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Medicine through time - Hospitals, Doctors, Women
Can you pick the dates that match events in the history of medicine re Hospitals, Doctors, Women?
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Workhouses established by poor law
Public concern about sick in work houses
Louisa Twining set up ‘work house visiting society’ – campaigning for workhouse reform
Government ordered poor law unions who ran workhouses to work together and build infirmaries that had a full time doctor paid for by local taxes
Birmingham Poor Law union built a new infirmary for 1,100 people
Infirmaries and fever hospitals dealt with many more patients than voluntary hospitals
It was mainly men that took the role of doctors. Women took the role of wise women, midwives and healing their family only
Women could now become apprentice surgeons. They couldn’t be doctors as they were not allowed to attend university
Peter Chamberlain invented the obstetric forceps. This invention pushed women out of the midwifery profession as men could now deliver difficult births
Women were excluded from being doctors and surgeons. A university education was needed to become a surgeon. It was also unfashionable to employ a woman doctor
Elizabeth Blackwell became the first woman doctor to qualify in the USA
The government introduced the Medical Registration Act banning women from joining medical colleges
Florence Nightingale improved conditions in Crimean hospitals. In 1860 she set up the first training school for nurses. She aimed to make nursing a respectable trained profession.
Elizabeth Garrett passed her exams to become a doctor. She took the College of apothecaries to court to be allowed to practice as a doctor
A law was passed opening all medical qualifications to women
There were still very few doctors until the First World War. Women were needed to replace the men.
40,125 Women Doctors or Higher out of a total of 107.232
Doctors learned by studying work of Galen and attending lectures, they may have watched a dissection
Training was still largely theoretical but some bodies were used for dissection by training doctors
John Hunter increased the focus of using dissection and focusing on anatomy. He trained Edward Jenner. He wrote books on the changes that occurred during pregnancy and arthritis.
The desire for bodies to dissect became a boom industry and ‘Body Snatchers’ used to dig up freshly buried corpses and sell them for dissection. The most famous were Burke and
octors had to pass exams to become qualified. These were set by the Society of Apothecaries and Royal College of Surgeons
The government introduced a law to stop ‘body snatchers’ by licensing people to take unclaimed bodies from the work house
General Medicine Act – declared all Doctors had to be registered by the General Medical Council
Pasteur’s Germ Theory proved the need for further investigation and new doctors worked under more experienced doctors to learn their trade. Doctors would then specialise in areas
Hospitals were run by monks and nuns and only looked after specific illnesses and the elderly. Prayers for the soul seen as the treatment
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