150 Tudor Rebellion Nuggets

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NuggetRebellion (1st 3 letters)
Cromwell and Kildare’s fall out. Cromwell favours Kildare’s rivals as he believed he would not impose reformation. Henry VIII summoned him and he sent his wife. 9th Kildare beg
Rumours of his death triggered his son to start a rebellion
A pardon was offered and not taken at Clyst Heath
Total tax was £120,000 (4 times the tax of 1492)
14th Desmond did not join until he was declared a traitor – afterwards he had nothing to lose
Henry VII did not continue to collect tax in 1489
Gerald Fitzgerald (14th Desmond) and his brother are put in the tower. Butler was let off!, he was Elizabeth’s cousin
700 were executed, Irish culture was outlawed and more colonists came from England
Henry VIII gave orders to massacre the Rebels but he was too far away for the message to get there in time.
People of Devon ignored it.
Henry VII paraded the real earl of Warwick
Henry VII wanted money for an army to deal with Warbeck. Tax was 1 subsidy and 2 x 15ths and 10ths
Irish leader declared he was rebelling against Elizabeth’s ‘newly invented religion’
Henry VIII sent a false message that there was 100,000 soldiers in the way.
Northumberland made mistakes. He did not have enough money to pay rebels – he only had £20 for 1,000 men so 600 deserted.
Thomas Cromwell replaced the 9th Earl of Kildare (Garret Og) with Englishmen Skeffington
Elizabeth I offered him a deal – ‘he could be ‘the o’neill’ if he accepted Elizabeth’s authority’ – he did not accept the deal
Lord Russel massacred the rebels at Dussingdale. He had been delayed by another rebellion.
Henry VII went to the sight of Blackheath
Rebellion in 1579’s main focus was to attack the Dublin administration
Warwick was sent to massacre rebels in 1549
After the rebellion Lord Grey executed many Irish Gentry
In 1600 he is forced back and in 1601 and the battle of Kinsale, the Spanish support is not enough for him to be defeated by the English
the leader left colchester to head to middleham and start rebellion
The camp was run like a local government, they had an elected council, court of justice, prayers twice a day and regular food rations.
mixture of nobles, commons and foreign (trained soldiers) looking to make a dynastic change.
There was no bloodshed until Northampton and Warwick arrived
In 1599 Essex, leading 17,000 English troops, failed and made a truce with Hugh. Hugh continued to gets supplies and support from Spain and the Pope
There were internal problems. Cornish and Devonians did not get on with one another.
rish land was then destroyed so that it could not grow crops. In the famine of 1582 30,000 died
Lord Skeffington and Lord Grey attacked Thomas’s stronghold at Maynorth Castle – those captured were executed
John Hales (Governments enclosure commission) expressed concerns over Anabaptists and Libertines infiltrating the rebels.
Aske did all that he could to avoid a battle – this included calming down the situation between rebels and the Earl of Derby
Unrealistic aims – i.e Free Mary Queen of Scots
Although there was no battle the troops gathered to support Mary in 1553 were primed and ready to secure the legal succession with violence if necessary.
1583 An English army clearly divides the Papal troops and Irish forces allowing them to easily crush the revolt
Charles V (HRE) only sent ammunition to help them
Elizabeth releases the Fitzgerald brothers to bring stability to the troubled areas
Fitzgerald and Butler fight and are summoned to Elizabeth.
The 4 leaders were rounded up, tortured and executed.
Had been in negotiations with Scotland which undermined English support.
wanted to rule Ulster in 1558 but Elizabeth limited him to ‘the O’Neill’ head of the clan
The Captains from each group of rebels met Aske each day and led their groups in line with the rebel leader’s plans
Plotted with Charles IX and MQS as the ‘defender of the faith’
NuggetRebellion (1st 3 letters)
In the city of Norwich 6% of the population own 60% of the goods and land
Northumberland captured the tower, installed a new queen, had control of the council and exchequer and also commanded a strong military force.
Henry VII issued a papal bull excommunicating all rebels a day before the battle
It was led by John Egremont who has some Yorkist links
James Fitzmaurice Fitzgerald was angered by the imposition of Martial Law after the Shane O’Neill rebellion
Rebels at Moushold heath kidnapped the sons of 4 of the local Justices of the Peace that had angered them
Rebellious counties in 1497 did not pay the war tax although they were fined.
Henry VII set up a ‘Great Council’ of advisors in February 1487
'kill the gentlemen'
Norfolk was traditionally a centre for religious reformism. The Lollards were there in the 14th century. Trade with the low countries increased this.
Henry VIII summoned local noble lord Hussey to deal with rising he failed and Henry then stepped up to Norfolk and Suffolk
'we are Englishmen'
In London the majority of people stayed loyal and avoided joining the rebellion leading to its total collapse and leaders’ executions.
Richard Morison published Pamphlets attacking rebels and questioning their faith.
1573 After being forced in to the mountains the leaders are routed by an Anglo-Irish army.
Hugh O’Neill had been loyal but suddenly turned and looked for support from Spain, France and Scotland – he was declared a traitor. Many people supported him on nationalistic g
Planning was too public – the local Lord was alerted and they guessed the venue as it was the same place as a rebellion in 1549!
It had cost the crown £2m over 8 years
Battle of Dussingdale where 3,000 rebels killed
definitely delayed reforms and in the end the rebels were promised concessions (albeit empty promises)
The Statute of Uses was replaced in 1540 by the Statute of Wills which meant 2/3rds were not taxed.
There were internal problems. The demands did not reflect genuine anger instead it was merely the clergy
174 were executed including Aske
Act of the 6 Articles confirmed doctrinal Catholicism.
Many of his ‘friends’ deserted him
led by bigod in response to Henry VIII not keeping his promises to rebels
Somerset sent protestant preachers to rebel camp (Robert Watson) to preach obedience
Robert Browne had 320 sheep stolen, his servants kidnapped. His wife and children had to hide in the woods for their own safety!
In Somerset the rebels gained some support and Lord Audley joined
Thomas Fitzgerald captured enemies in Dublin Castle, gained support from O’Moore, O’Carrol and others
defeated rivals in Ulster and declared himself ‘The O’Neill’
Henry Sidney expands plantation policy and looks to break up estates while colonising Ulster
JFMFG flees to the mountains and continues the rebellion for 4 years with little success. In the end he flees abroad
Henry summoned Ellerker and Bowes to London
16,000 rebels maintained peaceful protest in the camp for 7 weeks.
600 Papal troops arrived
Troops involved, namely the Germans and ‘wild’ Irish put people off joining.
Organised rebels in to groups from towns so they knew each other. They then chose a captain.
Sir Richard Southwell had 15,000 sheep.
JFMFG returned to Ireland with Spanish and Italian troops. He was joined by the Fitzgerald brothers who had been in the tower.
1567 A dispute between rival clans results in the assassination of the leader
disproportionate number of rebels cam from Dymchurch which had been hit by the cloth trade slump
Phil Nichols is paid to write a condemnation of the rebels
English set up new colonies in Connaught and Munster causing much anger
rebels opposed tax collector the Earl of Northumberland who was later killed by tghe rebels
NuggetRebellion (1st 3 letters)
Unrealistic aims- unlikely they would remove Cecil and escape treason
James Fitzmaurice Fitzgerald enters the fray – he gained much support from other clans angry at English land policy and also religious pressure
Returned to Ireland from Rome with news of the Papal Excommunication
Henry VII punished any who offered support to rebellion– Lord Stanley executed and Fitzgerald arrested.
On 26th June 1549 – Somerset sent orders to ask rebels to go home. This action had already happened.
riots in 1525 resulted in Henry blaming Wolsey, halving and then cancelling the tax/subsidy
Henry VII did not fine any of the rebels in 1489.
8th Earl of Kildare was arrested for supporting Pretender
Angry that new titled, created by the English, was given to his brother (1st Tyrone) – he killed his brother
1590s Protestant Churches established in Ireland followed by more plantations.
He routed the English at the battle of Clontibret and then offered the crown of Ireland to Philip of Spain! (He refused)
Thomas Radcliffe (working for the English) tries to poison him – this gives him further reason to rebel
Henry VII needed funds to deal with the Brittany Crisis
15,000 rebels at Guildford. There was a ruck between 500 of Lord Daubeney’s men and the rebels.
Henry VIII delegated to Cromwell to deal with the rebellion
The Earl of Surrey put down the rebellion
The monarch died while the rebellion continued leading to James VI & I agreeing a truce. The Rebellion fizzled out.
1537 + Cromwell oversees 42 Statutes which imposes English law, including Protestantism
fled Ireland in 1607 looking for more foreign support that did not materialise
A reaction to earlier atrocities under Gilbert and Drury carried out after the end of the Fitzgerald rebellion.
Elizabeth becomes concerned that Spain will become involved and agrees to his title – but he continues, ravages the Pale and MacDonnels
There was anger at English pressure on their land and Sidney’s plan to replace Fitzgerald and the Butlers with Englishmen.
The rebels attacked English colonies – in response the English rout Fitzgerald’s tenants, capture Carrigafoyle (Desmond’s castle) and cut off the armies
Based on information received Mary had plotters Carew, Courtney and Croft arrested prior to rebellion.
executed with Edward Earl of Warwick when caught trying to escape from London.
Article 20 states that the rebels want the new protestant catechism of 1548 to be taught.
Leaders Flamank, Michael Jo An Gof, Clergy and Gentry began to March
maintained communications with Somerset in an attempt to avoid violence. However, the government knew they could win and slaughtered the rebels
Northumberland made mistakes. Due to fleeing court he did not have enough time to call his own tenants to arms
Loyal Nobles tipped off Elizabeth. They were able to close gates and set up a barricade
Silken Thomas gives in to Anglo-Irish army, is arrested and executed with 5 of his uncles.
At York 4,000 rebels actually paid for lodgings when they could easily have taken it for free.
two brothers left colchester and headed to worcester to start rebellion
tax was cancelled and Wolsey was blamed by Henry VIII for all of the problems caused.
A pardon was offered and not taken at Dussingdale.
Mary called together her council. Was given conflicting advice. i.e Told to leave London
Somerset tried to deal with rebellion himself without taking advice from the regency council.
not secretive about his views of Cecil. He failed to gain support of masses or the mayor of London.
JFMFG was killed early on and the brother of 14th Desmond (Fitzgerald), John Fitzgerald took over.
The Poor Harvests of the 1590s put the local JPs on alert for any rebellions
Northampton was sent to deal with rebels in 1549. He captured then lost Norwich to the rebels again.
A number of articles showed concern over Priest’s wealth and corruption. Robert Ullanthorn , a parson, was continually acquiring land in his village.
5,000 English attack Kilkenny and are victorious
The rebels outside Exeter negotiated for two weeks before being slaughtered. They did not want to fight, the government knew they could win once reinforcements had arrived.
Northumberland made mistakes. He misjudged how long it would take to march from Durham to Tilbury to release MQS

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