funeral pyre, place where corpses are burned,' perhaps shortened from ambustum, neut. of ambustus 'burned around,' pp. of amburere 'burn around, scorch,' from ambi- 'around' + urere 'to burn.' Or perhaps from O.Latin boro, the early form of classical L. uro 'to burn.' Sense development in Italian is probably from Etruscan custom of keeping dead person's ashes in an urn shaped like the person when alive. Meaning 'bosom' is 1819.
large crane-like bird, late 14c., from O.Fr. bistarde, said to be from L. avis tarda, but the sense of this ('slow bird') is the opposite of the bird's behavior.
1850, Amer.Eng. slang (originally Missouri/Arkansas) for something that takes one's breath away, from bust (2); hence 'a roistering blade.'
1979, from Fr.bustier, from buste 'bust' (see bust (1)).
'padding in a skirt,' 1788, perhaps from Ger. Buschel 'bunch, pad,' or may be a special use of bustle (1) with ref. to 'rustling motion.'
'having large breasts,' 1944, from bust (n.) in the 'bosom' sense + -y (2).
O.E. bisig 'careful, anxious, busy, occupied,' cognate with O.Du. bezich, Low Ger. besig; no known connection with any other Germanic or Indo-European language. Still pronounced as in M.E., but for some unclear reason the spelling shifted to -u- in 15c. The word was a euphemism for 'sexually active' in 17c. Of telephone lines, 1893. In M.E., sometimes with a sense of 'prying, meddlesome,' preserved in busybody. Busy work is first recorded 1910. The verb is O.E. bisgian.
1520s, from busy + body 'person.'
1849, first attested in Thoreau, from busy + -ness. A modern formation made necessary after business evolved away from busy.
O.E. butan, buton 'unless, except; without, outside,' from W.Gmc. *be- 'by' (see by) + *utana 'out, outside; from without,' from ut 'out' (see out). Not used as a conjunction in O.E.
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