AP Biology Terms (ABA- Grana)

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the technology of manipulating genes for practical purposes
an electrical state where the inside of an excitable cell is made less negative compared with the outside. if an axon is depolarized, an impulse is passing
the embryonic germ layer that gives rise to the viscera, the digestive tract, and other internal organs
a variation in some trait of individuals coordinated with some gradual change in temperature or other factor over a geographic range
the bright, often red or orange coloration of poisonous animals as a warning that predators should avoid them
the three-base sequence of nucleotides at one end of a tRNA molecule
cells that nourish neurons
the main component of the waxy cuticle covering leaves to minimize water loss
an organelle in eukaryotes that lies near the nucleus and that packages and secretes substances for the cell
the formation of new species caused by separation by geography, such as mountain ranges, canyons, rivers, lakes, glaciers, altitude, or longitude
strands for expressed sequences of DNA. these are genes
the food source for the growing embryo in monocots
the sequential rebuilding of an entire ecosystem after a disaster
this theory states that mitochondria and chloroplasts were once free-living prokaryotes that took up residence inside larger prokaryotic cells in a permanent, symbiotic relationshi
a hormone released by the hypothalamus that stimulates other glands to release their hormones
an enzyme found in red blood cells that catalyzes the conversion of carbon dioxide and water into carbonic acid as part of the system that maintains blood pH at 7.4
a virus that attacks bacteria
plant cells with unevenly thickened primary cell walls that are alive at maturity and that function to support the growing stem
factors, such as starvation, that increase directly as the population density increases
released by the posterior pituitary, its target is the collecting tube of the nephron
the breakdown of glucose into pyruvic acid with the release of a small amount of atp without oxygen
a chemical secreted by blood vessel endothelium and monocytes during an immune response to attract phagocytes to an area
a mechanism or strategy to maximize the rate of diffusion. this is a major strategy to transport substances across membranes passively, such as in the nephron
found in sponges, these cells are mobile and perform numerous functions, including reporduction, transport of food particles to nonfeeding cells, and secretion of material that for
part of a flowering plant that produces male gametophytes
part of the digestive tract of many animals where food is temporarily stored until it can continue to the gizzard
evolution that occurs when a population becomes isolated (for any reason) from the rest of the species, becomes exposed to new selective pressures, and evolves into a new species
a form of selection that acts to decrease the frequency of the more-common phenotypes and increase the frequency of the less-common types
thin protein filaments that interact with myosin filaments in the contraction of skeletal muscle
accessory photosynthetic pigment that expands the wavelengths of light that can be used to pwer photosynthesis
plant hormone that promotes stem elongation
the common type of plant
an inactivated X chromosome seen as a condensed body lying just inside the nuclear envelope
two separate genes control one trait, but one gene masks the expression of the other gene
membranes in the chloroplast where the light reactions occur
a kinase whose activity depends on the level of dyclins and what controls the timing of cell division
a coenzyme that carries protons or electrons from glycolysis and the krebs cycle to the electron transport chain
organisms, like bacteria and fungi, that recycle nutrients back to the soil
any process that absorbs energy
hairlike extensions from the cytoplasm used for cell locomotion
the monoploid generation of a plant
the negative pole in an electrolytic cell
one of two structures in animal cells involved with cell division
a characteristic of normal cells grown in culture that causes cell division to cease when the culture becomes too crowded
the tightly packed layer of cells that surrounds the vascular cylinder in the root of a plant
consumers that derive their nutrition from nonliving, organic matter
a specialized region in a chromosome that holds the two chromatids together
accessory photosynthetic pigment that is yellow or orange
a neurotransmitter
organisms that can live without oxygen in the environment
a nucleotide that binds with guanine. a pyrimidine
the type of immunity when an individual makes his or her own antibodies after being ill and recovering or after being given an immunization or vaccine
force of attraction between molecules of water due to hydrogen bonding
cells that line the gastrovascular cavity in cnidarians
branching evolution occurs when a new species branches out from a parent
the theory that organisms descend from a common ancestor gradually, over a long period of time, in a linear or branching fashion
a channel in a plasma membrane for one specific ion, such as sodium or calcium. in the terminal branch of a neuron, it is responsible for the release of neurotransmitter into the s
the limit to the number of individuals that can occupy one area at a particular time
a double membrane down the midline of a dividing plant cell between which the new cell wall will form
very large regions of the earth, named for the climatic conditions and for the predominant vegetation. ex, marine, tropical rain forest, and desert
convert nitrates (NO3) into free atmospheric nitrogen
a hormone that helps control metamorphosis in insects
a neurotransmitter
a complex network of protein filaments that gives a cell its shape and helps it move
the protein shell that encloses viral DNA or RNA
muscles of glands
an example of genetic drift that results from the reduction of a population, typically by natural disaster. The surviving population is no longer genetically representative of the
the global ecosystem
genes outside the nucleus, in the mitochondria and chloroplasts
produces antibodies
evolution that is caused by two species that interact and influence each other. all predator-prey relationships are examples
any abnormal number of a particular chromosome.
selection that increases the extreme types in a population at the expense of intermediate forms
a cross between individuals that are hybrid for two different traits, such as height and seed color
an enzyme that permanently attaches pieces of DNA together
an example of genetic drift, when a small population breaks away from a larger one to colonize a new area; it is most likely not genetically representative of the original larger p
organisms that sythesize their own nutrients
the sensory processes of a neuron
a digestive cavity with only one opening, characteristic of cnidarians
evolution that occurs when unrelated species occupy the same environment and are subjected to similar selective pressures and show similar adaptations
a chromosomal mutation where a fragment is lost during cell division
the external surface of a plasma membrane that is important for cell-to-cell communicatoin
the emergence of numerous species from one common ancestor introduced into an environment
cloaks the capsid of a virus and aids the virus in infecting the host. derived from membranes of host cells
a symbiotic relationship where one organism benefits and one is unaware of the other organism (+/o)
structures, such as a bat's wing and a fly's wing, that have the same function, but the similarity is superficial and reflects an adaptation to similar environments, not a common a
the site of photosynthesis in plant cells
located in the cristae of mitochondria and thylakoids of chloroplasts, these are membrane channels that allow protons to diffuse down a gradient in the production of ATP
Plant hormone that inhibits growth, closes stomates during times of water stress and counteracts breaking of dormancy.
the germ layer that gives rise to the skin and vervous system
one type of learning in which one stimulus becomes linked, through experience, to another
an enzyme produced in all cells to decompose hydrogen peroxide, a by-product of cell respiration
a nine-step, anaerobic process that breaks down one glucose molecule into two pyruvic acid molecules and four ATP
a subdivision of flowering plants whose members possess an embryonic seed leaf made of two halves or cotyledons
the copycat coloration where one harmless animal mimics the coloration of one that is poisonous. an example is the viceroy butterfly, which is harmless but looks similar to the mon
a gaseous plant hormone that promotes fruit ripening and opposes auxins in its actions
a plant with anatomical and biochemical modifications for a dry environment, examples are sugarcane and corn
caused by pollutants in the air from combustion of fossil fuels. The pH is less than 5.6
the positive pole in an electrolytic cell
a cyclical metabolic pathway in the dark reactions of photosynthesis that fixes or incorporates carbon into carbon dioxide and produces phosphoglyceraldehyde (PGAL), a three-carbon
a ripened ovary of a flowering plant
two genes interact to produce a novel phenotype
carbon becomes fixed or incorporated into a molecule of PGAL. This happens during the Calvin cycle
part of the digestive tract of many animals. it is the site of mechanical digestion
any process that gives of energy
a hormone released from the anterior pituitary that stimulates the ovarian follicle
acts as an antenna pigment, expanding the wavelengths of light that can be used to power photosythensis
structures in plants that produce female gametes
a type of photosynthetic plant cell that is tightly packed around the veins in a leaf
the branch of the vertebrate peripheral nervous system that controls involuntary muscles
a system of transport channels inside a eukaryotic cell
the kingdom that consists of heterotrophs that carry out extracellular digestion and have cell walls made of chitin
the site at which a crossover and recombination occurs
the internal membranes of mitochondria that are the site of the electron transport chain
selection where one phenotype replaced another in the gene pool
an enzyme that breaks down excess neurotransmitter
gland in the brain that releases many hormones, including growth hormone, luteinizing hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and follicle-stimulating ho
the preferential growth of a plant upward (toward the sun), rather than laterally
the range of expression of mutant genes
the presence of two or more phenotypically distinct forms of a trait in a single population, such as two varieties of peppered moths, black ones and white ones
stinging cells in all cnidarians
a trophic process in which substances in the food chain become more concentrated with each link of the food chain
the pathway along which food is transferred from one trophic level to the next
the final, stable community in an ecosystem
a form of photosynthesis that is an adaptation to dry conditions; stomates remain closed during the day and open only at night
nonvascular plants like mosses
cells with internal membranes
nonliving and includes temperature, water, sunlight, wind, rocks, and soil.
a scientific naming system where every organism has a unique name consisting of two parts: a genus name and a species name
a plant hormone that stimulates stem elongation and growth, enhances apical dominance, and is responsible for tropisms
a neurotransmitter
division of the cytoplasm
part of the light-dependent reactions in photosynthesis where electrons travel on a short-circuit pathway to replenish ATP levels only
the general term for the overall movement of a fluid in one direction in an organism, such as sap flowing in a tree or blood flowing in a human
structures in plants that produce male gametes
a regulatory protein whose levels fluctuate cyclically in a cell, in part, related to the timing of cell division
all the organisms living in one area
certain traits whose expression varies, depending on the parent from which they are inherited. diseases that result from imprinting are prader-willi and angelman sydromes
the network of cell walls and intercellular spaces within a plant body that permits extensive extracellular movement of water within a plant
the three-base sequence of nucleotides in mRNA
animals that can raise their body temperature, although they cannot maintain a stable body temperature
produced by B lymphocytes and destroy antigens
collar cells that line the body cavity and have flagella that circulate water in sponges
translates as 'true feeding'. a process begun by the entrance of large amounts of nutrients into a lake, ultimately ending with the death of the lake
the reciprocal exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids during synapsis of meiosis I
a type of enzyme that changes its conformation and its function in response to a modifier.
a nucleotide that binds to thymine and uracil. it is a purine.
animals in which the blastopore becomes the anus during early embryonic development
the process by which cells expel substances
photosynthetic plants that grow on other trees rather than supporting themselves
a molecule with both a positive and negative pole.
the tail-like structure that propels some single-celled organisms. consist of microtubuls
all the organisms in a given area as well as the abiotic (nonliving) factors with which they interact
an organism whose body is made of only two cell layers, the ectoderm and the endoderm. the two are connected by a noncellular layer called the mesoglea. includes porifera and cnida
the particular three-dimensional shape of a protein molecule
the process by which ATP is produced from the flow of protons through an ATP-synthetase channel in the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast during the light reactions of photosynt
a chemical fixative often used in the preparation of tissue for electron microscopy
a type of lymphocyte that kills infected body cells and cancer cells
one of many neurotransmitters.
the interconnected feeding relationships of organisms in an ecosystem
a model of the food chain that demonstrates the interaction of the organisms and the loss of energy
an important part of the immune system, a group of about twenty proteins that assists in lysing cells
the movement of alleles into or out of a population
the process of leaves falling of a tree or bush.
plant hormone that stimulates cell division and delays senescence (aging)
a genetic condition caused by trisomy 21
the expression of two or more genes where each depends upon the alleles of the other in order for a trait to show
fat tissue
an iron-containing pigment present in the electron transport chain of all aerobes
a rapid change in the membrane of a nerve or muscle cell when a stimulus causes an impulse to pass.
flowering plants.
programmed cell death
change in the gene pool due to chance
either of the two strands of a replicated chromosome joined at the centromere
one type of associative learning that is widely accepted because of the ingenious work of Ivan Pavlov associating a novel stimulus with an innately recognized one
part of the developing embryo that will become the upper part of the stem and the leaves of a plant
a primitive form of sexual reproduction that is characteristic of bacteria and some algae
a structural polysaccharide found in the cell walls
a protective jacket of cells that prevents some plants' gametes and zygotes from drying out
a fundamental mechanism in the development of immunity. antigenic molecules select or bind to specific B or T lymphocytes, activating them. The B cells then differentiate into plas
the first 12 inches (30 cm) of the human small intestine
the maximum rate at which a population could increase under ideal conditions
participates directly in the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis
the type of inheritance when there is no trait that dominates over another; both traits show
a sequence of membrane proteins that carry electrons through a series of redox reactions to produce ATP
an innate, highly stereotypic behavior, which when begun, is continued to completion, no matter how useless
the complex of DNA and protein that makes up a eukaryotic chromosome.
chemicals that stimulate helper T cells, B cells, and killer T cells
the genus name for the bacterium that produces botulism, a very serious form of food poisoning
another name for the krebs cycle
a protein that serves as a catalyst
the body cavity that arises from within the mesoderm and is completely surrounded by mesoderm tissue
one type of mutation caused by a deletion or addition where the entire reading sequence of DNA is shifted
a synonym for anaerobic respiration. the anaerobic breakdown of glucose into pyruvic acid
a shallow groove in the cell surface in an animal cell where cytokinesis is taking place
factors, such as earthquakes, whose occurrence is unrelated to the population density
the intentional selection of specific individuals with desired traits for breeding
the most common lethal genetic disease in the US; characterized by a buildup of extracellular fluid in the lungs and digestive tract
the types of genes an organism has
connected to each sieve tube member in the phloem and nurtures the sieve tube elements

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