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MC breast carcinoma in situ
Tx: antagonist in breast; agonist in endometrium
Best available protection against STIs
Prevent sz in preeclampsia
normal strict morphology required to bind to?
hormone causing ovulation
Progestin in BCPs derived from spironolactone
Most important reason fertility dec w/ female age is increasing ?
Adnexal mass in reproductive age female, first r/o?
hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and anosmia
MCC of amenorrhea (after pregnancy)
Deletion or unbalanced translocation of chromosome 3 (VKL gene)
Why is stage I breast Ca 10-year survival only 75%?
abnormal dev of chorionic villi in pregnancy can become?
Hallmark pathological finding of granulosa cell tumots
Tumor marker for endodermal sinus tumor, embryonal carcinoma
Targeted therapy for HER2+ breast CA
Type of cancer after tx for mediastinal mass in college age woman
Tx: tubal factor infertility
HTN after 20 wk gestation assoc w/ proteinuria
bleeding but os is open or closed, but still viable pregnancy
proliferation marker in endometrial cycle
Chromosome of BRCA-2
Thin, long unilocular mass, associated with period
Appendix testes remnant of ?
Renal CA assoc w/ Von Hippel-Lindau
MCC UTO in male children
Contraceptive w/ SE: irregular bleeding, weight gain, bone loss
medical tx: urge incontinence
monoclonal ab to HER-2 neu
Tumor marker of seminoma
Tumor marker for dysgerminoma
Call-Exner bodies, Inhibin+
20-25% of adnexal masses, dx b/t age 10-30yo
HTN dx in first 20 weeks of pregnancy
MC neoplasm in young men
MC ovarian germ cell tumor
Molecular? Type I, proliferative - simple hyperplasia
Antigen that lyses seminal coagulum
pain with sex
MCC Epididymal Orchitis in young men
Most important prognostic factor in breast Ca
'blue dot' sign and pain related to inflammation
Condition during lactation, mimics inflammatory breast cancer
postmenopausal, complex hyperplasia w/ atypia - tx?
MC histology of cervival CA
% of simple atypical hyperplasia that progressed to cancer
Chromosome 17, 85% lifetime breast Ca risk
Major SE of contraceptive implants
malignant germ cell tumor: AFP
Lab value inc if patient is not making sperm
intraabdominal pregnancy, later found in a 60yo woman
mech of finasteride, dutasteride
male contraceptive = exogenous hormone?
pau d' orange, cancer cells in dermal lymphatics
Ovarian tumor w/ KRAS and BRAF mutations
malignant germ cell tumor: beta HCG
Colposcopy: cells w/ inc collagen turn white w/ ?
Appendix epididymis remnant of ?
Tx of choice for vaginal atrophy
MC tumor of myometrium
MC type of endometrial carcinoma
Syndrome: AD w/ 85% penetrance, BRCA
Dz: epidermis of nipple contains tumor cells
ovarian neoplasm w/ 3 germinal layers
Tumor, sx: precocious puberty, hyperandrogenism, pelvic mass/pain
measure seminal vesciles - dilated due to?
Targeted therapy for ER+ breast CA
Molecular? Type I, simple - complex hyperplasia
Type of incontinence: neurogenic dysfunction
Abnormally deep implantation onto the myometrium
Tx: stimulate ovary - induce endogenous FSH release
Amniotic Fluid Index >90th %ile
CA w/ high rate of extra-uterine dz, NO myometrial invasion of tumor
oligohydramnios and 'key hole' sign
MC cystic mass in reproductive-age women
MCC abnml uterine bleeding in postmenopausal
Stage: detected from elevated PSA alone, normal DRE & TRUS
Other name for ovarian fibroma
MC renal tumor
Permanent cessation of menses x1yr w/ high FSH, low E2
MC testicular tumor
e of incontinence: unstable bladder
highest risk of prostate CA starting at what age?
Bladder cancer sx in 85% of cases
intraurethral Rx for ED
first line hormonal therapy of metastatic breast Ca in postmeno
lobular (breast) carcinoma in situ is assoc w/ invasive cancer where ?
MC method of contraception
Rx: adjuvant therapy for postmenopausal breast Ca
Name: loss of cell polarity, inc N:C, irreg shape, prominent nucleoli
Worst SE of Magnesium sulfate
MC composition of kidney stones
Given to prevent CW recurrence at mastectomy site
Most common estrogenic ovarian tumor
If surgery unavailable for testicular torson, reduce by twisting?
trophoblastic proliferation, cystic villi, no fetal tissue
Zone sampled in pap smear and biopsy
testicular torsion perinatal only
MC site to endometriosis
low value w/ anovulation: failure to centrally stimulate follicular growth
MC infiltrating breast Ca
Any condition irritating the periotoneal lining inc which marker?
Perimenopausal uterine bleeding, first step?
Syndrome w/ inc risk of colon, ovarian, endometrial, breast and uroepithelial CA
Breast duct/lobule cells that produce milk
Uterine size discrepant from dates
Mutation assoc w/ high grade endometrioid tumors
'powder burn' lesions
Bilateral ovarian mets w/ signet ring
% of simple hyperplasia that progressed to cancer
Classic path change - failure of conversion of maternal vessels from low volume-high resistance to a high volume-low resistance system
Flow of urine in retrograde fashion (to kidney) w/ voiding
Papillary projections surrounded by Schiller-Duval bodies
How to stage endometrial CA
Cells that convert adrenal steroids to estrone
MC Tx of superficial bladder cancer
screening for nonpalpable breast masses
Converts androgens to estrogen
Hemangioblastoma of cerebellum and retina, renal cysts and RCC
MC site of involvement in endometriosis
HTN after 20 wk w/o proteinuria
HRT: w/ uterus, need estrogen and ?
Kidney CA stage T4, invades
Varicocele finding on U/S
2nd most common primary site of mets to ovary
breast path - clown face
Rx: adjuvant therapy for ER+ premenopausal breast Ca
tx: stress urinary incontinence that inc sphincter tone
dilatation of ducts, inspissated (thick) secretions
MC gynecological CA worldwide
MC trisomy in spontaneous abortion
umbilical cord inserts into the fetal membranes
Type II endometrial carcinoma assoc w/ ?
Lowest contraceptive failure rates
implantation into cornu of uterus or lower uterine segment
Special type breast CA, high grade but good prognosis
6 months w/o period
antepartum hemorrhage after 20 wks
Chemo combo for advanced bladder CA
acute infection w/ obstruction -1st step?
HPV: Degrades p53 in the host cell
hormonal therapy of metastatic breast Ca causing chemical castration
Composition of staghorn stone
Removal of breast, pec minor and axillary lymph node
Grading scheme for prostatic adenocarcinoma
MC benign growth in breast
Oral contraceptive in breastfeeding woman
Sperm with DNA damage is assoc w/ ?
Lady on tamoxifen w/ post-menopausal bleeding - next step?
Infection causing bladder CA
presence of endometrial glands in uterine myometrium
Long acting Rx for ED
Contraception w/ dec efficacy at higher BMI i.e. >198 lbs
Signet ring cells in ovary = ?
MCC male infertility in the world
trophoblastic proliferation, fetus or fetal tissue present
Type of incontinence: outlet obstruction
Penile CA 0% in men who are ?
MC ovarian tumor (and cancer)
MC gynecologic CA
exogenous testosterone leads to ? type of kidney stones
L1 proteins from HPV strains self-assemble into non-infectious units called?
division of ovum after 13 days
most prostate CA develops in which zone?
Tumor marker of stromal cell tumors
Malignant tumor of admixed proliferating trophoblasts, no villi
Tumor from dense fibroconnective tissue of the breast
Tumor marker for choriocarcinoma, embryonal carcinoma
Induce fetal lung maturity - give mom ?
MC site of ectopic pregnant
% of complex hyperplasia that progressed to cancer
twins share chorion but one gets more blood flow
Origin of 90% ovarian cancers (aka MC form)
Class of Rx for urge incontinence to dec contractility
reflex test to triage ASCUS pap smear in women > 21
Mech: Change in transport speed of the ovum
Still a cause of maternal and fetal death
beta 2 receptors cause uterine ?
Tx symptomatic bone mets (prostate CA)
Mutation in mucinous ovarian tumors
BPH Rx SE: orthostasis, dizziness, fall risk
HPV: Binds rB allowing for cell immortalization
Sv consequence of anovulatory cycle
malignant germ cell tumor: PLAP, Oct 3/4, cKIT
Assoc w/ uterine hyperplasia/CA in postmenopausal women
IUD c/i in Wilson's disease
sudden huge increase in PSA likely due to?
MC location of transitional cell cancer
first line hormonal therapy of metastatic breast Ca in premenopausal
MC aneuploidy in abortuses
MC histiological subtype of endometrial CA
best imaging modality for tubal infertility
% of complex atypical hyperplasia that progressed to cancer
Main mode of spread of ovarian cancer
Higher percent of free PSA (25%+)
Proper name for 'chocolate cyst'
amenorrhea w/ high serum androgens, nl estrogen, low progesterone
Most important RF for uterine CA
elevated seminal leukocyte count aka?
C/I for anticholinergic therapy
#1 killer of neonates
MCC testis CA >50yo
Tx PUV: Incise valve to damage leaflet
Inc prolif of glands rel to stroma 2/2 inactivation of ? gene
MCC abnml uterine bleeding in adolescence
Marker WT-1
MC site of mets in metastatic breast cancer
Rx SE: PSA drops in half, ED, loss of libido
Endometrial glands/stroma implanted outside uterine cavity/walls
Endometrium that has been hormonally influenced by pregnancy
class of Rx for urge incontinence to tighten outlet
Rx w/ SE: endometrial polyps
CA most strongly associated w/ obesity
MC group of aneuploidy in spont ab

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