Birth Defects and Conditions of Prematurity

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Can you name the Birth Defects and the Conditions of Prematurity?

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DescriptionDisorder or DefectHints
Bladder protrudes through abdominal wallSurgery needed within 48 hrs
Closed defect of vertebrae
Herniation of abdominal contents into thoracic cavityPresents with barrel chest, displaced heart sounds and bowel sounds heard in the chest
Opening in spine below T12 vertebraeLeading cause of infantile paralysis
Absence of a cranial vaultIncompatible with life
Urinary meatus on underside of penis1/300 male newborns, surgery needed within 1 year
Herniation of meninges and spinal fluid
The esophagus and trachea do not separate
Impaired gas exchange causes inadequate oxygen levels and increased carbon dioxide levelsCause of cerebral palsy, mental retardation and 20% of all infant deaths
Abnormal development of retinal vesselsAssociated with assisted ventilation and a high oxygen concentration
Rectum ends in a blind pouch with a fistula between the rectum and the perineum
Type of jaundice developing after the first 24 hours of birth with a bilirubin level exceeding 17 mg/dlBilirubin levels increase by 5 mg/kg/dl
Herniation of meninges with spinal cord and nerve roots protrudingCerebral-Spinal Fluid may leak
Type of jaundice developing in first 24 hours of life, with bilirubin peaking at 10 mg/dl
Yellowing of the skin, sclera and mucous membranes caused by an increase in bilirubin levels40-60% of newborns have it 3-4 days after birth
Bleeding in germinal matrix of the brain50% of premature infants, 4% of term infants
DescriptionDisorder or DefectHints
Proximal and distal ends of the esophagus do not communicate causing a blockageAssess the 3 C's: chocking, coughing, cyanosis
A small brain within a large craniumNeurological or cognitive impairment accompanies
Inhalation of particulate meconium in the amniotic fluid2-5% die with this disease
Urinary meatus either on top of penis or between the labia and clitoris
Increase cerebral-spinal fluid in ventricles of brainAssociated with Spina Bifida
Peripheral nervous system injuriesCauses shoulder dystocia, brachial and/or facial paralysis
When serum bilirubin levels exceed 5 g/dl
A defect of the umbilical ring and subsequent evisceration of abdominal contents into external peritoneum
Foot turns down and inSerial casting and surgery as needed for 6-9 months
Hypoxia and ischemia cause damage to digestive tissue3 mechanisms: bowel ischemia, bacterial flora, feeding effects
Requires a Pavlik harness to decrease adduction and promote abduction of the hips
Lung injury from continuous oxygenationWhite males especially at risk
Defect of the craniofacial bones, very commonBilateral or unilateral
Herniation of abdominal contents through the abdominal wall with no peritoneal sac involvementSignificant newborn mortality and morbidity
The most common cause of mental retardation and is accompanied with growth restrictions in utero, craniofacial structural anomalies and central nervous system dysfunction

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