AP Biology Terms (ABA- Grana)

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a nine-step, anaerobic process that breaks down one glucose molecule into two pyruvic acid molecules and four ATP
a cyclical metabolic pathway in the dark reactions of photosynthesis that fixes or incorporates carbon into carbon dioxide and produces phosphoglyceraldehyde (PGAL), a three-carbon
certain traits whose expression varies, depending on the parent from which they are inherited. diseases that result from imprinting are prader-willi and angelman sydromes
the most common lethal genetic disease in the US; characterized by a buildup of extracellular fluid in the lungs and digestive tract
organisms, like bacteria and fungi, that recycle nutrients back to the soil
evolution that occurs when a population becomes isolated (for any reason) from the rest of the species, becomes exposed to new selective pressures, and evolves into a new species
the types of genes an organism has
a gaseous plant hormone that promotes fruit ripening and opposes auxins in its actions
acts as an antenna pigment, expanding the wavelengths of light that can be used to power photosythensis
a type of photosynthetic plant cell that is tightly packed around the veins in a leaf
cells that nourish neurons
a model of the food chain that demonstrates the interaction of the organisms and the loss of energy
a structural polysaccharide found in the cell walls
a characteristic of normal cells grown in culture that causes cell division to cease when the culture becomes too crowded
the negative pole in an electrolytic cell
the final, stable community in an ecosystem
the bright, often red or orange coloration of poisonous animals as a warning that predators should avoid them
a form of photosynthesis that is an adaptation to dry conditions; stomates remain closed during the day and open only at night
an enzyme that breaks down excess neurotransmitter
hairlike extensions from the cytoplasm used for cell locomotion
caused by pollutants in the air from combustion of fossil fuels. The pH is less than 5.6
fat tissue
one of two structures in animal cells involved with cell division
a synonym for anaerobic respiration. the anaerobic breakdown of glucose into pyruvic acid
the theory that organisms descend from a common ancestor gradually, over a long period of time, in a linear or branching fashion
produced by B lymphocytes and destroy antigens
a channel in a plasma membrane for one specific ion, such as sodium or calcium. in the terminal branch of a neuron, it is responsible for the release of neurotransmitter into the s
produces antibodies
a mechanism or strategy to maximize the rate of diffusion. this is a major strategy to transport substances across membranes passively, such as in the nephron
a digestive cavity with only one opening, characteristic of cnidarians
the expression of two or more genes where each depends upon the alleles of the other in order for a trait to show
force of attraction between molecules of water due to hydrogen bonding
the embryonic germ layer that gives rise to the viscera, the digestive tract, and other internal organs
an electrical state where the inside of an excitable cell is made less negative compared with the outside. if an axon is depolarized, an impulse is passing
part of the light-dependent reactions in photosynthesis where electrons travel on a short-circuit pathway to replenish ATP levels only
the monoploid generation of a plant
the site of photosynthesis in plant cells
a chromosomal mutation where a fragment is lost during cell division
the internal membranes of mitochondria that are the site of the electron transport chain
photosynthetic plants that grow on other trees rather than supporting themselves
selection where one phenotype replaced another in the gene pool
the reciprocal exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids during synapsis of meiosis I
any process that gives of energy
part of the developing embryo that will become the upper part of the stem and the leaves of a plant
a genetic condition caused by trisomy 21
the positive pole in an electrolytic cell
a virus that attacks bacteria
translates as 'true feeding'. a process begun by the entrance of large amounts of nutrients into a lake, ultimately ending with the death of the lake
a neurotransmitter
the emergence of numerous species from one common ancestor introduced into an environment
any abnormal number of a particular chromosome.
accessory photosynthetic pigment that is yellow or orange
the general term for the overall movement of a fluid in one direction in an organism, such as sap flowing in a tree or blood flowing in a human
a hormone that helps control metamorphosis in insects
the food source for the growing embryo in monocots
gland in the brain that releases many hormones, including growth hormone, luteinizing hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and follicle-stimulating ho
participates directly in the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis
the process of leaves falling of a tree or bush.
nonliving and includes temperature, water, sunlight, wind, rocks, and soil.
a hormone released from the anterior pituitary that stimulates the ovarian follicle
the range of expression of mutant genes
a cross between individuals that are hybrid for two different traits, such as height and seed color
a type of lymphocyte that kills infected body cells and cancer cells
collar cells that line the body cavity and have flagella that circulate water in sponges
factors, such as starvation, that increase directly as the population density increases
plant hormone that promotes stem elongation
division of the cytoplasm
animals that can raise their body temperature, although they cannot maintain a stable body temperature
the copycat coloration where one harmless animal mimics the coloration of one that is poisonous. an example is the viceroy butterfly, which is harmless but looks similar to the mon
the network of cell walls and intercellular spaces within a plant body that permits extensive extracellular movement of water within a plant
the common type of plant
a trophic process in which substances in the food chain become more concentrated with each link of the food chain
the technology of manipulating genes for practical purposes
the movement of alleles into or out of a population
cloaks the capsid of a virus and aids the virus in infecting the host. derived from membranes of host cells
the type of inheritance when there is no trait that dominates over another; both traits show
a shallow groove in the cell surface in an animal cell where cytokinesis is taking place
muscles of glands
a variation in some trait of individuals coordinated with some gradual change in temperature or other factor over a geographic range
located in the cristae of mitochondria and thylakoids of chloroplasts, these are membrane channels that allow protons to diffuse down a gradient in the production of ATP
structures, such as a bat's wing and a fly's wing, that have the same function, but the similarity is superficial and reflects an adaptation to similar environments, not a common a
plant cells with unevenly thickened primary cell walls that are alive at maturity and that function to support the growing stem
an iron-containing pigment present in the electron transport chain of all aerobes
a regulatory protein whose levels fluctuate cyclically in a cell, in part, related to the timing of cell division
evolution that occurs when unrelated species occupy the same environment and are subjected to similar selective pressures and show similar adaptations
all the organisms living in one area
structures in plants that produce female gametes
flowering plants.
a plant hormone that stimulates stem elongation and growth, enhances apical dominance, and is responsible for tropisms
this theory states that mitochondria and chloroplasts were once free-living prokaryotes that took up residence inside larger prokaryotic cells in a permanent, symbiotic relationshi
change in the gene pool due to chance
a protein that serves as a catalyst
a subdivision of flowering plants whose members possess an embryonic seed leaf made of two halves or cotyledons
a neurotransmitter
thin protein filaments that interact with myosin filaments in the contraction of skeletal muscle
a ripened ovary of a flowering plant
evolution that is caused by two species that interact and influence each other. all predator-prey relationships are examples
one type of associative learning that is widely accepted because of the ingenious work of Ivan Pavlov associating a novel stimulus with an innately recognized one
the limit to the number of individuals that can occupy one area at a particular time
the particular three-dimensional shape of a protein molecule
the intentional selection of specific individuals with desired traits for breeding
carbon becomes fixed or incorporated into a molecule of PGAL. This happens during the Calvin cycle
structures in plants that produce male gametes
stinging cells in all cnidarians
an important part of the immune system, a group of about twenty proteins that assists in lysing cells
the pathway along which food is transferred from one trophic level to the next
a complex network of protein filaments that gives a cell its shape and helps it move
the sequential rebuilding of an entire ecosystem after a disaster
the tail-like structure that propels some single-celled organisms. consist of microtubuls
part of a flowering plant that produces male gametophytes
a system of transport channels inside a eukaryotic cell
a chemical secreted by blood vessel endothelium and monocytes during an immune response to attract phagocytes to an area
animals in which the blastopore becomes the anus during early embryonic development
two separate genes control one trait, but one gene masks the expression of the other gene
the three-base sequence of nucleotides at one end of a tRNA molecule
factors, such as earthquakes, whose occurrence is unrelated to the population density
Plant hormone that inhibits growth, closes stomates during times of water stress and counteracts breaking of dormancy.
the main component of the waxy cuticle covering leaves to minimize water loss
the first 12 inches (30 cm) of the human small intestine
the formation of new species caused by separation by geography, such as mountain ranges, canyons, rivers, lakes, glaciers, altitude, or longitude
either of the two strands of a replicated chromosome joined at the centromere
the germ layer that gives rise to the skin and vervous system
one type of learning in which one stimulus becomes linked, through experience, to another
any process that absorbs energy
the process by which ATP is produced from the flow of protons through an ATP-synthetase channel in the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast during the light reactions of photosynt
cells with internal membranes
connected to each sieve tube member in the phloem and nurtures the sieve tube elements
convert nitrates (NO3) into free atmospheric nitrogen
a double membrane down the midline of a dividing plant cell between which the new cell wall will form
a rapid change in the membrane of a nerve or muscle cell when a stimulus causes an impulse to pass.
a primitive form of sexual reproduction that is characteristic of bacteria and some algae
the process by which cells expel substances
a fundamental mechanism in the development of immunity. antigenic molecules select or bind to specific B or T lymphocytes, activating them. The B cells then differentiate into plas
a specialized region in a chromosome that holds the two chromatids together
very large regions of the earth, named for the climatic conditions and for the predominant vegetation. ex, marine, tropical rain forest, and desert
a neurotransmitter
the presence of two or more phenotypically distinct forms of a trait in a single population, such as two varieties of peppered moths, black ones and white ones
an innate, highly stereotypic behavior, which when begun, is continued to completion, no matter how useless
the body cavity that arises from within the mesoderm and is completely surrounded by mesoderm tissue
a nucleotide that binds with guanine. a pyrimidine
the genus name for the bacterium that produces botulism, a very serious form of food poisoning
nonvascular plants like mosses
the protein shell that encloses viral DNA or RNA
a plant with anatomical and biochemical modifications for a dry environment, examples are sugarcane and corn
the sensory processes of a neuron
the global ecosystem
accessory photosynthetic pigment that expands the wavelengths of light that can be used to pwer photosynthesis
an enzyme that permanently attaches pieces of DNA together
an inactivated X chromosome seen as a condensed body lying just inside the nuclear envelope
all the organisms in a given area as well as the abiotic (nonliving) factors with which they interact
consumers that derive their nutrition from nonliving, organic matter
programmed cell death
selection that increases the extreme types in a population at the expense of intermediate forms
a form of selection that acts to decrease the frequency of the more-common phenotypes and increase the frequency of the less-common types
part of the digestive tract of many animals where food is temporarily stored until it can continue to the gizzard
cells that line the gastrovascular cavity in cnidarians
chemicals that stimulate helper T cells, B cells, and killer T cells
plant hormone that stimulates cell division and delays senescence (aging)
the preferential growth of a plant upward (toward the sun), rather than laterally
part of the digestive tract of many animals. it is the site of mechanical digestion
a kinase whose activity depends on the level of dyclins and what controls the timing of cell division
an example of genetic drift, when a small population breaks away from a larger one to colonize a new area; it is most likely not genetically representative of the original larger p
a chemical fixative often used in the preparation of tissue for electron microscopy
the three-base sequence of nucleotides in mRNA
membranes in the chloroplast where the light reactions occur
one of many neurotransmitters.
the complex of DNA and protein that makes up a eukaryotic chromosome.
another name for the krebs cycle
one type of mutation caused by a deletion or addition where the entire reading sequence of DNA is shifted
an example of genetic drift that results from the reduction of a population, typically by natural disaster. The surviving population is no longer genetically representative of the
the site at which a crossover and recombination occurs
a coenzyme that carries protons or electrons from glycolysis and the krebs cycle to the electron transport chain
two genes interact to produce a novel phenotype
the external surface of a plasma membrane that is important for cell-to-cell communicatoin
a scientific naming system where every organism has a unique name consisting of two parts: a genus name and a species name
strands for expressed sequences of DNA. these are genes
the type of immunity when an individual makes his or her own antibodies after being ill and recovering or after being given an immunization or vaccine
organisms that sythesize their own nutrients
a protective jacket of cells that prevents some plants' gametes and zygotes from drying out
a molecule with both a positive and negative pole.
an organelle in eukaryotes that lies near the nucleus and that packages and secretes substances for the cell
a sequence of membrane proteins that carry electrons through a series of redox reactions to produce ATP
a symbiotic relationship where one organism benefits and one is unaware of the other organism (+/o)
the maximum rate at which a population could increase under ideal conditions
an enzyme produced in all cells to decompose hydrogen peroxide, a by-product of cell respiration
the kingdom that consists of heterotrophs that carry out extracellular digestion and have cell walls made of chitin
branching evolution occurs when a new species branches out from a parent
an organism whose body is made of only two cell layers, the ectoderm and the endoderm. the two are connected by a noncellular layer called the mesoglea. includes porifera and cnida
an enzyme found in red blood cells that catalyzes the conversion of carbon dioxide and water into carbonic acid as part of the system that maintains blood pH at 7.4
the interconnected feeding relationships of organisms in an ecosystem
genes outside the nucleus, in the mitochondria and chloroplasts
organisms that can live without oxygen in the environment
a nucleotide that binds to thymine and uracil. it is a purine.
released by the posterior pituitary, its target is the collecting tube of the nephron
the breakdown of glucose into pyruvic acid with the release of a small amount of atp without oxygen
the tightly packed layer of cells that surrounds the vascular cylinder in the root of a plant
found in sponges, these cells are mobile and perform numerous functions, including reporduction, transport of food particles to nonfeeding cells, and secretion of material that for
the branch of the vertebrate peripheral nervous system that controls involuntary muscles
a type of enzyme that changes its conformation and its function in response to a modifier.
a hormone released by the hypothalamus that stimulates other glands to release their hormones

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