ECOLOGY Ch8-11

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Can you name the Ecology Terms?

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DefinitionTerm
biotic factors in the environment, such as disease and competition
selection in which individuals increase their inclusive fitness by helping increase the survival and reproduction of relatives that are not offspring
symbolized as r, equals per capita birthrate minus per capita death rate
a group of individuals that are physically distinctive and engage in specialized behavior within a social unit, such as a colony
change in density of a predator population in response to increased prey density
a pattern of distribution in a population in which individuals have a much higher probability of being found in some areas than in others
population growth that produces a j-shaped pattern of population increase
a branch of biology concerned with the study of social relations
a graphical summary of patterns of survival in a population
increasing the complexity of the environment of captive animals to foster behaviors characteristic of the species in the wild
active or passive downstream movement of stream organisms
phenomena that takes place on a local scale
abiotic factors in the environment, such as floods and extreme temperature
sex that produces larger, more energetically costly gametes (eggs or ova)
the actual niche of a species whose distribution is restricted by biotic interactions such as competition, predation, disease, and parasitism
overall fitness, which is determined by the survival and reproduction of an individual, plus the survival and reproduction of genetic relatives of the individual
k; the maximum population of a species that a particular ecosystem can sustain
an s-shaped pattern of population growth, with population size leveling off at the carrying capacity of the environment
number of offspring contributed by an individual relative to the number of offspring produced by other members of the population.
a statistic used to measure how much a sample distribution differs from a theoretical distribution
line that best fits the relationship between 2 variables, x and y
population growth in which generations do not overlap and in which successive generations differ in a size by a constant ratio
the total number of individuals, or biomass, of a species present in a specified area
Study of the relationships between organisms and environment that are mediated by behavior
distribution of individuals among age groups in a population; often called age structure
a population in which the the proportion of individuals in each age class is constant
a pattern of growth that produces a sigmoidal, or s-shaped, population growth curve
DefinitionTerm
group living generally involving some degree of cooperation between individuals
lambda; ratio of the population size at 2 points in time
variable traditionally plotted on the vertical or 'y' axis of a scatter plot
a group of individuals of the same age
the number of individuals in a population per unit area
the variable traditionally plotted on the horizontal, or 'x' axis of a scatter plot
the environmental factors that influence the growth, survival, and reproduction of a species
a distribution of individuals in a population in which individuals are uniformly spaced
a portion of a larger population, with which it sustains a connection through immigration and emigration
results from differences in reproductive rates among individuals as a result of differences in mating success due to intrasexual selection, intersexual selection, or a mixture of t
sex that produces smaller, less costly gametes (sperm or pollen)
the geographic range of an organism or the spatial arrangement of individuals in a local population
a group of individuals of a single species inhabiting a specific area
maximum per capita rate of population increase; may be approached under ideal environmental conditions for a species.
phenomena of a geographic scale rather than a local scale
the conditions under which helping kin should be favored by natural selection
an area of population ecology concerned with the factors influencing the expansion, decline, or maintenance of populations, including rates of births, deaths, immigration, and emig
highly specialized sociality generally including individuals of more than one generation living together, cooperative care of young, and division of individuals into sterile, or no
the physical conditions under which a species might live, in the absence of interactions with other species
sexual selection occuring when members of one sex choose mates from among the members of the opposite sex on the basis of some anatomical or behavioral trait, generally leading to
increase in animal feeding rate, which eventually levels off, that occurs in response to an increase in food availability
sexual selection in which individuals of one sex compete among themselves for mates
chemical substance secreted by some animals for communication with other members of their species
a group of spatially separated subpopulations connected by active exchange of individuals among subpopulations
a table of age-specific survival and death, or mortality, rates in a population
a distribution in which individuals within a population have an equal chance of living anywhere within an area

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