Birth Defects and Conditions of Prematurity

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Can you name the Birth Defects and the Conditions of Prematurity?

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DescriptionDisorder or DefectHints
Closed defect of vertebrae
Herniation of meninges and spinal fluid
Urinary meatus either on top of penis or between the labia and clitoris
A defect of the umbilical ring and subsequent evisceration of abdominal contents into external peritoneum
Absence of a cranial vaultIncompatible with life
Yellowing of the skin, sclera and mucous membranes caused by an increase in bilirubin levels40-60% of newborns have it 3-4 days after birth
The most common cause of mental retardation and is accompanied with growth restrictions in utero, craniofacial structural anomalies and central nervous system dysfunction
A small brain within a large craniumNeurological or cognitive impairment accompanies
Increase cerebral-spinal fluid in ventricles of brainAssociated with Spina Bifida
Type of jaundice developing in first 24 hours of life, with bilirubin peaking at 10 mg/dl
Opening in spine below T12 vertebraeLeading cause of infantile paralysis
Type of jaundice developing after the first 24 hours of birth with a bilirubin level exceeding 17 mg/dlBilirubin levels increase by 5 mg/kg/dl
The esophagus and trachea do not separate
Bladder protrudes through abdominal wallSurgery needed within 48 hrs
Foot turns down and inSerial casting and surgery as needed for 6-9 months
Inhalation of particulate meconium in the amniotic fluid2-5% die with this disease
DescriptionDisorder or DefectHints
Abnormal development of retinal vesselsAssociated with assisted ventilation and a high oxygen concentration
Urinary meatus on underside of penis1/300 male newborns, surgery needed within 1 year
Herniation of abdominal contents through the abdominal wall with no peritoneal sac involvementSignificant newborn mortality and morbidity
Rectum ends in a blind pouch with a fistula between the rectum and the perineum
Requires a Pavlik harness to decrease adduction and promote abduction of the hips
When serum bilirubin levels exceed 5 g/dl
Proximal and distal ends of the esophagus do not communicate causing a blockageAssess the 3 C's: chocking, coughing, cyanosis
Bleeding in germinal matrix of the brain50% of premature infants, 4% of term infants
Hypoxia and ischemia cause damage to digestive tissue3 mechanisms: bowel ischemia, bacterial flora, feeding effects
Lung injury from continuous oxygenationWhite males especially at risk
Peripheral nervous system injuriesCauses shoulder dystocia, brachial and/or facial paralysis
Defect of the craniofacial bones, very commonBilateral or unilateral
Impaired gas exchange causes inadequate oxygen levels and increased carbon dioxide levelsCause of cerebral palsy, mental retardation and 20% of all infant deaths
Herniation of abdominal contents into thoracic cavityPresents with barrel chest, displaced heart sounds and bowel sounds heard in the chest
Herniation of meninges with spinal cord and nerve roots protrudingCerebral-Spinal Fluid may leak

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