AP Biology Terms (ABA- Grana)

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definitionterm
the process by which cells expel substances
one type of associative learning that is widely accepted because of the ingenious work of Ivan Pavlov associating a novel stimulus with an innately recognized one
the first 12 inches (30 cm) of the human small intestine
the intentional selection of specific individuals with desired traits for breeding
fat tissue
the reciprocal exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids during synapsis of meiosis I
the interconnected feeding relationships of organisms in an ecosystem
the most common lethal genetic disease in the US; characterized by a buildup of extracellular fluid in the lungs and digestive tract
consumers that derive their nutrition from nonliving, organic matter
gland in the brain that releases many hormones, including growth hormone, luteinizing hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and follicle-stimulating ho
the site of photosynthesis in plant cells
the genus name for the bacterium that produces botulism, a very serious form of food poisoning
the germ layer that gives rise to the skin and vervous system
a mechanism or strategy to maximize the rate of diffusion. this is a major strategy to transport substances across membranes passively, such as in the nephron
the type of immunity when an individual makes his or her own antibodies after being ill and recovering or after being given an immunization or vaccine
a form of photosynthesis that is an adaptation to dry conditions; stomates remain closed during the day and open only at night
an important part of the immune system, a group of about twenty proteins that assists in lysing cells
a type of enzyme that changes its conformation and its function in response to a modifier.
selection that increases the extreme types in a population at the expense of intermediate forms
acts as an antenna pigment, expanding the wavelengths of light that can be used to power photosythensis
a double membrane down the midline of a dividing plant cell between which the new cell wall will form
membranes in the chloroplast where the light reactions occur
the body cavity that arises from within the mesoderm and is completely surrounded by mesoderm tissue
an iron-containing pigment present in the electron transport chain of all aerobes
participates directly in the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis
one type of learning in which one stimulus becomes linked, through experience, to another
one of many neurotransmitters.
any abnormal number of a particular chromosome.
an organelle in eukaryotes that lies near the nucleus and that packages and secretes substances for the cell
a type of lymphocyte that kills infected body cells and cancer cells
genes outside the nucleus, in the mitochondria and chloroplasts
a sequence of membrane proteins that carry electrons through a series of redox reactions to produce ATP
a genetic condition caused by trisomy 21
convert nitrates (NO3) into free atmospheric nitrogen
very large regions of the earth, named for the climatic conditions and for the predominant vegetation. ex, marine, tropical rain forest, and desert
cells that nourish neurons
a cyclical metabolic pathway in the dark reactions of photosynthesis that fixes or incorporates carbon into carbon dioxide and produces phosphoglyceraldehyde (PGAL), a three-carbon
the global ecosystem
the movement of alleles into or out of a population
a hormone released by the hypothalamus that stimulates other glands to release their hormones
the network of cell walls and intercellular spaces within a plant body that permits extensive extracellular movement of water within a plant
an electrical state where the inside of an excitable cell is made less negative compared with the outside. if an axon is depolarized, an impulse is passing
the three-base sequence of nucleotides at one end of a tRNA molecule
chemicals that stimulate helper T cells, B cells, and killer T cells
strands for expressed sequences of DNA. these are genes
a gaseous plant hormone that promotes fruit ripening and opposes auxins in its actions
the type of inheritance when there is no trait that dominates over another; both traits show
the complex of DNA and protein that makes up a eukaryotic chromosome.
the kingdom that consists of heterotrophs that carry out extracellular digestion and have cell walls made of chitin
a protective jacket of cells that prevents some plants' gametes and zygotes from drying out
a virus that attacks bacteria
a system of transport channels inside a eukaryotic cell
a plant with anatomical and biochemical modifications for a dry environment, examples are sugarcane and corn
a characteristic of normal cells grown in culture that causes cell division to cease when the culture becomes too crowded
nonliving and includes temperature, water, sunlight, wind, rocks, and soil.
the final, stable community in an ecosystem
a coenzyme that carries protons or electrons from glycolysis and the krebs cycle to the electron transport chain
the site at which a crossover and recombination occurs
organisms, like bacteria and fungi, that recycle nutrients back to the soil
structures in plants that produce male gametes
the emergence of numerous species from one common ancestor introduced into an environment
the bright, often red or orange coloration of poisonous animals as a warning that predators should avoid them
a form of selection that acts to decrease the frequency of the more-common phenotypes and increase the frequency of the less-common types
plant hormone that stimulates cell division and delays senescence (aging)
the tail-like structure that propels some single-celled organisms. consist of microtubuls
the pathway along which food is transferred from one trophic level to the next
factors, such as earthquakes, whose occurrence is unrelated to the population density
definitionterm
animals in which the blastopore becomes the anus during early embryonic development
the expression of two or more genes where each depends upon the alleles of the other in order for a trait to show
nonvascular plants like mosses
two genes interact to produce a novel phenotype
the common type of plant
selection where one phenotype replaced another in the gene pool
a chemical fixative often used in the preparation of tissue for electron microscopy
any process that gives of energy
the general term for the overall movement of a fluid in one direction in an organism, such as sap flowing in a tree or blood flowing in a human
the main component of the waxy cuticle covering leaves to minimize water loss
another name for the krebs cycle
all the organisms in a given area as well as the abiotic (nonliving) factors with which they interact
caused by pollutants in the air from combustion of fossil fuels. The pH is less than 5.6
evolution that occurs when unrelated species occupy the same environment and are subjected to similar selective pressures and show similar adaptations
a nine-step, anaerobic process that breaks down one glucose molecule into two pyruvic acid molecules and four ATP
flowering plants.
a hormone released from the anterior pituitary that stimulates the ovarian follicle
one type of mutation caused by a deletion or addition where the entire reading sequence of DNA is shifted
a nucleotide that binds to thymine and uracil. it is a purine.
a chromosomal mutation where a fragment is lost during cell division
an inactivated X chromosome seen as a condensed body lying just inside the nuclear envelope
a chemical secreted by blood vessel endothelium and monocytes during an immune response to attract phagocytes to an area
an enzyme that permanently attaches pieces of DNA together
a neurotransmitter
the sequential rebuilding of an entire ecosystem after a disaster
a structural polysaccharide found in the cell walls
a ripened ovary of a flowering plant
a kinase whose activity depends on the level of dyclins and what controls the timing of cell division
a molecule with both a positive and negative pole.
an enzyme produced in all cells to decompose hydrogen peroxide, a by-product of cell respiration
branching evolution occurs when a new species branches out from a parent
evolution that occurs when a population becomes isolated (for any reason) from the rest of the species, becomes exposed to new selective pressures, and evolves into a new species
a type of photosynthetic plant cell that is tightly packed around the veins in a leaf
cloaks the capsid of a virus and aids the virus in infecting the host. derived from membranes of host cells
the technology of manipulating genes for practical purposes
an example of genetic drift, when a small population breaks away from a larger one to colonize a new area; it is most likely not genetically representative of the original larger p
two separate genes control one trait, but one gene masks the expression of the other gene
located in the cristae of mitochondria and thylakoids of chloroplasts, these are membrane channels that allow protons to diffuse down a gradient in the production of ATP
the tightly packed layer of cells that surrounds the vascular cylinder in the root of a plant
organisms that sythesize their own nutrients
the maximum rate at which a population could increase under ideal conditions
structures in plants that produce female gametes
a subdivision of flowering plants whose members possess an embryonic seed leaf made of two halves or cotyledons
force of attraction between molecules of water due to hydrogen bonding
cells with internal membranes
the protein shell that encloses viral DNA or RNA
found in sponges, these cells are mobile and perform numerous functions, including reporduction, transport of food particles to nonfeeding cells, and secretion of material that for
an organism whose body is made of only two cell layers, the ectoderm and the endoderm. the two are connected by a noncellular layer called the mesoglea. includes porifera and cnida
a synonym for anaerobic respiration. the anaerobic breakdown of glucose into pyruvic acid
a plant hormone that stimulates stem elongation and growth, enhances apical dominance, and is responsible for tropisms
released by the posterior pituitary, its target is the collecting tube of the nephron
organisms that can live without oxygen in the environment
part of the digestive tract of many animals. it is the site of mechanical digestion
part of a flowering plant that produces male gametophytes
muscles of glands
certain traits whose expression varies, depending on the parent from which they are inherited. diseases that result from imprinting are prader-willi and angelman sydromes
a channel in a plasma membrane for one specific ion, such as sodium or calcium. in the terminal branch of a neuron, it is responsible for the release of neurotransmitter into the s
produced by B lymphocytes and destroy antigens
a regulatory protein whose levels fluctuate cyclically in a cell, in part, related to the timing of cell division
any process that absorbs energy
the breakdown of glucose into pyruvic acid with the release of a small amount of atp without oxygen
a nucleotide that binds with guanine. a pyrimidine
the embryonic germ layer that gives rise to the viscera, the digestive tract, and other internal organs
division of the cytoplasm
part of the light-dependent reactions in photosynthesis where electrons travel on a short-circuit pathway to replenish ATP levels only
a shallow groove in the cell surface in an animal cell where cytokinesis is taking place
the external surface of a plasma membrane that is important for cell-to-cell communicatoin
definitionterm
part of the digestive tract of many animals where food is temporarily stored until it can continue to the gizzard
factors, such as starvation, that increase directly as the population density increases
a digestive cavity with only one opening, characteristic of cnidarians
the preferential growth of a plant upward (toward the sun), rather than laterally
a neurotransmitter
a cross between individuals that are hybrid for two different traits, such as height and seed color
the three-base sequence of nucleotides in mRNA
the particular three-dimensional shape of a protein molecule
the positive pole in an electrolytic cell
the presence of two or more phenotypically distinct forms of a trait in a single population, such as two varieties of peppered moths, black ones and white ones
a complex network of protein filaments that gives a cell its shape and helps it move
the process of leaves falling of a tree or bush.
the negative pole in an electrolytic cell
the process by which ATP is produced from the flow of protons through an ATP-synthetase channel in the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast during the light reactions of photosynt
thin protein filaments that interact with myosin filaments in the contraction of skeletal muscle
this theory states that mitochondria and chloroplasts were once free-living prokaryotes that took up residence inside larger prokaryotic cells in a permanent, symbiotic relationshi
plant cells with unevenly thickened primary cell walls that are alive at maturity and that function to support the growing stem
stinging cells in all cnidarians
a symbiotic relationship where one organism benefits and one is unaware of the other organism (+/o)
an enzyme found in red blood cells that catalyzes the conversion of carbon dioxide and water into carbonic acid as part of the system that maintains blood pH at 7.4
produces antibodies
translates as 'true feeding'. a process begun by the entrance of large amounts of nutrients into a lake, ultimately ending with the death of the lake
change in the gene pool due to chance
one of two structures in animal cells involved with cell division
the copycat coloration where one harmless animal mimics the coloration of one that is poisonous. an example is the viceroy butterfly, which is harmless but looks similar to the mon
the formation of new species caused by separation by geography, such as mountain ranges, canyons, rivers, lakes, glaciers, altitude, or longitude
the monoploid generation of a plant
the branch of the vertebrate peripheral nervous system that controls involuntary muscles
the types of genes an organism has
the sensory processes of a neuron
animals that can raise their body temperature, although they cannot maintain a stable body temperature
all the organisms living in one area
cells that line the gastrovascular cavity in cnidarians
a hormone that helps control metamorphosis in insects
connected to each sieve tube member in the phloem and nurtures the sieve tube elements
photosynthetic plants that grow on other trees rather than supporting themselves
a neurotransmitter
accessory photosynthetic pigment that is yellow or orange
an enzyme that breaks down excess neurotransmitter
accessory photosynthetic pigment that expands the wavelengths of light that can be used to pwer photosynthesis
the food source for the growing embryo in monocots
carbon becomes fixed or incorporated into a molecule of PGAL. This happens during the Calvin cycle
a model of the food chain that demonstrates the interaction of the organisms and the loss of energy
hairlike extensions from the cytoplasm used for cell locomotion
a protein that serves as a catalyst
a variation in some trait of individuals coordinated with some gradual change in temperature or other factor over a geographic range
a specialized region in a chromosome that holds the two chromatids together
a scientific naming system where every organism has a unique name consisting of two parts: a genus name and a species name
an example of genetic drift that results from the reduction of a population, typically by natural disaster. The surviving population is no longer genetically representative of the
a primitive form of sexual reproduction that is characteristic of bacteria and some algae
either of the two strands of a replicated chromosome joined at the centromere
the range of expression of mutant genes
part of the developing embryo that will become the upper part of the stem and the leaves of a plant
an innate, highly stereotypic behavior, which when begun, is continued to completion, no matter how useless
programmed cell death
plant hormone that promotes stem elongation
the theory that organisms descend from a common ancestor gradually, over a long period of time, in a linear or branching fashion
the internal membranes of mitochondria that are the site of the electron transport chain
the limit to the number of individuals that can occupy one area at a particular time
evolution that is caused by two species that interact and influence each other. all predator-prey relationships are examples
a fundamental mechanism in the development of immunity. antigenic molecules select or bind to specific B or T lymphocytes, activating them. The B cells then differentiate into plas
structures, such as a bat's wing and a fly's wing, that have the same function, but the similarity is superficial and reflects an adaptation to similar environments, not a common a
Plant hormone that inhibits growth, closes stomates during times of water stress and counteracts breaking of dormancy.
collar cells that line the body cavity and have flagella that circulate water in sponges
a rapid change in the membrane of a nerve or muscle cell when a stimulus causes an impulse to pass.
a trophic process in which substances in the food chain become more concentrated with each link of the food chain

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