BIO100 Mid-Term

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Can you name the basic biology facts??

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Macromolecules that contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Their common name is sugar or starch; largely energy sources in the body.Cells
The contents of a cell excluding the nucleusCells
Physiological features possessed by different species that are similar in function, but that are not related in development or evolutionary origin.
What states that two or more pairs of alleles segregate independently of one another during gamete formation?Genetics
What is hypothesis that has withstood numerous experimental testsScientific Method
What is a cross between organisms with two different phenotypes that produces offspring with a third phenotype that is a blending of the parental traits?Genetics
The first step in the decoding of the DNA for protein synthesis. DNA/RNA
Constricted region of a chromosome at the junction of the two chromosomes’ arms. Spindle fibers attach here during cell division.Chromosomes
The physical appearance of a trait is the:Genetics
One-half of a replicated chromosome.Chromosomes
Who developed the idea of Scala Naturae or 'Ladder of life'History of Evolution
Cell organelle in which aerobic respiration takes place. Large quantities of ATP are made here. Cells
The female reproductive structure in flowers containing one or more ovules. Genetics
The terminal portion of the male re-productive organ (stamen) in flowering plants. Genetics
What states that the members of each pair of alleles separate when gametes are formed. A gamete will receive one allele or the other?Genetics
A theory that proposes phases of rapid evolution of new species, followed by long periods of little or no change.Evolutionary Patterns
Cell organelle in which photosynthesis takes place. Cells
The movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane. Cells
What kinds of bases are adenine and guanine?DNA/RNA
The building block of nucleic acids. Consist of phosphate, a pentose sugar, and a nitrogen- containing base.DNA/RNA
The union of the female gamete with the male gamete. The result is the formation of a zygoteGenetics
Having two different alleles for the same trait.Genetics
Hypothesized explanation for why the fossil record for a region shows abrupt changes in species.History of Evolution
A supportive network of fibers found in eukaryotic cells. It maintains the shape of cells and also is involved in cellular movement.Cells
A three- base sequence of messenger RNA that is specific for a particular amino acid. DNA/RNA
The pairing of homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis.Mitosis/Meiosis
The blueprint for the synthesis of a protein, composed of DNA and are found in all living cells; they may be composed of DNA or RNA in viruses.Genetics
Diffusion that requires the assistance of transport proteins.Cells
Alternate forms of a gene. In diploid cells there are two present for each gene.Genetics
Two solutions that have the same solute concentration.Cells
The formation of two new daughter cells at the end of cell division. Mitosis/Meiosis
The appearance of similar structures in unrelated organisms. This may result from organisms adapting to similar environmental pressures.Evolutionary Patterns
Male gametes produced by meiosis and containing a haploid set of chromosomes.Genetics
What refers to the inheritance of quantitative traits, traits which are influenced by multiple genes, not just one?Genetics
Who proposed the theory of punctuated equilibrium?
Where a single gene produces two or more phenotypic effects.Genetics
What theory states that all organisms are composed of one or more cells?Cells
RNA that transfers amino acids to a growing peptide chain during protein synthesis. DNA/RNA
Protein that is bonded to a carbohydrate, examples include: antigens, enzymes, and hormones. Cells
Functions as a site for spindle fiber attachment during cell division. Cells
A network of fibers out-side the cell. It is used for such things as cell adhesion, cell- to- cell communication, and other regulatory functions. Cells
In genetics, all of the genes on a single chromosome.Chromosomes
A regulatory unit in prokaryotic cells that controls the expression of structural genes.DNA/RNA
Suggested that organisms could acquire new characteristics during their lifetimes and pass them on to their offspring. History of Evolution
In RNA, the pyrimidine thymine is replaced by: DNA/RNA

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