Supreme Court & Equality Cases 2

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Can you name the Supreme Court Case?

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Decision CaseJustice
- Michigan passed law that said no women can be bartenders in state. Frankfurt says Michigan proved law – when women serve as bartenders, might find moral & social problems croppFrankfurt
- Brennan: found the Denver school board has deliberately segregated one section of the city; concludes that this led to segregated schools in inner city, therefore segregation wasBrennan
- Virginia county decided the best way to not integrate public schools would be to shut them down (for 5 years). Court says schools must be reopened and integrated immediately – Black
Automobile manufacturer company couldn't bar women from working due to health risk to fetus - violation of Title 7 of 1964 Civil Rights Act. Blackmun (9-0)
- Question over the punishment of a person who helped slaves to escape. Justice Woodbury once more upheld the 1793 Fugitive Slave Act and he also stressed that the Court had no choWoodbury
- Florida said women can be exempt from juries simply because they’re women. Court allows FL to keep women off juries – rationale is the “old fashion” look at women that wo
Court held that 1965 Voting Rights Act did indeed apply to judicial electionsStevens (6-3)
Congress has right under 13th amend. To pass laws to end the “badges and incidence of slavery” – if you can’t buy a home because of your race, you’re then confined to theStewart (7-2)
- Due process clause of the Fifth Amendment, and the 1877 Civil Rights Act said that public policy does not permit a federal court to enforce an agreement that a state court could Vinson
Title VII does not apply extraterritorially to regulate the employment practices of United States firms that employ American citizens abroad. Petitioners' evidence, while not total
- California had a disability insurance plan covering every possible thing that takes you away from work except pregnancy and childbirth. Court allows CA to continue doing this –Stewart (6-3)
- Ed. dept said City was not treating men & women equally, so put end to federal $$. City argued fed money shouldnt be cut off for all programs (only athletics). Court said City wa
OK Grandfather Clause: could automatically vote w/o literacy test if ancestor voted before 1866; since blacks couldn't take advantage, violated 15th amend.White
Upheld federal law requiring 10% of fed govt $ to states for pub. works be 4 minority contractors White (6-3)
- Newcann county said children can go to any public school they want (‘freedom of choice’). Not one white kid went to the local black school, only 15% of black kids ventured toBrennan
Decision CaseJustice
Unanimously upholds curfew imposed on Japanese citizens & aliens -- Const. gives pres & Congress rights to act as necessary to prevent espionage & sabotageStone
After consent decree to hire more black firefighters, says City of Memphis seniority system for layoffs not a Title 7 ViolationWhite
- Florida had law to encourage older people to live in Florida – says if you are a Florida resident and become a widow, we will exempt you from paying the property taxes; if you Douglass
- Transportation Agency gave women and minorities preferential treatment in hiring (voluntary affirmative action plan). Court says there is nothing wrong with an employer voluntaryBrennan
- *If your case was finalized before Batson decision, you cannot use it (can if still in appeals stage)
- Southern Railway Company (interstate commerce railroad) said they can’t afford two dining cars, set 10 tables for whites and 1 for blacks. Court says this is a violation of 188Burton
- Sex discrimination; follow-up to Geduldig case (again looked at failure of a disability plan to cover pregnancy – except that this was a private company and not a state, so ins
- Gaston County sued to reinstate literacy tests. Court says you can’t bring a court case to bring literacy tests back, because your state still has unequal education
married men and married women must be treated the same in regard to fringe benefits; any classification based on sex should be treated like race (use strict scrutiny test)Brennan (8-1)
- NY wouldn’t let Puerto Ricans vote because their English wasn’t good enough/couldn’t pass English literacy test. Court upholds Congress’ right to stick this into the CiviBrennan (7-2)
If you can't make people pay money to vote in federal elections (24th Amend.), you can't in state elections either (equal protection clause); Ends poll tax in countryDouglas
- Texas Democratic State Committee prevents blacks from voting in primary election. Since Texas doesn’t have state law for white primary, they are not violating the 14th amendmen
- Congress wrote Civil Rights Act in 1964 saying you can’t discriminate on basis of race. End of sit in cases – there is nothing to be gained from prosecuting “sit in” peop
- any job besides manual labor requires IQ test which blacks did not score as well on, so ended up w lowest paying jobs. Court unanimously agreed company violated Title 7. Test wasBurger (9-0)
*- Blacks used “sit ins” as a common protest tactic against segregation - Cops didn’t know what to charge them with – said they were “breaching the peace” but didn’t

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