Physics Exam Study Guide

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Can you name the physics terms according to their definitions?

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DefinitionTermExtra Info
When an object tuns about an internal axis, the motion is called:
The average position of all the particles of weight that make up an object
The product of the force on an object and the distance through which the object is moved.measured in joules; falls into 2 categories: against another force and to change the speed of an object
Inducing voltage by changing the magnetic field around a conductor
A tiny electronic device that acts as a one-way valve to allow electron flow in only one direction
A simple machine made of a bar that turns about a fixed point
When an object is balanced so that any displacement lowers its center of mass
The space around a magnet, in which a magnetic force is exertedproduced by the motion of electric charge
Large clusters of adjacent atoms aligned
Ratio of output force to input force for a machine
When an object is balanced so that any small movement neither raises nor lowers its center of gravity
Electric current that repeatedly reverses direction
A lever in which the fulcrum is between the input force and the loadsmall input force exerted through a large distance produces a larger output force over a shorter distance; directions of input and output are opposite
A current-carrying coil of wire with many loopsa piece of iron inside the coil increases the magnetic field intensity
Materials through which electric charge can flow
The study of the various forms of energy and the transformations from one form into anotherstates that energy cannot be created or destroyed. it can be transformed from one form to another, but the total amount of energy never changes
The potential energy due to elevated position of an object= Weight x Height
A transformer with a greater number of turns on the secondary than on the primary
The product of inertia, I, and rotational velocity, w
The resistance of an object to changes in its rotational motion
A high or low tide that occurs when the sun, Earth, and moon are all lined uphigh tides higher and low tides lower, occur during a new or full moon
Composed of oscillating electric and magnetic fields that regenerate each otherno medium required; fields perpendicular to each other and the direction of motion; travels at the speed of light
The relationship among voltage, current, and resistancecurrent=voltage/resistance
Devices in this type of circuit form a single pathway for electron flow between the terminals of the batterycharge flows through each device in turn
Resistance that the conductor offers to the flow of chargemeasured in ohms
Horizontal axis through the middle of the body; you rotate around it when doing a fliprotational inertia about this axis is increased by straightening your arms and legs
When a direction is assigned to rotational speed, it is called:
Energy due to the position of something or the movement of somethingmeasured in joules
Electricity at rest
DefinitionTermExtra Info
When an object turns about an external axis, the motion is called:
A transformer with fewer turns on the secondary than on the primary
States that every object attracts every other object with a force that for any two objects is directly proportional to the mass of each objectF = G (m1m2/d(squared))
A pair of conducting plates separated by a small distance, but not touching each other. When the plates are connected to a charging device, charge is transferred from one plate to
Devices in this type of circuit form branches, each of which is a separate path for the flow of electronsvoltage is the same across each device
The vertical axis in a person that passes from head to toerotational inertia about this axis is increased by extending a leg or the arms
The force directed toward a fixed center that causes an object to follow a circular path=mass x speed(squared) divided by radius of curvature; means 'toward the center'
Sensitive current-indicating instrumentcan be an ammeter or a voltmeter
Arise from particles in atoms
The principle that electrons are neither created nor destroyed but are simply transferred from one material to another
Unit of measurement for electric potential= 1 joule/coulomb
Describes the relationship between work and energyStates that whenever work is done, energy changes
A tide that occurs when the moon is halfway between a new moon and full moonhigh tides not as high and low tides not as low; pulls of the moon and sun are perpendicular
The rate at which work is done=work done ÷ time interval ; measured in watts
The absence of support forcenot absence of gravity
Electrical potential energy per charge
The rate at which electrical energy is converted into another form such as mechanical energy, heat or light=current • voltage
When an object is balanced so that any displacement raises its center of mass
The distance from the turning axis to the point of contact
Materials that can be made to behave as insulators or conductors
A flow of charge that always flows in one direction
Describes the strength of gravityG = 6.67 × 10–11 N•m2/kg2
The charging of an object without direct contact
The energy of motion= 1/2 mv2 (one half times mass times velocity-squared)
The flow of electric chargemeasured in amperes
The distance traveled per unit of timegreater on the outer edge of a rotating object
A lever in which the load is between the fulcrum and the input forceforce is increased at the expense of distance; input and output forces have the same direction
The energy a charge has due to its location in an electric field
The relationship among electrical force, charges, and distanceF = kq1q2/d2
DefinitionTermExtra Info
The property of an object or system that enables it to do workmeasured in joules
Energy that is stored and held in readinesscan be elastic, chemical, or gravitational
Unit of charge
A device for increasing or decreasing voltage through electromagnetic inductionvoltage 1/primary turns = voltage 2/secondary turns
Materials with tightly bound electrons that are poor conductors
A device used to multiply forces or to change the direction of forcestransfers energy from one place to another or transforms it from one form to another
The fundamental electrical property to which the mutual attractions or repulsions between electrons or protons is attributed is called:negative or positive
A kind of lever that can be used to change the direction of a forcecan have a fixed or moving axis; a system of this multiplies the force and may change the direction of the force
The straight line around which rotation takes placecan be internal or external
The apparent outward force on a rotating bodynot a real force; 'center feeling'
Front to back axisyou rotate about this axis when doing a cartwheel
The product of the mass and velocity of an object
The speed of something moving along a circular pathinterchangeable with linear speed in terms of circular motion
A machine that produces electric current by rotating a coil within a stationary magnetic fieldopposite of a motor
Allowing charges to move off (or onto) a conductor by touching it
The ratio of useful energy output to total energy inputoften expressed in a percentage
The number of rotations per unit of time=radial distance x rotational speed; sometimes called angular speed
States that if no unbalanced external torque acts on a rotating system, the angular momentum of the system is constantwhenever a rotating body contracts, its rotational speed increases
The point where all of the mass of an object can be considered concentrated
Produced by a turning force and tends to produce rotational acceleration=perpendicular force x lever arm; applied to make an object turn or rotate
A force field that surrounds an electric charge or group of chargeshas both magnitude and direction
The pivot point of a lever
A lever in which the fulcrum is at one end and the load is at the otherinput force is applied between the fulcrum and the load; the input and output forces have the same direction
A complete path that electric current moves throughseries or parallel
Reveal the shape of a magnetic field and the strengthfrom north to south; closer=stronger
Produce magnetic forceslike repel; opposite attract
States that the induced voltage in a coil is proportional to the product of the number of loops, the cross-sectional area of each loop, and the rate at which the magnetic field cha

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