AP Biology Terms (ABA- Grana)

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the tail-like structure that propels some single-celled organisms. consist of microtubuls
a ripened ovary of a flowering plant
cells that line the gastrovascular cavity in cnidarians
an enzyme produced in all cells to decompose hydrogen peroxide, a by-product of cell respiration
programmed cell death
the complex of DNA and protein that makes up a eukaryotic chromosome.
a chemical fixative often used in the preparation of tissue for electron microscopy
a synonym for anaerobic respiration. the anaerobic breakdown of glucose into pyruvic acid
evolution that occurs when unrelated species occupy the same environment and are subjected to similar selective pressures and show similar adaptations
the maximum rate at which a population could increase under ideal conditions
the technology of manipulating genes for practical purposes
any abnormal number of a particular chromosome.
genes outside the nucleus, in the mitochondria and chloroplasts
animals in which the blastopore becomes the anus during early embryonic development
a hormone released from the anterior pituitary that stimulates the ovarian follicle
the preferential growth of a plant upward (toward the sun), rather than laterally
the pathway along which food is transferred from one trophic level to the next
one of many neurotransmitters.
cells that nourish neurons
a trophic process in which substances in the food chain become more concentrated with each link of the food chain
the type of inheritance when there is no trait that dominates over another; both traits show
part of the digestive tract of many animals. it is the site of mechanical digestion
the movement of alleles into or out of a population
an electrical state where the inside of an excitable cell is made less negative compared with the outside. if an axon is depolarized, an impulse is passing
thin protein filaments that interact with myosin filaments in the contraction of skeletal muscle
any process that absorbs energy
the external surface of a plasma membrane that is important for cell-to-cell communicatoin
the common type of plant
fat tissue
translates as 'true feeding'. a process begun by the entrance of large amounts of nutrients into a lake, ultimately ending with the death of the lake
the three-base sequence of nucleotides in mRNA
produced by B lymphocytes and destroy antigens
the internal membranes of mitochondria that are the site of the electron transport chain
the embryonic germ layer that gives rise to the viscera, the digestive tract, and other internal organs
a system of transport channels inside a eukaryotic cell
cloaks the capsid of a virus and aids the virus in infecting the host. derived from membranes of host cells
an organelle in eukaryotes that lies near the nucleus and that packages and secretes substances for the cell
a protective jacket of cells that prevents some plants' gametes and zygotes from drying out
one type of mutation caused by a deletion or addition where the entire reading sequence of DNA is shifted
membranes in the chloroplast where the light reactions occur
Plant hormone that inhibits growth, closes stomates during times of water stress and counteracts breaking of dormancy.
the sequential rebuilding of an entire ecosystem after a disaster
cells with internal membranes
a coenzyme that carries protons or electrons from glycolysis and the krebs cycle to the electron transport chain
strands for expressed sequences of DNA. these are genes
a neurotransmitter
a genetic condition caused by trisomy 21
a model of the food chain that demonstrates the interaction of the organisms and the loss of energy
force of attraction between molecules of water due to hydrogen bonding
a cyclical metabolic pathway in the dark reactions of photosynthesis that fixes or incorporates carbon into carbon dioxide and produces phosphoglyceraldehyde (PGAL), a three-carbon
plant hormone that stimulates cell division and delays senescence (aging)
evolution that occurs when a population becomes isolated (for any reason) from the rest of the species, becomes exposed to new selective pressures, and evolves into a new species
the most common lethal genetic disease in the US; characterized by a buildup of extracellular fluid in the lungs and digestive tract
located in the cristae of mitochondria and thylakoids of chloroplasts, these are membrane channels that allow protons to diffuse down a gradient in the production of ATP
a digestive cavity with only one opening, characteristic of cnidarians
produces antibodies
a type of photosynthetic plant cell that is tightly packed around the veins in a leaf
a complex network of protein filaments that gives a cell its shape and helps it move
a virus that attacks bacteria
certain traits whose expression varies, depending on the parent from which they are inherited. diseases that result from imprinting are prader-willi and angelman sydromes
a chromosomal mutation where a fragment is lost during cell division
the process of leaves falling of a tree or bush.
an enzyme found in red blood cells that catalyzes the conversion of carbon dioxide and water into carbonic acid as part of the system that maintains blood pH at 7.4
convert nitrates (NO3) into free atmospheric nitrogen
the emergence of numerous species from one common ancestor introduced into an environment
the germ layer that gives rise to the skin and vervous system
a type of lymphocyte that kills infected body cells and cancer cells
a specialized region in a chromosome that holds the two chromatids together
a kinase whose activity depends on the level of dyclins and what controls the timing of cell division
the copycat coloration where one harmless animal mimics the coloration of one that is poisonous. an example is the viceroy butterfly, which is harmless but looks similar to the mon
an enzyme that breaks down excess neurotransmitter
nonvascular plants like mosses
an innate, highly stereotypic behavior, which when begun, is continued to completion, no matter how useless
the first 12 inches (30 cm) of the human small intestine
plant cells with unevenly thickened primary cell walls that are alive at maturity and that function to support the growing stem
nonliving and includes temperature, water, sunlight, wind, rocks, and soil.
acts as an antenna pigment, expanding the wavelengths of light that can be used to power photosythensis
a characteristic of normal cells grown in culture that causes cell division to cease when the culture becomes too crowded
accessory photosynthetic pigment that expands the wavelengths of light that can be used to pwer photosynthesis
stinging cells in all cnidarians
a fundamental mechanism in the development of immunity. antigenic molecules select or bind to specific B or T lymphocytes, activating them. The B cells then differentiate into plas
a nucleotide that binds to thymine and uracil. it is a purine.
a type of enzyme that changes its conformation and its function in response to a modifier.
the types of genes an organism has
a mechanism or strategy to maximize the rate of diffusion. this is a major strategy to transport substances across membranes passively, such as in the nephron
the body cavity that arises from within the mesoderm and is completely surrounded by mesoderm tissue
structures, such as a bat's wing and a fly's wing, that have the same function, but the similarity is superficial and reflects an adaptation to similar environments, not a common a
factors, such as earthquakes, whose occurrence is unrelated to the population density
factors, such as starvation, that increase directly as the population density increases
the interconnected feeding relationships of organisms in an ecosystem
accessory photosynthetic pigment that is yellow or orange
an inactivated X chromosome seen as a condensed body lying just inside the nuclear envelope
a hormone that helps control metamorphosis in insects
a cross between individuals that are hybrid for two different traits, such as height and seed color
released by the posterior pituitary, its target is the collecting tube of the nephron
a molecule with both a positive and negative pole.
the theory that organisms descend from a common ancestor gradually, over a long period of time, in a linear or branching fashion
consumers that derive their nutrition from nonliving, organic matter
organisms, like bacteria and fungi, that recycle nutrients back to the soil
structures in plants that produce male gametes
part of the developing embryo that will become the upper part of the stem and the leaves of a plant
the main component of the waxy cuticle covering leaves to minimize water loss
the limit to the number of individuals that can occupy one area at a particular time
all the organisms living in one area
the protein shell that encloses viral DNA or RNA
a subdivision of flowering plants whose members possess an embryonic seed leaf made of two halves or cotyledons
branching evolution occurs when a new species branches out from a parent
one type of associative learning that is widely accepted because of the ingenious work of Ivan Pavlov associating a novel stimulus with an innately recognized one
the negative pole in an electrolytic cell
the breakdown of glucose into pyruvic acid with the release of a small amount of atp without oxygen
caused by pollutants in the air from combustion of fossil fuels. The pH is less than 5.6
the three-base sequence of nucleotides at one end of a tRNA molecule
the global ecosystem
carbon becomes fixed or incorporated into a molecule of PGAL. This happens during the Calvin cycle
the network of cell walls and intercellular spaces within a plant body that permits extensive extracellular movement of water within a plant
an example of genetic drift that results from the reduction of a population, typically by natural disaster. The surviving population is no longer genetically representative of the
selection that increases the extreme types in a population at the expense of intermediate forms
two separate genes control one trait, but one gene masks the expression of the other gene
collar cells that line the body cavity and have flagella that circulate water in sponges
a hormone released by the hypothalamus that stimulates other glands to release their hormones
the final, stable community in an ecosystem
a structural polysaccharide found in the cell walls
the positive pole in an electrolytic cell
any process that gives of energy
a channel in a plasma membrane for one specific ion, such as sodium or calcium. in the terminal branch of a neuron, it is responsible for the release of neurotransmitter into the s
the site at which a crossover and recombination occurs
a form of photosynthesis that is an adaptation to dry conditions; stomates remain closed during the day and open only at night
organisms that can live without oxygen in the environment
animals that can raise their body temperature, although they cannot maintain a stable body temperature
the sensory processes of a neuron
a gaseous plant hormone that promotes fruit ripening and opposes auxins in its actions
an important part of the immune system, a group of about twenty proteins that assists in lysing cells
the intentional selection of specific individuals with desired traits for breeding
a primitive form of sexual reproduction that is characteristic of bacteria and some algae
gland in the brain that releases many hormones, including growth hormone, luteinizing hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and follicle-stimulating ho
part of the light-dependent reactions in photosynthesis where electrons travel on a short-circuit pathway to replenish ATP levels only
organisms that sythesize their own nutrients
a variation in some trait of individuals coordinated with some gradual change in temperature or other factor over a geographic range
the expression of two or more genes where each depends upon the alleles of the other in order for a trait to show
photosynthetic plants that grow on other trees rather than supporting themselves
part of the digestive tract of many animals where food is temporarily stored until it can continue to the gizzard
the range of expression of mutant genes
all the organisms in a given area as well as the abiotic (nonliving) factors with which they interact
a protein that serves as a catalyst
the particular three-dimensional shape of a protein molecule
connected to each sieve tube member in the phloem and nurtures the sieve tube elements
a nucleotide that binds with guanine. a pyrimidine
the process by which ATP is produced from the flow of protons through an ATP-synthetase channel in the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast during the light reactions of photosynt
a form of selection that acts to decrease the frequency of the more-common phenotypes and increase the frequency of the less-common types
the type of immunity when an individual makes his or her own antibodies after being ill and recovering or after being given an immunization or vaccine
structures in plants that produce female gametes
plant hormone that promotes stem elongation
one of two structures in animal cells involved with cell division
two genes interact to produce a novel phenotype
the genus name for the bacterium that produces botulism, a very serious form of food poisoning
change in the gene pool due to chance
hairlike extensions from the cytoplasm used for cell locomotion
a shallow groove in the cell surface in an animal cell where cytokinesis is taking place
the formation of new species caused by separation by geography, such as mountain ranges, canyons, rivers, lakes, glaciers, altitude, or longitude
the general term for the overall movement of a fluid in one direction in an organism, such as sap flowing in a tree or blood flowing in a human
a regulatory protein whose levels fluctuate cyclically in a cell, in part, related to the timing of cell division
a sequence of membrane proteins that carry electrons through a series of redox reactions to produce ATP
a symbiotic relationship where one organism benefits and one is unaware of the other organism (+/o)
the site of photosynthesis in plant cells
another name for the krebs cycle
evolution that is caused by two species that interact and influence each other. all predator-prey relationships are examples
found in sponges, these cells are mobile and perform numerous functions, including reporduction, transport of food particles to nonfeeding cells, and secretion of material that for
a neurotransmitter
the food source for the growing embryo in monocots
the bright, often red or orange coloration of poisonous animals as a warning that predators should avoid them
a double membrane down the midline of a dividing plant cell between which the new cell wall will form
selection where one phenotype replaced another in the gene pool
the tightly packed layer of cells that surrounds the vascular cylinder in the root of a plant
a plant with anatomical and biochemical modifications for a dry environment, examples are sugarcane and corn
the branch of the vertebrate peripheral nervous system that controls involuntary muscles
the presence of two or more phenotypically distinct forms of a trait in a single population, such as two varieties of peppered moths, black ones and white ones
a neurotransmitter
an organism whose body is made of only two cell layers, the ectoderm and the endoderm. the two are connected by a noncellular layer called the mesoglea. includes porifera and cnida
very large regions of the earth, named for the climatic conditions and for the predominant vegetation. ex, marine, tropical rain forest, and desert
an example of genetic drift, when a small population breaks away from a larger one to colonize a new area; it is most likely not genetically representative of the original larger p
division of the cytoplasm
a nine-step, anaerobic process that breaks down one glucose molecule into two pyruvic acid molecules and four ATP
an iron-containing pigment present in the electron transport chain of all aerobes
the monoploid generation of a plant
flowering plants.
this theory states that mitochondria and chloroplasts were once free-living prokaryotes that took up residence inside larger prokaryotic cells in a permanent, symbiotic relationshi
a chemical secreted by blood vessel endothelium and monocytes during an immune response to attract phagocytes to an area
one type of learning in which one stimulus becomes linked, through experience, to another
the process by which cells expel substances
a plant hormone that stimulates stem elongation and growth, enhances apical dominance, and is responsible for tropisms
muscles of glands
a scientific naming system where every organism has a unique name consisting of two parts: a genus name and a species name
either of the two strands of a replicated chromosome joined at the centromere
a rapid change in the membrane of a nerve or muscle cell when a stimulus causes an impulse to pass.
participates directly in the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis
chemicals that stimulate helper T cells, B cells, and killer T cells
an enzyme that permanently attaches pieces of DNA together
the kingdom that consists of heterotrophs that carry out extracellular digestion and have cell walls made of chitin
the reciprocal exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids during synapsis of meiosis I
part of a flowering plant that produces male gametophytes

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