Psyc 101 Chapter 3 Bold Terms

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principle that posits that heritable characteristics that provide a survival or reproductive advantage are more likely than alternative characteristics to be passed on to subsequen
research method assessing hereditary influence by examining blood relatives to see how much they resemble one another on a specific trait
system made up of nerves that connect to voluntary skeletal muscles and to sensory receptors
a stable, negative charge when the cell is inactive (about -70 millivolts)
individual cells in the nervous system that receive, integrate, and transmit information
small knobs at the end of an azon that secrete chemicals called neurotransmitters
axons that carry information outward from the central nervous system to the periphery of the body
an inherited characteristic that increased in a population because it helped solve a problem of survival or reproduction during the time it emerged
the major structure that connects the two cerebral hemispheres
the right and left halves of the cerebrum
chemical substances released by the endocrine glands
cells found throughout the nervous system that provide various types of support for neurons
a process in which neurotransmitters are sponged up from the synaptic cleft by the presynaptic membrane
a chemical that mimics that action of a neurotransmitter
the minimum length of time after an action potential during which another action potential cannot begin
research method involving destroying a piece of the brain
chemicals that transmit information from one neuron to another
the parts of a neuron that are specialized to receive information
a voltage change at a receptor site on a postsynaptic cell membrane
procedure in which the bundle of fibers that connects the cerebral hemispheres is cut to reduce the severity of epileptic seizures
contains the cell nucleus and much of the chemical machinery common to most cells
a microscopic gap between the terminal button of one neuron and the cell membrane of another neuron
structure in the forebrain through which all sensory information (except smell) must pass to get to the cerebral cortex
system consisting of glands that help control bodily functioning
segment of the brainstem that lies between the hindbrain and the forebrain; contains an area involved with integrating sensory processes
the reproductive success of an individual organism relative to the average reproductive success in the population
brain structure that includes the cerebellum, the medulla, and the pons
research method involving sending a weak electric current into a brain structure to stimulate it
axons that carry information inward to the central nervous system from the periphery of the body
internally produced chemicals that resemble opiates in structure and effects
a limited time span in the development of an organism when it is optimal for certain capacities to emerge because the organism is especially responsive to certain experiences
relatively large and deeply folded structure located adjacent to the back surface of the brainstem
the insulating material that encases some axons
characteristics that are influenced by more than one pair of genes
the convoluted outer layer of the cerebrum
research method assessing hereditary influence by examing the resemblance between adopted children and both their biological and adoptive parents
largest and most complex region of the brain, encompassing a variety of structures, including the thalamus, hypothalamus, limbic system, and cerebrum
releases a great variety of hormones that fan out within the body, stimulating actions in the other endocrine glands
system made up of nerves that connect to the heart, blood vessels, smooth muscles, and glands
reseach method assessing hereditary influence by comparing the resemblance of identical twins and fraternal twins with respect to trait
a junction where information is transmitted from one neuron to another
structure found near the base of the forebrain that is involved in the regulation of basic biological needs
DNA segments that serve as the key functional units in hereditary transmission
loosely connected network of structures located roughly along the border between the cerebral cortex and deeper subcortical areas
system made up of all those nerves that lie outside the brain and spinal cord
system consisting of the brain and spinal cord
a chemical that opposes the action of a neurotransmitter
threadlike strands of DNA molecules that carry genetic information
long, thin fiber that transmits signals away from the soma to other neurons or to muscles or glands
a very brief shift in a neuron's electrical charge that travels along an axon

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Created Feb 4, 2011ReportNominate
Tags:definition, 101, bold, chapter, Chapter 3, term