Cancer Class Final Exam

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Can you name the Cancer Class Final Exam?

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tissue growth based on increase in cell size
cell division creates an increased number of normal cells
abnormal type of tissue growth in which cells proliferate in uncontrolled, relatively autonomous fashion
proliferating mass of abnormal cells
undifferentiated cells located in basal layer of skin
fully differentiated, thin, flat cells that form outer layer of skin
tumors that grow in a confined local area
tumors that can invade surrounding tissues, enter bloodstream, and spread to distant body parts
a generic term that refers to any malignant tumor
cancers that arise from epithelial cells
cancers that originate in supporting tissues such as bone, cartilage,blood vessels, fat, fibrous tissue, muscle
tumors of lymphocytes
cancers in which malignant blood cells proliferate mainly in bloodstream
the site at which a tumor initially arises
adeno
pigmented cell
multipotential cell
chondro
hemangio
leiomyo
rhabdomyo
myelo
percentage of cancer patients who are still alive five years after initial diagnosis
tendency for survival rates to appear to be improved by early diagnosis when no improvement actually occurred
any mass of tissue that arises from the wall of a hollow organ and protrudes into the lumen
only definite way to detect cancer
cancers of the same tpye are assigned different numerical values based on appearance
highest grade cancers
a series of criteria to estimate how far a person's cancer has progressed at time of diagnosis
T in TNM system stands for
N in TNM system stands for
M in TNM system stands for
genes whose presence can lead to cancer
normal genes whose deletion or loss can lead to cancer
growth of normal cells is said to be anchorage ____
growth of cancer cells is anchorage _____
apoptotic cell death triggered by lack of contact with ECM
individual cell populations each derived from proliferation of a single cell
cancer cells exhibit a ______ dependence on external growth factors
normally restrains cell proliferation by preventing passage through restriction point
In presence of damaged DNA, this protein accumulates and triggers cell cycle arrest or apoptosis
apoptosis is carried out by a ______ cascade
UV radiation can cause the formation of a covalent bond between adjacent DNA bases, creating a mutation called
synthesis of new DNA across regions in which the DNA template strand is damaged
DNA breakage near the ends of chromosomes 9 and 22
Philadelphia chromosome is present in most cases of this type of cancer
postulates that the immune destruction of newly forming cancer cells is in fact a routine event in healthy individuals
carbohydrate-binding protein possessing two or more carbohydrate-binding sites, can link two cells together
hintanswer
Cancer cells have a decreased number in this type of junction
required for tumors to grow beyond a few mm in diameter
proteins important for sustaining tumor growth, trigger angiogenesis
protein-degrading enzymes that are released into surrounding tissue and promote angiogenesis
three natural angiogenesis inhibitors
cancer cells spread from a primary tumor to another organ and form tiny clumps of cancer cells that remain inactive
direct migration and penetration of cancer cells into neighboring tissues
ability of cancer cells to enter bloodstream and travel to distant sites
cancer cells have reduced levels of cell-cell adhesion proteins, such as
cancer cells produce these protein-degrading enzymes
degrades components of basal lamina and ECM, cleaves inactive precursors of MMPs, both of these facilitate tumor invasion
what dictates where cancers will spread?
one metastasis promoting gene is
metastasis suppressor genes include
bias when scientists fail to ensure that equal procedures are being used to measure cancer rates in populations being compared
common problem when scientists rely on individuals to self-report
error that arises when people volunteer nonrandomly for research studies
scientific journals rarely publish studies which failed to detect a relationship
a variable that affects the risk of developing cancer and is linked to the factor being investigated is a _____ variable
cancer-causing agents
cause cancer by triggering DNA mutations
aflatoxins cause ____ cancer and are found in ____
asbestos causes
uses bacteria with histidine deficiency to measure mutagenic potency
tobacco smoke is responsible for about ___ of all cancer deaths
these two act synergistically to increase cancer risk
first virus shown to cause cancer, in chickens
chemical found in dyes later found to cause bladder cancer
the highest dose that can be administered without causing serious weight loss or immediate life-threatening toxicity
a dose that must be exceeded before cancer rates begin to rise
assumes a dose-response relationship with no threshold
assumes no cancer risk at lower doses followed by a linear dose-response relationship at higher doses
U-shaped dose-response curve, cancer rates decline at low doses of carcinogen
inorganic carcinogens include these 3 metals
any substance capable of causing cancer only when metabolically activated
liver protein that activates precarcinogens
reaction of epoxide with guanine forms this DNA-carciongen compelx
the initiation stage of carcinogenesis is based on
initiation converts normal cells to a ___ state
promotion stimulates precancerous cells to
The third stage of carcinogenesis is
any change in gene expression that does not involve mutating the structure of a gene itself
a chemical that exerts only one of either initiating or promoting properties
a chemical that possesses both initiating and promoting activities
agents exhibiting the potential to cause cancer
procedure for early detection of cervical cancer
detects blood in feces, sign of colorectal cancer
measures how much prostate-specific antigen is present in bloodstream
hintanswer
cancer that has not yet invaded through the basal lamina, preinvasive
radiation causes this chromosomal damage so severe it prevents cells from progressing through mitosis
radiation source that can be inserted directly within or close to the tumor
raising the temperature of tumor tissue by a few degrees
group of chemotherapeutic drugs that disrupt DNA synthesis by substituting for molecules involved in normal metabolic pathways
chemical derivatives that substitute for the actual molecule and disrupt its pathways
highly reactive organic molecules that trigger DNA damage by linking themselves directly to DNA
first alkylating agent to be used for cancer chemo
another group of DNA-crosslinking agents used in chemo containing platinum
very effective platinating drug
natural chemo drug found in Pacific Yew tree
drug that works by binding and preventing activation of estrogen receptors
steroid hormones with property to inhibit lymphocyte proliferation
example of differentiating agent
membrane proteins that actively pump drugs out of cells
small population of cells in any given tumor with the ability to proliferate indefinitely
bacterial strain that does not cause disease but elicits a strong immune response at site where it is introduced
proteins produced by the body to stimulate immune responses against infectious agents
first cytokine found to be helpful in treating cancer
can be used to trigger cancer cell destruction either by themselves or linked to radioactive substances
alternative to vaccination in which a patient's own lymphocytes are first isolated, selected, and grown in lab to enhance and re-injected into body
anticancer drugs that illustrate the concept of molecular targeting
lab synthesis of small molecule inhibitors designed to bind to and inactivate specific target molecules
small molecule inhibitor that targetes EGF receptor, effective in lung cancer
first anti-angiogenic drug, monoclonal antibody that binds to and inactivates VEGF
natural substance from apricot pits thought to cure cancer in 1970s
herb extract thought to reduce prostate cancer, actually infused with synthesized drugs
only bacteria clearly linked to human cancer
h. pylori is linked to
FDA must ban any additives or contaminants if found to cause cancer in animals at any dose
human exposure and rodent potency value, how potent is a carcinogen and how much are we exposed to
antioxidant found in tomatoes
antioxidant found in broccoli
antioxidant found in green tea
antioxidant found in soybeans
antioxidant found in grapes and wine
antioxidant found in garlic
practice of using specific chemical substances for protecting against cancer
example of chemoprevention drug
aspirin inhibits this enzyme
COX catalyzes production of chemical messengers called
Prostaglandins trigger
Aspirin's ability to decrease cancer risk stems from its inhibitory effects on
drugs which block estrogen action in selective tissues
example of a SERM
drug that inhibits androgen activity to combat prostate cancer, blocks production of dihydrotestosterone
 

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Created May 2, 2012ReportNominate
Tags:cancer, class, exam, final