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low value w/ anovulation: failure to centrally stimulate follicular growth
Uterine size discrepant from dates
MCC abnml uterine bleeding in postmenopausal
HPV: Binds rB allowing for cell immortalization
Most important RF for uterine CA
mech of finasteride, dutasteride
Contraception w/ dec efficacy at higher BMI i.e. >198 lbs
intraabdominal pregnancy, later found in a 60yo woman
Other name for ovarian fibroma
MC gynecologic CA
pau d' orange, cancer cells in dermal lymphatics
MC histiological subtype of endometrial CA
MC tumor of myometrium
% of simple hyperplasia that progressed to cancer
Adnexal mass in reproductive age female, first r/o?
Bladder cancer sx in 85% of cases
Worst SE of Magnesium sulfate
male contraceptive = exogenous hormone?
presence of endometrial glands in uterine myometrium
MCC UTO in male children
monoclonal ab to HER-2 neu
MC site of involvement in endometriosis
Ovarian tumor w/ KRAS and BRAF mutations
Colposcopy: cells w/ inc collagen turn white w/ ?
Perimenopausal uterine bleeding, first step?
Progestin in BCPs derived from spironolactone
20-25% of adnexal masses, dx b/t age 10-30yo
Lady on tamoxifen w/ post-menopausal bleeding - next step?
Composition of staghorn stone
Varicocele finding on U/S
Chromosome 17, 85% lifetime breast Ca risk
Oral contraceptive in breastfeeding woman
pain with sex
Molecular? Type I, simple - complex hyperplasia
e of incontinence: unstable bladder
MCC Epididymal Orchitis in young men
MC ovarian tumor (and cancer)
proliferation marker in endometrial cycle
Removal of breast, pec minor and axillary lymph node
Most important reason fertility dec w/ female age is increasing ?
Zone sampled in pap smear and biopsy
Tx PUV: Incise valve to damage leaflet
Sperm with DNA damage is assoc w/ ?
MC benign growth in breast
Inc prolif of glands rel to stroma 2/2 inactivation of ? gene
testicular torsion perinatal only
MCC male infertility in the world
Induce fetal lung maturity - give mom ?
measure seminal vesciles - dilated due to?
Lab value inc if patient is not making sperm
malignant germ cell tumor: beta HCG
Tx: tubal factor infertility
MC ovarian germ cell tumor
Tumor marker for dysgerminoma
Best available protection against STIs
Most important prognostic factor in breast Ca
% of simple atypical hyperplasia that progressed to cancer
breast path - clown face
How to stage endometrial CA
highest risk of prostate CA starting at what age?
MC site to endometriosis
Deletion or unbalanced translocation of chromosome 3 (VKL gene)
first line hormonal therapy of metastatic breast Ca in postmeno
best imaging modality for tubal infertility
MC trisomy in spontaneous abortion
Tumor marker for endodermal sinus tumor, embryonal carcinoma
Why is stage I breast Ca 10-year survival only 75%?
MC composition of kidney stones
Proper name for 'chocolate cyst'
Infection causing bladder CA
Tx of choice for vaginal atrophy
BPH Rx SE: orthostasis, dizziness, fall risk
ovarian neoplasm w/ 3 germinal layers
HTN after 20 wk w/o proteinuria
Prevent sz in preeclampsia
oligohydramnios and 'key hole' sign
MC gynecological CA worldwide
Molecular? Type I, proliferative - simple hyperplasia
Mutation assoc w/ high grade endometrioid tumors
beta 2 receptors cause uterine ?
screening for nonpalpable breast masses
trophoblastic proliferation, cystic villi, no fetal tissue
Stage: detected from elevated PSA alone, normal DRE & TRUS
Main mode of spread of ovarian cancer
antepartum hemorrhage after 20 wks
Tumor from dense fibroconnective tissue of the breast
IUD c/i in Wilson's disease
Special type breast CA, high grade but good prognosis
Assoc w/ uterine hyperplasia/CA in postmenopausal women
Chromosome of BRCA-2
malignant germ cell tumor: AFP
Thin, long unilocular mass, associated with period
elevated seminal leukocyte count aka?
L1 proteins from HPV strains self-assemble into non-infectious units called?
hormone causing ovulation
Higher percent of free PSA (25%+)
intraurethral Rx for ED
Endometrial glands/stroma implanted outside uterine cavity/walls
Type of cancer after tx for mediastinal mass in college age woman
If surgery unavailable for testicular torson, reduce by twisting?
Abnormally deep implantation onto the myometrium
Long acting Rx for ED
Bilateral ovarian mets w/ signet ring
Breast duct/lobule cells that produce milk
Tumor, sx: precocious puberty, hyperandrogenism, pelvic mass/pain
Mutation in mucinous ovarian tumors
HTN after 20 wk gestation assoc w/ proteinuria
most prostate CA develops in which zone?
Appendix epididymis remnant of ?
Penile CA 0% in men who are ?
MC aneuploidy in abortuses
Tumor marker of seminoma
Type of incontinence: neurogenic dysfunction
acute infection w/ obstruction -1st step?
'powder burn' lesions
Cells that convert adrenal steroids to estrone
MC method of contraception
MC site of ectopic pregnant
sudden huge increase in PSA likely due to?
Type II endometrial carcinoma assoc w/ ?
MCC testis CA >50yo
twins share chorion but one gets more blood flow
tx: stress urinary incontinence that inc sphincter tone
Origin of 90% ovarian cancers (aka MC form)
reflex test to triage ASCUS pap smear in women > 21
Any condition irritating the periotoneal lining inc which marker?
Hallmark pathological finding of granulosa cell tumots
class of Rx for urge incontinence to tighten outlet
6 months w/o period
MCC abnml uterine bleeding in adolescence
Rx w/ SE: endometrial polyps
#1 killer of neonates
Papillary projections surrounded by Schiller-Duval bodies
Name: loss of cell polarity, inc N:C, irreg shape, prominent nucleoli
CA w/ high rate of extra-uterine dz, NO myometrial invasion of tumor
lobular (breast) carcinoma in situ is assoc w/ invasive cancer where ?
Signet ring cells in ovary = ?
normal strict morphology required to bind to?
Renal CA assoc w/ Von Hippel-Lindau
exogenous testosterone leads to ? type of kidney stones
Amniotic Fluid Index >90th %ile
Tx: stimulate ovary - induce endogenous FSH release
Permanent cessation of menses x1yr w/ high FSH, low E2
MC Tx of superficial bladder cancer
MC breast carcinoma in situ
MC neoplasm in young men
2nd most common primary site of mets to ovary
amenorrhea w/ high serum androgens, nl estrogen, low progesterone
postmenopausal, complex hyperplasia w/ atypia - tx?
CA most strongly associated w/ obesity
Type of incontinence: outlet obstruction
Targeted therapy for ER+ breast CA
C/I for anticholinergic therapy
MC infiltrating breast Ca
Sv consequence of anovulatory cycle
Grading scheme for prostatic adenocarcinoma
MC group of aneuploidy in spont ab
abnormal dev of chorionic villi in pregnancy can become?
bleeding but os is open or closed, but still viable pregnancy
Rx: adjuvant therapy for postmenopausal breast Ca
Contraceptive w/ SE: irregular bleeding, weight gain, bone loss
Condition during lactation, mimics inflammatory breast cancer
first line hormonal therapy of metastatic breast Ca in premenopausal
Rx: adjuvant therapy for ER+ premenopausal breast Ca
MC renal tumor
Targeted therapy for HER2+ breast CA
umbilical cord inserts into the fetal membranes
Still a cause of maternal and fetal death
Chemo combo for advanced bladder CA
Tx: antagonist in breast; agonist in endometrium
MC cystic mass in reproductive-age women
Lowest contraceptive failure rates
Rx SE: PSA drops in half, ED, loss of libido
Malignant tumor of admixed proliferating trophoblasts, no villi
Flow of urine in retrograde fashion (to kidney) w/ voiding
Dz: epidermis of nipple contains tumor cells
HTN dx in first 20 weeks of pregnancy
Kidney CA stage T4, invades
Class of Rx for urge incontinence to dec contractility
% of complex atypical hyperplasia that progressed to cancer
trophoblastic proliferation, fetus or fetal tissue present
Tumor marker of stromal cell tumors
Appendix testes remnant of ?
MC type of endometrial carcinoma
MC location of transitional cell cancer
hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and anosmia
Syndrome: AD w/ 85% penetrance, BRCA
MCC of amenorrhea (after pregnancy)
Tx symptomatic bone mets (prostate CA)
MC testicular tumor
implantation into cornu of uterus or lower uterine segment
Marker WT-1
Classic path change - failure of conversion of maternal vessels from low volume-high resistance to a high volume-low resistance system
dilatation of ducts, inspissated (thick) secretions
Converts androgens to estrogen
Syndrome w/ inc risk of colon, ovarian, endometrial, breast and uroepithelial CA
division of ovum after 13 days
'blue dot' sign and pain related to inflammation
medical tx: urge incontinence
hormonal therapy of metastatic breast Ca causing chemical castration
% of complex hyperplasia that progressed to cancer
Tumor marker for choriocarcinoma, embryonal carcinoma
MC histology of cervival CA
Major SE of contraceptive implants
HRT: w/ uterus, need estrogen and ?
Endometrium that has been hormonally influenced by pregnancy
Given to prevent CW recurrence at mastectomy site
MC site of mets in metastatic breast cancer
malignant germ cell tumor: PLAP, Oct 3/4, cKIT
Mech: Change in transport speed of the ovum
Antigen that lyses seminal coagulum
HPV: Degrades p53 in the host cell
Most common estrogenic ovarian tumor
Call-Exner bodies, Inhibin+
Hemangioblastoma of cerebellum and retina, renal cysts and RCC

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