Ecumenical Councils

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Can you name the Ecumenical Councils?

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Year(s); Presenting Issue(s)CouncilReigning Pope(s)
325; Arianism, the date of EasterPope St. Sylvester I
381; Pneumatomachianism, Arianism and ApollinaranismPope St. Damasus I
431; Nestorianism, PelagianismPope St. Celestine I
451; Eutychianism/MonophysitismPope St. Leo the Great (I)
553; 'The Three Chapters'Pope Vigilius
680-681; MonothelismPope St. Agatho; Pope St. Leo II
787; IconoclasmPope Adrian I
869; The Photian SchismPope Adrian II
1123; Investiture Controversy - also established clerical celibacy as the norm for the Latin rite of the ChurchPope Callixtus II
1139; Arnold of Brescia, ManichaeismPope Innocent II
1179; Albigensianism (Catharism) and WaldensianismPope Alexander III
Year(s); Presenting Issue(s)CouncilReigning Pope(s)
1215; Albigensianism, the Trinitarian errors of Abbot Joachim of Flora, also expounded the Dogma of Transubstantiation, called for union with the Eastern Churches, defended Papal sPope Innocent III
1245; To depose Emperor Frederick II, called for a crusade against the Mongols and Saracens, and reiterated a need for an end to the Greek SchismPope Innocent IV
1274; Temporary reunion with the Greeks, formally added the Filioque to the Creed, established rules for papal electionsPope Bl. Gregory X
1311-1313; The Knights Templar, the Fraticelli, the Beghards and the BeguinesPope Clement V
1414-1418; The Great Schism of the West, the heresies of Wyclif and HusPope Gregory XII, Pope Martin V
1431-1439; The pacification of Bohemia, reunion with the Eastern ChurchesPope Eugene IV
1512-1517; Discipline and reform of the Church, called for a crusade against the TurksPope Julius II, Pope Leo X
1545-1563; Protestantism, reform of the ChurchPope Paul III, Pope Julius III, Pope Marcellus II, Pope Paul IV, Pope Pius IV
1869-1870; Materialism, Atheism, Rationalism, promulgated the doctrine of papal infallibility when speaking ex cathedraPope Bl. Pius IX
1962-1965; The Modern WorldPope Bl. John XXIII, Pope Paul VI

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