Supreme Court & Equality Cases 2

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Can you name the Supreme Court Case?

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Decision CaseJustice
Upheld federal law requiring 10% of fed govt $ to states for pub. works be 4 minority contractors White (6-3)
- *If your case was finalized before Batson decision, you cannot use it (can if still in appeals stage)
- Texas Democratic State Committee prevents blacks from voting in primary election. Since Texas doesn’t have state law for white primary, they are not violating the 14th amendmen
- Question over the punishment of a person who helped slaves to escape. Justice Woodbury once more upheld the 1793 Fugitive Slave Act and he also stressed that the Court had no choWoodbury
- Florida had law to encourage older people to live in Florida – says if you are a Florida resident and become a widow, we will exempt you from paying the property taxes; if you Douglass
- Southern Railway Company (interstate commerce railroad) said they can’t afford two dining cars, set 10 tables for whites and 1 for blacks. Court says this is a violation of 188Burton
*- Blacks used “sit ins” as a common protest tactic against segregation - Cops didn’t know what to charge them with – said they were “breaching the peace” but didn’t
- Due process clause of the Fifth Amendment, and the 1877 Civil Rights Act said that public policy does not permit a federal court to enforce an agreement that a state court could Vinson
- Ed. dept said City was not treating men & women equally, so put end to federal $$. City argued fed money shouldnt be cut off for all programs (only athletics). Court said City wa
After consent decree to hire more black firefighters, says City of Memphis seniority system for layoffs not a Title 7 ViolationWhite
Court held that 1965 Voting Rights Act did indeed apply to judicial electionsStevens (6-3)
- any job besides manual labor requires IQ test which blacks did not score as well on, so ended up w lowest paying jobs. Court unanimously agreed company violated Title 7. Test wasBurger (9-0)
- Michigan passed law that said no women can be bartenders in state. Frankfurt says Michigan proved law – when women serve as bartenders, might find moral & social problems croppFrankfurt
OK Grandfather Clause: could automatically vote w/o literacy test if ancestor voted before 1866; since blacks couldn't take advantage, violated 15th amend.White
Unanimously upholds curfew imposed on Japanese citizens & aliens -- Const. gives pres & Congress rights to act as necessary to prevent espionage & sabotageStone
Decision CaseJustice
- Sex discrimination; follow-up to Geduldig case (again looked at failure of a disability plan to cover pregnancy – except that this was a private company and not a state, so ins
- Florida said women can be exempt from juries simply because they’re women. Court allows FL to keep women off juries – rationale is the “old fashion” look at women that wo
- Congress wrote Civil Rights Act in 1964 saying you can’t discriminate on basis of race. End of sit in cases – there is nothing to be gained from prosecuting “sit in” peop
- NY wouldn’t let Puerto Ricans vote because their English wasn’t good enough/couldn’t pass English literacy test. Court upholds Congress’ right to stick this into the CiviBrennan (7-2)
If you can't make people pay money to vote in federal elections (24th Amend.), you can't in state elections either (equal protection clause); Ends poll tax in countryDouglas
Automobile manufacturer company couldn't bar women from working due to health risk to fetus - violation of Title 7 of 1964 Civil Rights Act. Blackmun (9-0)
- Brennan: found the Denver school board has deliberately segregated one section of the city; concludes that this led to segregated schools in inner city, therefore segregation wasBrennan
married men and married women must be treated the same in regard to fringe benefits; any classification based on sex should be treated like race (use strict scrutiny test)Brennan (8-1)
- Transportation Agency gave women and minorities preferential treatment in hiring (voluntary affirmative action plan). Court says there is nothing wrong with an employer voluntaryBrennan
- California had a disability insurance plan covering every possible thing that takes you away from work except pregnancy and childbirth. Court allows CA to continue doing this –Stewart (6-3)
- Newcann county said children can go to any public school they want (‘freedom of choice’). Not one white kid went to the local black school, only 15% of black kids ventured toBrennan
Title VII does not apply extraterritorially to regulate the employment practices of United States firms that employ American citizens abroad. Petitioners' evidence, while not total
- Gaston County sued to reinstate literacy tests. Court says you can’t bring a court case to bring literacy tests back, because your state still has unequal education
- Virginia county decided the best way to not integrate public schools would be to shut them down (for 5 years). Court says schools must be reopened and integrated immediately – Black
Congress has right under 13th amend. To pass laws to end the “badges and incidence of slavery” – if you can’t buy a home because of your race, you’re then confined to theStewart (7-2)

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