Language / Rhetorical Concepts

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Placement of ideas for effect
The use of words to convey a meaning in tension with or opposite to their literal meanings
Readers existing in a writer's mind
Comparison of two unlike items NOT using like or as
Word's implied meanings
Emotional appeals
Repetition of the same sound beginning several words in sequence
A feeling or amience resulting from the tone of a piece as well as the writer/narrator's attitude and point of view. It is a 'feeling' that establishes the atmosphere in a work of
Burke's Pentad: what was done
Comparison of two unlike items using like or as
A figure of speech that emphasizes its subject by conscious understatement
The way words are put together to form phrases, clauses, and sentences. It is sentence structure and how it influences the way the reader receives a particular piece of writing.
Make reference to a person,place, thing, event believing that it is common knowledge
A figure of speech in which a part signifies the whole
Shorthand substitute of descriptive words or phrases for a proper name
A long sentence in which tha main claise is not completed until the end
Use of grammatically similar phrases or clauses for special effect
A figure of speech that combines two apparently contradictory elements as in 'wise fool'
Opposition's perspective
A long sentence that starts with its main clause, which is followed by several dependent clauses and modifying phrases
Analyzes the causes that lead to a certain effect or the effects that result from a cause.
A syntactical structure in which conjunctions are omitted in a series, usually producing more rapid prose
Burke's Pentad: who did it
Parallel structure in which the parallel elements are similar not only in grammatical structure, but also in length
Burke's Pentad: why
Readers represented in the text
Direct speech, words spoken by a character
Readers as they actually exist (may be unintentional)
Draw comparisons between two things, often point by point, in order to show similarity in certain respects or to argue that if two things are alike in one way they are probably ali
Parts of a sentence or clause are not in the usual subject-verb-object order
Tells a story or recounts a series of events. Can be based on personal experience or on knowledge gained from reading or observation.
Juxtaposing two things to highlight their similarities and differences.
One verb governs several words, or clauses, each in a different state
The interpretation or analysis of a text
In argumentation, an assertion of something as fact
Ethical appeals
Rhetor's attitude toward the subject or audience
Word or phrase is repeated at the beginning of successive phrases, clauses, or sentences
The acknowledged source of the words of the story; the speaker's or narrator's particular 'take' on an idea based on a particular passage and how all elements of the style of the p
A scheme in which the same word is repeated at the end of successive phrases,clauses, or sentences
Use of words to imitate natural sounds
The occasion or the time and place the text was written or spoken
A comparison of two unlikely things that is drawn out within a piece of literature, in particular and extended metaphor within a poem. Can also be used in non-fiction and prose.
Giving human characteristics to inanimate objects/ideas
The repetition of conjunctions in a series of coordinate words,phrasesm or clauses
Play on words
A speech or written passage in praise of a person; and oration of a deceased person.
The method of reasoning or argument in which general statements and conclusions are drawn from specific principals: movement from specific to general.
Use of parallel structure to mark contrast or opposition
The use of a part to represents the whole, or the use of one item tostand for another
A poem or prose work that laments, or mediates upon the death of, a person or persons
Writing that is designed to change opinions through use of appeals
Provides a series of examples-facts, specific cases, or instances. Turns a general idea into a concrete on-makes your argument both clearer and more persuasive to the reader.
An accepted manner,model, or tradition.
Any sensory detail or evocation in a work; more narrowly, the use of figurative language to evoke a feeling, to call a mind an idea, or to describe and object.
Claim that the writer strives to prove
The central or dominant idea or focus of a work. The statement a passage makes about its subject
Writing that sets out to persuade at all costs abandoning reason, fairness, and truth all together
A figure of speech and generally a syntactical structure wherein the order of the terms in the first hal of a parallel clause is reversed in the second.
The sense expressed by the tone of voice or the mood of pice of writing; the author's feelings toward his or her subject, characters, events, or themes. It might even be his or her
A sermon, but more contemporary uses include any serious talk, speech, or lecture involving moreal or spititual life.
A concise statements designed to make a point or illustrate a commonly held belief. For example, 'Spare the rod and spoil the child'
A form of verbal irony in which apparent praise is actually critical. It can be light and gently poke fun at something, or it can be harsh, caustic, and mean.
Any question asked for a purpose other than to obtain information the question asks
Expression used in informal conversation but not accepted as good usage in speech or writing
Repetition of vowel sounds
Any text- whether written, spoken, or visual- that expresses a point of view. The purpose of it is to discover some version of the truth using evidence and reason.
The specific word choice an author uses to persuade or convey tone, purpose, or effect.
Closely aligned with narration-both rely on specific details. Emphasizes the senses by painting a picture of how something looks, sounds, smells, tasted, or feels.
The realtion in which a narrator/author stands to a subject of discourse.
Logical appeals
The ordinary form of written language without metrical structure in contrast to vers and poetry
A need, a gap, something wanting, that can be met, filled in, or supplied only by a spoken or written text
An earlier event is inserted into the normal chronology of the narration.
Something that stands for or represents something else, an object representing an abstraction
The manner in which a writer combines and arranges words, sharper ideas, and utilizes syntax and stucture.
An assessment or analysis of something, such as a passage of writing, for the purpose of determining what it is, what its limitations are, adn how it conforms to the standard of th
Explicit, literal, dictionary definition of a word
To ensure that writers and their audiences are speaking the same language, it may lay the foundation to establish common ground or identifying areas of conflict.
The method of argument in which specific statements and conclusions are drawn from general principals:movement from the general to the specific.
Quiet, muted message
A conclusion or proposition arrived at by considering factsm observations, or some other specific data.
The repetition of two or more consonants with a change in the intervening vowels, such as pitter-patter, splish-splash, or click-clack
Burke's Pentad: when/where it was done
A literary work that holds up human failings to ridicule and censure
Explains how something works, how to do something, or how something was done.
Burke's Pentad: how he did it
A statement that seems contradictory but may probably be true.
An address or invocation to something inanimate
The language and speech idiosyncrasies of a specific area, region,or group.
Goal that the rhetor wants to achieve
An indirect, kinder, or less harsh or hurtful way of expressing unpleasant information.
Speaker/writer uses clever humor to needle the listener with indirect comments, irony, and a discernible rythm
A grammatically correct construction in which a word, usually a verb or adjective, is applied to two or more nouns without being repeated. Often used to comic effect
A scheme in which normal word order is changed for emphasis (reversed structures)
Exaggeration (usually humorous)
Special vocabulary of a trade or profession
Attempting to describe nature and life without idealization and with attention to detail.
The location of one thing adjacent with another to create an effect, reveal and attitude, or accompish some other purpose
Sorts materials or ideas into major categories/answers the wuestion, 'what goes together and why?'

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