AP Biology Terms (ABA- Grana)

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a cyclical metabolic pathway in the dark reactions of photosynthesis that fixes or incorporates carbon into carbon dioxide and produces phosphoglyceraldehyde (PGAL), a three-carbon
hairlike extensions from the cytoplasm used for cell locomotion
division of the cytoplasm
translates as 'true feeding'. a process begun by the entrance of large amounts of nutrients into a lake, ultimately ending with the death of the lake
a model of the food chain that demonstrates the interaction of the organisms and the loss of energy
an enzyme found in red blood cells that catalyzes the conversion of carbon dioxide and water into carbonic acid as part of the system that maintains blood pH at 7.4
an enzyme that breaks down excess neurotransmitter
one of two structures in animal cells involved with cell division
the maximum rate at which a population could increase under ideal conditions
structures, such as a bat's wing and a fly's wing, that have the same function, but the similarity is superficial and reflects an adaptation to similar environments, not a common a
the process by which cells expel substances
carbon becomes fixed or incorporated into a molecule of PGAL. This happens during the Calvin cycle
a shallow groove in the cell surface in an animal cell where cytokinesis is taking place
a coenzyme that carries protons or electrons from glycolysis and the krebs cycle to the electron transport chain
the tail-like structure that propels some single-celled organisms. consist of microtubuls
a rapid change in the membrane of a nerve or muscle cell when a stimulus causes an impulse to pass.
a subdivision of flowering plants whose members possess an embryonic seed leaf made of two halves or cotyledons
the site at which a crossover and recombination occurs
an example of genetic drift that results from the reduction of a population, typically by natural disaster. The surviving population is no longer genetically representative of the
participates directly in the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis
a complex network of protein filaments that gives a cell its shape and helps it move
the sensory processes of a neuron
a plant hormone that stimulates stem elongation and growth, enhances apical dominance, and is responsible for tropisms
a virus that attacks bacteria
the breakdown of glucose into pyruvic acid with the release of a small amount of atp without oxygen
structures in plants that produce male gametes
a channel in a plasma membrane for one specific ion, such as sodium or calcium. in the terminal branch of a neuron, it is responsible for the release of neurotransmitter into the s
the process of leaves falling of a tree or bush.
a digestive cavity with only one opening, characteristic of cnidarians
factors, such as starvation, that increase directly as the population density increases
force of attraction between molecules of water due to hydrogen bonding
a chemical secreted by blood vessel endothelium and monocytes during an immune response to attract phagocytes to an area
the external surface of a plasma membrane that is important for cell-to-cell communicatoin
strands for expressed sequences of DNA. these are genes
cloaks the capsid of a virus and aids the virus in infecting the host. derived from membranes of host cells
chemicals that stimulate helper T cells, B cells, and killer T cells
an important part of the immune system, a group of about twenty proteins that assists in lysing cells
released by the posterior pituitary, its target is the collecting tube of the nephron
a molecule with both a positive and negative pole.
a protective jacket of cells that prevents some plants' gametes and zygotes from drying out
located in the cristae of mitochondria and thylakoids of chloroplasts, these are membrane channels that allow protons to diffuse down a gradient in the production of ATP
a type of enzyme that changes its conformation and its function in response to a modifier.
connected to each sieve tube member in the phloem and nurtures the sieve tube elements
a protein that serves as a catalyst
the preferential growth of a plant upward (toward the sun), rather than laterally
the copycat coloration where one harmless animal mimics the coloration of one that is poisonous. an example is the viceroy butterfly, which is harmless but looks similar to the mon
evolution that occurs when a population becomes isolated (for any reason) from the rest of the species, becomes exposed to new selective pressures, and evolves into a new species
an iron-containing pigment present in the electron transport chain of all aerobes
one of many neurotransmitters.
a gaseous plant hormone that promotes fruit ripening and opposes auxins in its actions
cells that nourish neurons
produced by B lymphocytes and destroy antigens
a nucleotide that binds to thymine and uracil. it is a purine.
a mechanism or strategy to maximize the rate of diffusion. this is a major strategy to transport substances across membranes passively, such as in the nephron
fat tissue
part of the digestive tract of many animals. it is the site of mechanical digestion
the movement of alleles into or out of a population
the site of photosynthesis in plant cells
the type of inheritance when there is no trait that dominates over another; both traits show
membranes in the chloroplast where the light reactions occur
any process that absorbs energy
animals that can raise their body temperature, although they cannot maintain a stable body temperature
one type of associative learning that is widely accepted because of the ingenious work of Ivan Pavlov associating a novel stimulus with an innately recognized one
a trophic process in which substances in the food chain become more concentrated with each link of the food chain
a hormone released by the hypothalamus that stimulates other glands to release their hormones
the particular three-dimensional shape of a protein molecule
a form of selection that acts to decrease the frequency of the more-common phenotypes and increase the frequency of the less-common types
a synonym for anaerobic respiration. the anaerobic breakdown of glucose into pyruvic acid
accessory photosynthetic pigment that is yellow or orange
caused by pollutants in the air from combustion of fossil fuels. The pH is less than 5.6
the types of genes an organism has
the expression of two or more genes where each depends upon the alleles of the other in order for a trait to show
any process that gives of energy
the common type of plant
the formation of new species caused by separation by geography, such as mountain ranges, canyons, rivers, lakes, glaciers, altitude, or longitude
either of the two strands of a replicated chromosome joined at the centromere
a kinase whose activity depends on the level of dyclins and what controls the timing of cell division
this theory states that mitochondria and chloroplasts were once free-living prokaryotes that took up residence inside larger prokaryotic cells in a permanent, symbiotic relationshi
a ripened ovary of a flowering plant
produces antibodies
evolution that occurs when unrelated species occupy the same environment and are subjected to similar selective pressures and show similar adaptations
another name for the krebs cycle
part of a flowering plant that produces male gametophytes
a plant with anatomical and biochemical modifications for a dry environment, examples are sugarcane and corn
part of the digestive tract of many animals where food is temporarily stored until it can continue to the gizzard
a fundamental mechanism in the development of immunity. antigenic molecules select or bind to specific B or T lymphocytes, activating them. The B cells then differentiate into plas
the branch of the vertebrate peripheral nervous system that controls involuntary muscles
a genetic condition caused by trisomy 21
any abnormal number of a particular chromosome.
an organelle in eukaryotes that lies near the nucleus and that packages and secretes substances for the cell
the monoploid generation of a plant
organisms that can live without oxygen in the environment
accessory photosynthetic pigment that expands the wavelengths of light that can be used to pwer photosynthesis
the emergence of numerous species from one common ancestor introduced into an environment
a type of photosynthetic plant cell that is tightly packed around the veins in a leaf
a variation in some trait of individuals coordinated with some gradual change in temperature or other factor over a geographic range
two separate genes control one trait, but one gene masks the expression of the other gene
thin protein filaments that interact with myosin filaments in the contraction of skeletal muscle
the most common lethal genetic disease in the US; characterized by a buildup of extracellular fluid in the lungs and digestive tract
very large regions of the earth, named for the climatic conditions and for the predominant vegetation. ex, marine, tropical rain forest, and desert
the presence of two or more phenotypically distinct forms of a trait in a single population, such as two varieties of peppered moths, black ones and white ones
the three-base sequence of nucleotides in mRNA
a nucleotide that binds with guanine. a pyrimidine
a cross between individuals that are hybrid for two different traits, such as height and seed color
cells that line the gastrovascular cavity in cnidarians
the technology of manipulating genes for practical purposes
the sequential rebuilding of an entire ecosystem after a disaster
the three-base sequence of nucleotides at one end of a tRNA molecule
a specialized region in a chromosome that holds the two chromatids together
plant hormone that stimulates cell division and delays senescence (aging)
organisms, like bacteria and fungi, that recycle nutrients back to the soil
the negative pole in an electrolytic cell
the tightly packed layer of cells that surrounds the vascular cylinder in the root of a plant
structures in plants that produce female gametes
the network of cell walls and intercellular spaces within a plant body that permits extensive extracellular movement of water within a plant
an innate, highly stereotypic behavior, which when begun, is continued to completion, no matter how useless
one type of mutation caused by a deletion or addition where the entire reading sequence of DNA is shifted
an electrical state where the inside of an excitable cell is made less negative compared with the outside. if an axon is depolarized, an impulse is passing
Plant hormone that inhibits growth, closes stomates during times of water stress and counteracts breaking of dormancy.
the internal membranes of mitochondria that are the site of the electron transport chain
the reciprocal exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids during synapsis of meiosis I
plant hormone that promotes stem elongation
all the organisms living in one area
a neurotransmitter
organisms that sythesize their own nutrients
an enzyme produced in all cells to decompose hydrogen peroxide, a by-product of cell respiration
a structural polysaccharide found in the cell walls
a sequence of membrane proteins that carry electrons through a series of redox reactions to produce ATP
stinging cells in all cnidarians
the protein shell that encloses viral DNA or RNA
gland in the brain that releases many hormones, including growth hormone, luteinizing hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and follicle-stimulating ho
acts as an antenna pigment, expanding the wavelengths of light that can be used to power photosythensis
an enzyme that permanently attaches pieces of DNA together
an organism whose body is made of only two cell layers, the ectoderm and the endoderm. the two are connected by a noncellular layer called the mesoglea. includes porifera and cnida
one type of learning in which one stimulus becomes linked, through experience, to another
evolution that is caused by two species that interact and influence each other. all predator-prey relationships are examples
a symbiotic relationship where one organism benefits and one is unaware of the other organism (+/o)
an inactivated X chromosome seen as a condensed body lying just inside the nuclear envelope
a nine-step, anaerobic process that breaks down one glucose molecule into two pyruvic acid molecules and four ATP
muscles of glands
selection that increases the extreme types in a population at the expense of intermediate forms
the type of immunity when an individual makes his or her own antibodies after being ill and recovering or after being given an immunization or vaccine
genes outside the nucleus, in the mitochondria and chloroplasts
a chromosomal mutation where a fragment is lost during cell division
a chemical fixative often used in the preparation of tissue for electron microscopy
a hormone that helps control metamorphosis in insects
the complex of DNA and protein that makes up a eukaryotic chromosome.
change in the gene pool due to chance
the interconnected feeding relationships of organisms in an ecosystem
nonliving and includes temperature, water, sunlight, wind, rocks, and soil.
found in sponges, these cells are mobile and perform numerous functions, including reporduction, transport of food particles to nonfeeding cells, and secretion of material that for
branching evolution occurs when a new species branches out from a parent
part of the light-dependent reactions in photosynthesis where electrons travel on a short-circuit pathway to replenish ATP levels only
a scientific naming system where every organism has a unique name consisting of two parts: a genus name and a species name
convert nitrates (NO3) into free atmospheric nitrogen
a system of transport channels inside a eukaryotic cell
selection where one phenotype replaced another in the gene pool
the positive pole in an electrolytic cell
the bright, often red or orange coloration of poisonous animals as a warning that predators should avoid them
the pathway along which food is transferred from one trophic level to the next
collar cells that line the body cavity and have flagella that circulate water in sponges
the intentional selection of specific individuals with desired traits for breeding
the genus name for the bacterium that produces botulism, a very serious form of food poisoning
an example of genetic drift, when a small population breaks away from a larger one to colonize a new area; it is most likely not genetically representative of the original larger p
the global ecosystem
cells with internal membranes
a hormone released from the anterior pituitary that stimulates the ovarian follicle
the main component of the waxy cuticle covering leaves to minimize water loss
the limit to the number of individuals that can occupy one area at a particular time
the embryonic germ layer that gives rise to the viscera, the digestive tract, and other internal organs
animals in which the blastopore becomes the anus during early embryonic development
flowering plants.
a primitive form of sexual reproduction that is characteristic of bacteria and some algae
a double membrane down the midline of a dividing plant cell between which the new cell wall will form
the general term for the overall movement of a fluid in one direction in an organism, such as sap flowing in a tree or blood flowing in a human
plant cells with unevenly thickened primary cell walls that are alive at maturity and that function to support the growing stem
the body cavity that arises from within the mesoderm and is completely surrounded by mesoderm tissue
two genes interact to produce a novel phenotype
part of the developing embryo that will become the upper part of the stem and the leaves of a plant
the range of expression of mutant genes
a form of photosynthesis that is an adaptation to dry conditions; stomates remain closed during the day and open only at night
the food source for the growing embryo in monocots
the first 12 inches (30 cm) of the human small intestine
the germ layer that gives rise to the skin and vervous system
the final, stable community in an ecosystem
a characteristic of normal cells grown in culture that causes cell division to cease when the culture becomes too crowded
all the organisms in a given area as well as the abiotic (nonliving) factors with which they interact
a neurotransmitter
factors, such as earthquakes, whose occurrence is unrelated to the population density
certain traits whose expression varies, depending on the parent from which they are inherited. diseases that result from imprinting are prader-willi and angelman sydromes
photosynthetic plants that grow on other trees rather than supporting themselves
programmed cell death
the theory that organisms descend from a common ancestor gradually, over a long period of time, in a linear or branching fashion
the process by which ATP is produced from the flow of protons through an ATP-synthetase channel in the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast during the light reactions of photosynt
a regulatory protein whose levels fluctuate cyclically in a cell, in part, related to the timing of cell division
consumers that derive their nutrition from nonliving, organic matter
a type of lymphocyte that kills infected body cells and cancer cells
a neurotransmitter
the kingdom that consists of heterotrophs that carry out extracellular digestion and have cell walls made of chitin
nonvascular plants like mosses

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Created May 2, 2010ReportNominate
Tags:biology, term