ECOLOGY Ch2: Life on Land

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DefinitionTerm
chemical substance required for the development, maintenance, and reproduction of organisms
an evolutionary process that changes anatomy, physiology, or behavior, resulting in an increased ability of a population to live in a particular environment
the study of how organisms in a particular area are influenced by factors such as climate, soils, predators, competitors, and evolutionary history, involving field observations rat
study of the relationships between organisms and the environment
A mutualistic association between fungi and the roots of plants
slow movement of tundra soils down slopes as a result of annual freezing and thawing of surface soil and the actions of water and gravity
a biological community plus all of the abiotic factors influencing that community
A northern biome dominated by mosses, lichens, and dwarf willows, receiving low to moderate precipitation and having a very short growing season.
Average of a sample of measurements or observations, and estimate of the true population
deciduous/coniferous forests generally found between 40 and 50 degrees lattitude where annual precipitation averages from 650-3000 mm.
associated with mild, moist winter conditions and usually with dry summers between about 30 and 40 degrees latitude. vegetation of this biom is usually characterized by small, toug
Soil layer composed of largely unaltered parent material, little affected by biological activity
northern forests that occupy the area south of arctic tundra. though dominated by coniferous trees, they also contain aspen and birch.
phenonmenon caused by rotation of earth, which produces a deflection of winds and water currents to the right of their direction of travel in northern hem. and left in southern hem
Biologically active soil layer consisting of a mixture of mineral materials like clay, silt, and sand, as well as organic material, derived from the overlaying O horizon, generally
DefinitionTerm
a standardized form of representing average patterns of variation in temp. and precipitation that identifies several ecologically important climatic factors such as relatively mois
a plant, such as an orchid, that grows on the surface of another plant but is not parasitic
an arid biome occupying approx. 20% of land surface on earth in which water loss due to evaporation & transpiration by plants exceeds precipitation during most of the year.
Subsoil which materials leached from A horizon accumulate. may be rich in clay, organic matter, iron, and other materials.
process that changes populations of organisms over time
distinguished primarily by their predominant plants and are associated with particular climates
analysis fo the relative concentrations of stable isotopes, such as c-13 and c-12, in materials; used in ecology to study the flow of energy and materials through ecosystems
Most superficial soil layer containing substantial amounts of organic matter including whole leaves, twigs, other plant parts, and highly fragmented organic matter.
an extended period of dry weather during which precipitation is reduced sufficiently to damage crops, impair functioning of natural ecosystems, or cause water shortages for human p
a broadleaf deciduous forest growing in tropical regions having pronounced wet and dry seasons; trees drop their leaves during the dry season.
grasslands growing in middle lattitudes that receive between 300-1,000 mm of annual precipitation with max. precipitation usually falling during summer months
Broadleaf evergreen forest growing in tropical regions where conditions are warm and wet year-round
the portions of earth that support life
tropical grassland dotted with scattered trees; characterized by pronounced wet and dry seasons and periodic fires

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