Birth Defects and Conditions of Prematurity

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Can you name the Birth Defects and the Conditions of Prematurity?

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DescriptionDisorder or DefectHints
Bleeding in germinal matrix of the brain50% of premature infants, 4% of term infants
Defect of the craniofacial bones, very commonBilateral or unilateral
Type of jaundice developing after the first 24 hours of birth with a bilirubin level exceeding 17 mg/dlBilirubin levels increase by 5 mg/kg/dl
Requires a Pavlik harness to decrease adduction and promote abduction of the hips
Closed defect of vertebrae
Hypoxia and ischemia cause damage to digestive tissue3 mechanisms: bowel ischemia, bacterial flora, feeding effects
The most common cause of mental retardation and is accompanied with growth restrictions in utero, craniofacial structural anomalies and central nervous system dysfunction
Absence of a cranial vaultIncompatible with life
Peripheral nervous system injuriesCauses shoulder dystocia, brachial and/or facial paralysis
Lung injury from continuous oxygenationWhite males especially at risk
Inhalation of particulate meconium in the amniotic fluid2-5% die with this disease
When serum bilirubin levels exceed 5 g/dl
The esophagus and trachea do not separate
Abnormal development of retinal vesselsAssociated with assisted ventilation and a high oxygen concentration
Increase cerebral-spinal fluid in ventricles of brainAssociated with Spina Bifida
Herniation of abdominal contents into thoracic cavityPresents with barrel chest, displaced heart sounds and bowel sounds heard in the chest
DescriptionDisorder or DefectHints
Urinary meatus on underside of penis1/300 male newborns, surgery needed within 1 year
Impaired gas exchange causes inadequate oxygen levels and increased carbon dioxide levelsCause of cerebral palsy, mental retardation and 20% of all infant deaths
A small brain within a large craniumNeurological or cognitive impairment accompanies
Rectum ends in a blind pouch with a fistula between the rectum and the perineum
Opening in spine below T12 vertebraeLeading cause of infantile paralysis
Yellowing of the skin, sclera and mucous membranes caused by an increase in bilirubin levels40-60% of newborns have it 3-4 days after birth
Bladder protrudes through abdominal wallSurgery needed within 48 hrs
Urinary meatus either on top of penis or between the labia and clitoris
Foot turns down and inSerial casting and surgery as needed for 6-9 months
Proximal and distal ends of the esophagus do not communicate causing a blockageAssess the 3 C's: chocking, coughing, cyanosis
Type of jaundice developing in first 24 hours of life, with bilirubin peaking at 10 mg/dl
A defect of the umbilical ring and subsequent evisceration of abdominal contents into external peritoneum
Herniation of abdominal contents through the abdominal wall with no peritoneal sac involvementSignificant newborn mortality and morbidity
Herniation of meninges and spinal fluid
Herniation of meninges with spinal cord and nerve roots protrudingCerebral-Spinal Fluid may leak

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