8b GUG

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QuestionAnswerNotes
BPH Rx SE: orthostasis, dizziness, fall risk
If surgery unavailable for testicular torson, reduce by twisting?
Any condition irritating the periotoneal lining inc which marker?
Breast duct/lobule cells that produce milk
Most important prognostic factor in breast Ca
Ovarian tumor w/ KRAS and BRAF mutations
Other name for ovarian fibroma
MC method of contraception
twins share chorion but one gets more blood flow
Sv consequence of anovulatory cycle
Mech: Change in transport speed of the ovum
pain with sex
highest risk of prostate CA starting at what age?
malignant germ cell tumor: AFP
Major SE of contraceptive implants
Composition of staghorn stone
Tx of choice for vaginal atrophy
MC location of transitional cell cancer
exogenous testosterone leads to ? type of kidney stones
Rx: adjuvant therapy for ER+ premenopausal breast Ca
MCC UTO in male children
Hallmark pathological finding of granulosa cell tumots
6 months w/o period
Kidney CA stage T4, invades
Rx: adjuvant therapy for postmenopausal breast Ca
umbilical cord inserts into the fetal membranes
Rx w/ SE: endometrial polyps
tx: stress urinary incontinence that inc sphincter tone
% of simple hyperplasia that progressed to cancer
MC type of endometrial carcinoma
Permanent cessation of menses x1yr w/ high FSH, low E2
Tumor marker for dysgerminoma
MC benign growth in breast
MC Tx of superficial bladder cancer
Endometrial glands/stroma implanted outside uterine cavity/walls
MCC testis CA >50yo
intraurethral Rx for ED
Classic path change - failure of conversion of maternal vessels from low volume-high resistance to a high volume-low resistance system
HPV: Binds rB allowing for cell immortalization
HTN after 20 wk gestation assoc w/ proteinuria
'powder burn' lesions
MC STI
IUD c/i in Wilson's disease
Main mode of spread of ovarian cancer
dilatation of ducts, inspissated (thick) secretions
Best available protection against STIs
Tumor from dense fibroconnective tissue of the breast
testicular torsion perinatal only
% of simple atypical hyperplasia that progressed to cancer
e of incontinence: unstable bladder
% of complex atypical hyperplasia that progressed to cancer
medical tx: urge incontinence
normal strict morphology required to bind to?
MC breast carcinoma in situ
postmenopausal, complex hyperplasia w/ atypia - tx?
Long acting Rx for ED
Varicocele finding on U/S
MCC abnml uterine bleeding in adolescence
trophoblastic proliferation, fetus or fetal tissue present
acute infection w/ obstruction -1st step?
L1 proteins from HPV strains self-assemble into non-infectious units called?
Molecular? Type I, simple - complex hyperplasia
Appendix epididymis remnant of ?
MCC abnml uterine bleeding in postmenopausal
Why is stage I breast Ca 10-year survival only 75%?
Amniotic Fluid Index >90th %ile
% of complex hyperplasia that progressed to cancer
2nd most common primary site of mets to ovary
Colposcopy: cells w/ inc collagen turn white w/ ?
Special type breast CA, high grade but good prognosis
Bilateral ovarian mets w/ signet ring
abnormal dev of chorionic villi in pregnancy can become?
QuestionAnswerNotes
CA most strongly associated w/ obesity
Condition during lactation, mimics inflammatory breast cancer
Perimenopausal uterine bleeding, first step?
breast path - clown face
implantation into cornu of uterus or lower uterine segment
Most common estrogenic ovarian tumor
MC testicular tumor
Removal of breast, pec minor and axillary lymph node
division of ovum after 13 days
20-25% of adnexal masses, dx b/t age 10-30yo
Syndrome w/ inc risk of colon, ovarian, endometrial, breast and uroepithelial CA
MC aneuploidy in abortuses
trophoblastic proliferation, cystic villi, no fetal tissue
Penile CA 0% in men who are ?
Signet ring cells in ovary = ?
MC histology of cervival CA
Tumor marker of stromal cell tumors
Prevent sz in preeclampsia
Type of incontinence: outlet obstruction
amenorrhea w/ high serum androgens, nl estrogen, low progesterone
Stage: detected from elevated PSA alone, normal DRE & TRUS
MC site to endometriosis
Marker WT-1
MC histiological subtype of endometrial CA
antepartum hemorrhage after 20 wks
MC site of ectopic pregnant
Lab value inc if patient is not making sperm
How to stage endometrial CA
Endometrium that has been hormonally influenced by pregnancy
MC trisomy in spontaneous abortion
presence of endometrial glands in uterine myometrium
Tx PUV: Incise valve to damage leaflet
Hemangioblastoma of cerebellum and retina, renal cysts and RCC
Syndrome: AD w/ 85% penetrance, BRCA
Lady on tamoxifen w/ post-menopausal bleeding - next step?
proliferation marker in endometrial cycle
MC gynecological CA worldwide
Tx: tubal factor infertility
Tumor marker for choriocarcinoma, embryonal carcinoma
Inc prolif of glands rel to stroma 2/2 inactivation of ? gene
Molecular? Type I, proliferative - simple hyperplasia
lobular (breast) carcinoma in situ is assoc w/ invasive cancer where ?
Targeted therapy for HER2+ breast CA
elevated seminal leukocyte count aka?
Most important RF for uterine CA
low value w/ anovulation: failure to centrally stimulate follicular growth
first line hormonal therapy of metastatic breast Ca in postmeno
Sperm with DNA damage is assoc w/ ?
Proper name for 'chocolate cyst'
MC neoplasm in young men
#1 killer of neonates
Name: loss of cell polarity, inc N:C, irreg shape, prominent nucleoli
Type II endometrial carcinoma assoc w/ ?
MC site of involvement in endometriosis
class of Rx for urge incontinence to tighten outlet
HRT: w/ uterus, need estrogen and ?
'blue dot' sign and pain related to inflammation
Oral contraceptive in breastfeeding woman
sudden huge increase in PSA likely due to?
Most important reason fertility dec w/ female age is increasing ?
MC composition of kidney stones
hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and anosmia
Thin, long unilocular mass, associated with period
Rx SE: PSA drops in half, ED, loss of libido
MC group of aneuploidy in spont ab
Type of cancer after tx for mediastinal mass in college age woman
Progestin in BCPs derived from spironolactone
Chromosome of BRCA-2
measure seminal vesciles - dilated due to?
Contraception w/ dec efficacy at higher BMI i.e. >198 lbs
MC renal tumor
Chemo combo for advanced bladder CA
QuestionAnswerNotes
Chromosome 17, 85% lifetime breast Ca risk
first line hormonal therapy of metastatic breast Ca in premenopausal
Assoc w/ uterine hyperplasia/CA in postmenopausal women
Given to prevent CW recurrence at mastectomy site
MC infiltrating breast Ca
MC site of mets in metastatic breast cancer
Bladder cancer sx in 85% of cases
MC ovarian tumor (and cancer)
Antigen that lyses seminal coagulum
screening for nonpalpable breast masses
reflex test to triage ASCUS pap smear in women > 21
C/I for anticholinergic therapy
Mutation assoc w/ high grade endometrioid tumors
Dz: epidermis of nipple contains tumor cells
HTN dx in first 20 weeks of pregnancy
Higher percent of free PSA (25%+)
Still a cause of maternal and fetal death
Converts androgens to estrogen
pau d' orange, cancer cells in dermal lymphatics
Adnexal mass in reproductive age female, first r/o?
Worst SE of Magnesium sulfate
best imaging modality for tubal infertility
MCC of amenorrhea (after pregnancy)
Cells that convert adrenal steroids to estrone
beta 2 receptors cause uterine ?
Infection causing bladder CA
Renal CA assoc w/ Von Hippel-Lindau
Origin of 90% ovarian cancers (aka MC form)
most prostate CA develops in which zone?
Grading scheme for prostatic adenocarcinoma
Flow of urine in retrograde fashion (to kidney) w/ voiding
Tx symptomatic bone mets (prostate CA)
Tumor marker for endodermal sinus tumor, embryonal carcinoma
bleeding but os is open or closed, but still viable pregnancy
mech of finasteride, dutasteride
Call-Exner bodies, Inhibin+
ovarian neoplasm w/ 3 germinal layers
Zone sampled in pap smear and biopsy
MCC Epididymal Orchitis in young men
oligohydramnios and 'key hole' sign
Mutation in mucinous ovarian tumors
malignant germ cell tumor: beta HCG
hormonal therapy of metastatic breast Ca causing chemical castration
Malignant tumor of admixed proliferating trophoblasts, no villi
Abnormally deep implantation onto the myometrium
Class of Rx for urge incontinence to dec contractility
monoclonal ab to HER-2 neu
Appendix testes remnant of ?
MC tumor of myometrium
Tumor, sx: precocious puberty, hyperandrogenism, pelvic mass/pain
Papillary projections surrounded by Schiller-Duval bodies
Uterine size discrepant from dates
intraabdominal pregnancy, later found in a 60yo woman
Lowest contraceptive failure rates
HPV: Degrades p53 in the host cell
Targeted therapy for ER+ breast CA
Tx: antagonist in breast; agonist in endometrium
MC cystic mass in reproductive-age women
Contraceptive w/ SE: irregular bleeding, weight gain, bone loss
Deletion or unbalanced translocation of chromosome 3 (VKL gene)
male contraceptive = exogenous hormone?
hormone causing ovulation
MC gynecologic CA
Tx: stimulate ovary - induce endogenous FSH release
HTN after 20 wk w/o proteinuria
malignant germ cell tumor: PLAP, Oct 3/4, cKIT
CA w/ high rate of extra-uterine dz, NO myometrial invasion of tumor
MC ovarian germ cell tumor
Induce fetal lung maturity - give mom ?
MCC male infertility in the world
Type of incontinence: neurogenic dysfunction
Tumor marker of seminoma

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