Physics Exam Study Guide

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Can you name the physics terms according to their definitions?

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DefinitionTermExtra Info
The product of inertia, I, and rotational velocity, w
When an object turns about an external axis, the motion is called:
Materials through which electric charge can flow
The study of the various forms of energy and the transformations from one form into anotherstates that energy cannot be created or destroyed. it can be transformed from one form to another, but the total amount of energy never changes
A kind of lever that can be used to change the direction of a forcecan have a fixed or moving axis; a system of this multiplies the force and may change the direction of the force
The product of the force on an object and the distance through which the object is moved.measured in joules; falls into 2 categories: against another force and to change the speed of an object
A device used to multiply forces or to change the direction of forcestransfers energy from one place to another or transforms it from one form to another
States that if no unbalanced external torque acts on a rotating system, the angular momentum of the system is constantwhenever a rotating body contracts, its rotational speed increases
When an object is balanced so that any displacement lowers its center of mass
Describes the strength of gravityG = 6.67 × 10–11 N•m2/kg2
Inducing voltage by changing the magnetic field around a conductor
The potential energy due to elevated position of an object= Weight x Height
Electricity at rest
The ratio of useful energy output to total energy inputoften expressed in a percentage
Ratio of output force to input force for a machine
The resistance of an object to changes in its rotational motion
Horizontal axis through the middle of the body; you rotate around it when doing a fliprotational inertia about this axis is increased by straightening your arms and legs
Materials with tightly bound electrons that are poor conductors
The space around a magnet, in which a magnetic force is exertedproduced by the motion of electric charge
Electrical potential energy per charge
Allowing charges to move off (or onto) a conductor by touching it
Devices in this type of circuit form a single pathway for electron flow between the terminals of the batterycharge flows through each device in turn
The energy a charge has due to its location in an electric field
The energy of motion= 1/2 mv2 (one half times mass times velocity-squared)
A pair of conducting plates separated by a small distance, but not touching each other. When the plates are connected to a charging device, charge is transferred from one plate to
The distance from the turning axis to the point of contact
A device for increasing or decreasing voltage through electromagnetic inductionvoltage 1/primary turns = voltage 2/secondary turns
When an object is balanced so that any displacement raises its center of mass
States that every object attracts every other object with a force that for any two objects is directly proportional to the mass of each objectF = G (m1m2/d(squared))
DefinitionTermExtra Info
A lever in which the fulcrum is between the input force and the loadsmall input force exerted through a large distance produces a larger output force over a shorter distance; directions of input and output are opposite
The vertical axis in a person that passes from head to toerotational inertia about this axis is increased by extending a leg or the arms
A machine that produces electric current by rotating a coil within a stationary magnetic fieldopposite of a motor
The number of rotations per unit of time=radial distance x rotational speed; sometimes called angular speed
A current-carrying coil of wire with many loopsa piece of iron inside the coil increases the magnetic field intensity
Large clusters of adjacent atoms aligned
The pivot point of a lever
Composed of oscillating electric and magnetic fields that regenerate each otherno medium required; fields perpendicular to each other and the direction of motion; travels at the speed of light
A tiny electronic device that acts as a one-way valve to allow electron flow in only one direction
Produce magnetic forceslike repel; opposite attract
The flow of electric chargemeasured in amperes
A transformer with fewer turns on the secondary than on the primary
The product of the mass and velocity of an object
Materials that can be made to behave as insulators or conductors
Front to back axisyou rotate about this axis when doing a cartwheel
A flow of charge that always flows in one direction
When an object is balanced so that any small movement neither raises nor lowers its center of gravity
The charging of an object without direct contact
Unit of measurement for electric potential= 1 joule/coulomb
Unit of charge
A transformer with a greater number of turns on the secondary than on the primary
A lever in which the fulcrum is at one end and the load is at the otherinput force is applied between the fulcrum and the load; the input and output forces have the same direction
The speed of something moving along a circular pathinterchangeable with linear speed in terms of circular motion
The relationship among voltage, current, and resistancecurrent=voltage/resistance
Sensitive current-indicating instrumentcan be an ammeter or a voltmeter
Resistance that the conductor offers to the flow of chargemeasured in ohms
Energy due to the position of something or the movement of somethingmeasured in joules
A lever in which the load is between the fulcrum and the input forceforce is increased at the expense of distance; input and output forces have the same direction
When an object tuns about an internal axis, the motion is called:
DefinitionTermExtra Info
The force directed toward a fixed center that causes an object to follow a circular path=mass x speed(squared) divided by radius of curvature; means 'toward the center'
The relationship among electrical force, charges, and distanceF = kq1q2/d2
A high or low tide that occurs when the sun, Earth, and moon are all lined uphigh tides higher and low tides lower, occur during a new or full moon
The apparent outward force on a rotating bodynot a real force; 'center feeling'
The average position of all the particles of weight that make up an object
Produced by a turning force and tends to produce rotational acceleration=perpendicular force x lever arm; applied to make an object turn or rotate
Arise from particles in atoms
The fundamental electrical property to which the mutual attractions or repulsions between electrons or protons is attributed is called:negative or positive
When a direction is assigned to rotational speed, it is called:
Energy that is stored and held in readinesscan be elastic, chemical, or gravitational
Devices in this type of circuit form branches, each of which is a separate path for the flow of electronsvoltage is the same across each device
Reveal the shape of a magnetic field and the strengthfrom north to south; closer=stronger
Describes the relationship between work and energyStates that whenever work is done, energy changes
A tide that occurs when the moon is halfway between a new moon and full moonhigh tides not as high and low tides not as low; pulls of the moon and sun are perpendicular
The point where all of the mass of an object can be considered concentrated
The rate at which electrical energy is converted into another form such as mechanical energy, heat or light=current • voltage
A force field that surrounds an electric charge or group of chargeshas both magnitude and direction
The absence of support forcenot absence of gravity
The straight line around which rotation takes placecan be internal or external
The property of an object or system that enables it to do workmeasured in joules
The principle that electrons are neither created nor destroyed but are simply transferred from one material to another
The rate at which work is done=work done ÷ time interval ; measured in watts
A simple machine made of a bar that turns about a fixed point
The distance traveled per unit of timegreater on the outer edge of a rotating object
States that the induced voltage in a coil is proportional to the product of the number of loops, the cross-sectional area of each loop, and the rate at which the magnetic field cha
A complete path that electric current moves throughseries or parallel
Electric current that repeatedly reverses direction

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