AP Biology Terms (ABA- Grana)

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muscles of glands
either of the two strands of a replicated chromosome joined at the centromere
one of two structures in animal cells involved with cell division
a system of transport channels inside a eukaryotic cell
a primitive form of sexual reproduction that is characteristic of bacteria and some algae
the process by which ATP is produced from the flow of protons through an ATP-synthetase channel in the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast during the light reactions of photosynt
the breakdown of glucose into pyruvic acid with the release of a small amount of atp without oxygen
an iron-containing pigment present in the electron transport chain of all aerobes
membranes in the chloroplast where the light reactions occur
connected to each sieve tube member in the phloem and nurtures the sieve tube elements
programmed cell death
selection where one phenotype replaced another in the gene pool
the complex of DNA and protein that makes up a eukaryotic chromosome.
a nucleotide that binds to thymine and uracil. it is a purine.
photosynthetic plants that grow on other trees rather than supporting themselves
convert nitrates (NO3) into free atmospheric nitrogen
a synonym for anaerobic respiration. the anaerobic breakdown of glucose into pyruvic acid
factors, such as earthquakes, whose occurrence is unrelated to the population density
the type of inheritance when there is no trait that dominates over another; both traits show
the copycat coloration where one harmless animal mimics the coloration of one that is poisonous. an example is the viceroy butterfly, which is harmless but looks similar to the mon
a hormone released from the anterior pituitary that stimulates the ovarian follicle
a rapid change in the membrane of a nerve or muscle cell when a stimulus causes an impulse to pass.
two genes interact to produce a novel phenotype
translates as 'true feeding'. a process begun by the entrance of large amounts of nutrients into a lake, ultimately ending with the death of the lake
a fundamental mechanism in the development of immunity. antigenic molecules select or bind to specific B or T lymphocytes, activating them. The B cells then differentiate into plas
the sequential rebuilding of an entire ecosystem after a disaster
the positive pole in an electrolytic cell
the pathway along which food is transferred from one trophic level to the next
the three-base sequence of nucleotides at one end of a tRNA molecule
organisms that can live without oxygen in the environment
another name for the krebs cycle
the network of cell walls and intercellular spaces within a plant body that permits extensive extracellular movement of water within a plant
part of the developing embryo that will become the upper part of the stem and the leaves of a plant
the embryonic germ layer that gives rise to the viscera, the digestive tract, and other internal organs
a type of enzyme that changes its conformation and its function in response to a modifier.
a chromosomal mutation where a fragment is lost during cell division
the process by which cells expel substances
participates directly in the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis
a shallow groove in the cell surface in an animal cell where cytokinesis is taking place
the common type of plant
the formation of new species caused by separation by geography, such as mountain ranges, canyons, rivers, lakes, glaciers, altitude, or longitude
structures, such as a bat's wing and a fly's wing, that have the same function, but the similarity is superficial and reflects an adaptation to similar environments, not a common a
a plant hormone that stimulates stem elongation and growth, enhances apical dominance, and is responsible for tropisms
change in the gene pool due to chance
the first 12 inches (30 cm) of the human small intestine
a virus that attacks bacteria
a plant with anatomical and biochemical modifications for a dry environment, examples are sugarcane and corn
one type of mutation caused by a deletion or addition where the entire reading sequence of DNA is shifted
structures in plants that produce male gametes
plant hormone that promotes stem elongation
a type of lymphocyte that kills infected body cells and cancer cells
acts as an antenna pigment, expanding the wavelengths of light that can be used to power photosythensis
found in sponges, these cells are mobile and perform numerous functions, including reporduction, transport of food particles to nonfeeding cells, and secretion of material that for
a model of the food chain that demonstrates the interaction of the organisms and the loss of energy
gland in the brain that releases many hormones, including growth hormone, luteinizing hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and follicle-stimulating ho
the negative pole in an electrolytic cell
animals that can raise their body temperature, although they cannot maintain a stable body temperature
a type of photosynthetic plant cell that is tightly packed around the veins in a leaf
the emergence of numerous species from one common ancestor introduced into an environment
an electrical state where the inside of an excitable cell is made less negative compared with the outside. if an axon is depolarized, an impulse is passing
the most common lethal genetic disease in the US; characterized by a buildup of extracellular fluid in the lungs and digestive tract
a mechanism or strategy to maximize the rate of diffusion. this is a major strategy to transport substances across membranes passively, such as in the nephron
one type of learning in which one stimulus becomes linked, through experience, to another
the maximum rate at which a population could increase under ideal conditions
the reciprocal exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids during synapsis of meiosis I
a form of selection that acts to decrease the frequency of the more-common phenotypes and increase the frequency of the less-common types
nonvascular plants like mosses
the particular three-dimensional shape of a protein molecule
an innate, highly stereotypic behavior, which when begun, is continued to completion, no matter how useless
the three-base sequence of nucleotides in mRNA
produces antibodies
the process of leaves falling of a tree or bush.
Plant hormone that inhibits growth, closes stomates during times of water stress and counteracts breaking of dormancy.
one of many neurotransmitters.
a nucleotide that binds with guanine. a pyrimidine
the theory that organisms descend from a common ancestor gradually, over a long period of time, in a linear or branching fashion
cells that line the gastrovascular cavity in cnidarians
stinging cells in all cnidarians
an example of genetic drift that results from the reduction of a population, typically by natural disaster. The surviving population is no longer genetically representative of the
a subdivision of flowering plants whose members possess an embryonic seed leaf made of two halves or cotyledons
the final, stable community in an ecosystem
evolution that occurs when a population becomes isolated (for any reason) from the rest of the species, becomes exposed to new selective pressures, and evolves into a new species
any process that absorbs energy
a genetic condition caused by trisomy 21
the kingdom that consists of heterotrophs that carry out extracellular digestion and have cell walls made of chitin
a scientific naming system where every organism has a unique name consisting of two parts: a genus name and a species name
an important part of the immune system, a group of about twenty proteins that assists in lysing cells
a chemical fixative often used in the preparation of tissue for electron microscopy
part of the light-dependent reactions in photosynthesis where electrons travel on a short-circuit pathway to replenish ATP levels only
cells with internal membranes
a gaseous plant hormone that promotes fruit ripening and opposes auxins in its actions
selection that increases the extreme types in a population at the expense of intermediate forms
the movement of alleles into or out of a population
any abnormal number of a particular chromosome.
genes outside the nucleus, in the mitochondria and chloroplasts
a neurotransmitter
the protein shell that encloses viral DNA or RNA
an enzyme found in red blood cells that catalyzes the conversion of carbon dioxide and water into carbonic acid as part of the system that maintains blood pH at 7.4
a neurotransmitter
part of the digestive tract of many animals where food is temporarily stored until it can continue to the gizzard
a digestive cavity with only one opening, characteristic of cnidarians
a kinase whose activity depends on the level of dyclins and what controls the timing of cell division
released by the posterior pituitary, its target is the collecting tube of the nephron
a characteristic of normal cells grown in culture that causes cell division to cease when the culture becomes too crowded
a structural polysaccharide found in the cell walls
the tightly packed layer of cells that surrounds the vascular cylinder in the root of a plant
factors, such as starvation, that increase directly as the population density increases
the internal membranes of mitochondria that are the site of the electron transport chain
the types of genes an organism has
the site at which a crossover and recombination occurs
one type of associative learning that is widely accepted because of the ingenious work of Ivan Pavlov associating a novel stimulus with an innately recognized one
nonliving and includes temperature, water, sunlight, wind, rocks, and soil.
an enzyme that permanently attaches pieces of DNA together
accessory photosynthetic pigment that expands the wavelengths of light that can be used to pwer photosynthesis
an organelle in eukaryotes that lies near the nucleus and that packages and secretes substances for the cell
a cyclical metabolic pathway in the dark reactions of photosynthesis that fixes or incorporates carbon into carbon dioxide and produces phosphoglyceraldehyde (PGAL), a three-carbon
all the organisms in a given area as well as the abiotic (nonliving) factors with which they interact
plant hormone that stimulates cell division and delays senescence (aging)
a hormone that helps control metamorphosis in insects
the type of immunity when an individual makes his or her own antibodies after being ill and recovering or after being given an immunization or vaccine
any process that gives of energy
structures in plants that produce female gametes
fat tissue
a protective jacket of cells that prevents some plants' gametes and zygotes from drying out
the site of photosynthesis in plant cells
the monoploid generation of a plant
branching evolution occurs when a new species branches out from a parent
the tail-like structure that propels some single-celled organisms. consist of microtubuls
accessory photosynthetic pigment that is yellow or orange
this theory states that mitochondria and chloroplasts were once free-living prokaryotes that took up residence inside larger prokaryotic cells in a permanent, symbiotic relationshi
the limit to the number of individuals that can occupy one area at a particular time
thin protein filaments that interact with myosin filaments in the contraction of skeletal muscle
animals in which the blastopore becomes the anus during early embryonic development
the intentional selection of specific individuals with desired traits for breeding
a regulatory protein whose levels fluctuate cyclically in a cell, in part, related to the timing of cell division
the expression of two or more genes where each depends upon the alleles of the other in order for a trait to show
plant cells with unevenly thickened primary cell walls that are alive at maturity and that function to support the growing stem
the interconnected feeding relationships of organisms in an ecosystem
the bright, often red or orange coloration of poisonous animals as a warning that predators should avoid them
a trophic process in which substances in the food chain become more concentrated with each link of the food chain
the genus name for the bacterium that produces botulism, a very serious form of food poisoning
hairlike extensions from the cytoplasm used for cell locomotion
an inactivated X chromosome seen as a condensed body lying just inside the nuclear envelope
a complex network of protein filaments that gives a cell its shape and helps it move
organisms, like bacteria and fungi, that recycle nutrients back to the soil
a channel in a plasma membrane for one specific ion, such as sodium or calcium. in the terminal branch of a neuron, it is responsible for the release of neurotransmitter into the s
part of the digestive tract of many animals. it is the site of mechanical digestion
very large regions of the earth, named for the climatic conditions and for the predominant vegetation. ex, marine, tropical rain forest, and desert
all the organisms living in one area
collar cells that line the body cavity and have flagella that circulate water in sponges
the food source for the growing embryo in monocots
an enzyme that breaks down excess neurotransmitter
evolution that occurs when unrelated species occupy the same environment and are subjected to similar selective pressures and show similar adaptations
two separate genes control one trait, but one gene masks the expression of the other gene
the sensory processes of a neuron
chemicals that stimulate helper T cells, B cells, and killer T cells
the external surface of a plasma membrane that is important for cell-to-cell communicatoin
a sequence of membrane proteins that carry electrons through a series of redox reactions to produce ATP
a double membrane down the midline of a dividing plant cell between which the new cell wall will form
a specialized region in a chromosome that holds the two chromatids together
consumers that derive their nutrition from nonliving, organic matter
the range of expression of mutant genes
a ripened ovary of a flowering plant
organisms that sythesize their own nutrients
force of attraction between molecules of water due to hydrogen bonding
produced by B lymphocytes and destroy antigens
a variation in some trait of individuals coordinated with some gradual change in temperature or other factor over a geographic range
an enzyme produced in all cells to decompose hydrogen peroxide, a by-product of cell respiration
the general term for the overall movement of a fluid in one direction in an organism, such as sap flowing in a tree or blood flowing in a human
division of the cytoplasm
caused by pollutants in the air from combustion of fossil fuels. The pH is less than 5.6
a symbiotic relationship where one organism benefits and one is unaware of the other organism (+/o)
a cross between individuals that are hybrid for two different traits, such as height and seed color
evolution that is caused by two species that interact and influence each other. all predator-prey relationships are examples
a molecule with both a positive and negative pole.
the technology of manipulating genes for practical purposes
certain traits whose expression varies, depending on the parent from which they are inherited. diseases that result from imprinting are prader-willi and angelman sydromes
the presence of two or more phenotypically distinct forms of a trait in a single population, such as two varieties of peppered moths, black ones and white ones
carbon becomes fixed or incorporated into a molecule of PGAL. This happens during the Calvin cycle
cells that nourish neurons
a protein that serves as a catalyst
the global ecosystem
the preferential growth of a plant upward (toward the sun), rather than laterally
an example of genetic drift, when a small population breaks away from a larger one to colonize a new area; it is most likely not genetically representative of the original larger p
a neurotransmitter
strands for expressed sequences of DNA. these are genes
a form of photosynthesis that is an adaptation to dry conditions; stomates remain closed during the day and open only at night
the body cavity that arises from within the mesoderm and is completely surrounded by mesoderm tissue
part of a flowering plant that produces male gametophytes
a nine-step, anaerobic process that breaks down one glucose molecule into two pyruvic acid molecules and four ATP
located in the cristae of mitochondria and thylakoids of chloroplasts, these are membrane channels that allow protons to diffuse down a gradient in the production of ATP
the main component of the waxy cuticle covering leaves to minimize water loss
an organism whose body is made of only two cell layers, the ectoderm and the endoderm. the two are connected by a noncellular layer called the mesoglea. includes porifera and cnida
flowering plants.
the germ layer that gives rise to the skin and vervous system
the branch of the vertebrate peripheral nervous system that controls involuntary muscles
a hormone released by the hypothalamus that stimulates other glands to release their hormones
a coenzyme that carries protons or electrons from glycolysis and the krebs cycle to the electron transport chain
a chemical secreted by blood vessel endothelium and monocytes during an immune response to attract phagocytes to an area
cloaks the capsid of a virus and aids the virus in infecting the host. derived from membranes of host cells

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