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Antiquity Terms by Date
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Specific dates "325" or centuries "4th" will work
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Christian thinker from the same time period as Augustine; says that if God commanded humans to behave a certain way, then God has given humanity the ability to follow them
Cyprian of Carthage
Lawyer who is converted and made Bishop of his town; goes into hiding during persecution, when he returns becomes part of a conversation about the authority of the lapsed
Julian the Apostate
Emperor of Rome who converts from Christianity to paganism and puts the altar of Victory back in the Senate. However, he doesn't call for the persecution of Christians
Civil War in Palestine
Rome sends Pompey to conquer Palestine, and the region is ruled by Rome as a client kingdom, so they are able to maintain autonomy
Battle of Milvian Bridge
Battle in which Constantine defeats Maxentius to become the sole ruler of the Western portion of the Empire. Constantine credits his victory to the Christian God
Emperor of Rome. Instituted a major persecution of Christians in 303CE: burning the scriptures, imprisoning bishops, and then imprisoning parishioners. Establishes tetrarchy
Council of Nicaea
The first ecumenical council. It is called and funded by Constantine, organized to answer the logos question: homoousios or homoiousios?
Christian heretic who argues that the God of the Hebrew Bible is the origin of evil. Highly exegetical conclusions. Develops the idea of a canon
Emperor of Rome who makes paganism illegal and persecutes non-Christians. Submits to the authority of Bishop Ambrose of Milan after the Massacre at Thessalonica
A school of philosophical thought with these markers: materialism, pantheism, allegory, asceticism
Council of Chalcedon
Council that reaffirms the Council of Ephesus, supporting Cyril's Christology and clarifying the roles of Jesus/Christ/logos/God
Emperor of Rome. Conquers Maxentius and then Licinius to rule the whole Empire. Claims to convert to Christianity, supports the development and growth of the Christian religion
Edict of Milan
Grants toleration to all religions in the Empire and pledges reparations to the Christians.
Arius of Alexandria
Presbyter in Alexandria who objects to the claim that the logos was co-eternal with God. Felt that any such claim was an attack on the oneness of God.
Alexander the Great
Macedonian ruler who conquered the Persian Empire in 331BCE to spread Hellenism all the way to India and down to Egypt. Also developed an emphasis on the city-state (polis)
Bishop of Rome. Writes an authoritative text in regards to arguments over theotokos and the divinity of Jesus
Edict of Decius
Document in which the Emperor declares that Rome is failing because of the decline of the traditional religion; that everyone must sacrifice to the traditional gods and receive a c
Bishop of Constantinople, who argues that Jesus had two centers of operation: logos and human, acting distinctly in him. Schizo Jesus
A mechanism of proto-orthodoxy to create and maintain structure, which says that each Christian community has one absolute authority in the bishop - apostolic succession
Bishop of Rome and Christian theologian
Clement of Alexandria
Leading Christian thinker in logos theology, which says 'Christ' and 'God' are different. Logos/sophia/Christ is God's active agent in the world; draws on the ideas of the Timaeus
Year of the 2nd (final) destruction of the temple
Romans re-conquer Jerusalem and rule Palestine directly. Synagogues begin to be established. Also, the gospel of Mark
Athanasius of Alexandria
Secretary to Alexander, furthers what is now orthodox belief in response to another thinker in his town. Says that logos is co-eternal, and if he's not, it's idolatry
Cyril of Alexandria
Bishop of Alexandria. Fundamentally disagrees with other thinkers on the logos issue. Says logos and human nature are inseparable. Engaged in theotokos debate, pro-Mary
Ascetic and biblical scholar
Pliny the Younger
Governor of Bythinia. Writes a letter in 110CE to Emperor Trajan asking advice on what to do about these Christians. Proposes that the government not seek out Christians
Christian thinker who is the chief architect of proto-orthodoxy and orthodox ecclesiology. Wrote Against All Heresies, where he says not to let gnostics worship in the church
Nicaean Christanity made the official religion
Emperor Theodosius makes Nicaean orthodoxy the legal religion of the Roman Empire.
Father of Western Theology; Christian theologian, apologist, and lawyer; lays the foundation for later trinitarian doctrine; good at one liners; traducianism.
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