AP Biology Terms (ABA- Grana)

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a double membrane down the midline of a dividing plant cell between which the new cell wall will form
part of the developing embryo that will become the upper part of the stem and the leaves of a plant
a nucleotide that binds to thymine and uracil. it is a purine.
the global ecosystem
the technology of manipulating genes for practical purposes
a nine-step, anaerobic process that breaks down one glucose molecule into two pyruvic acid molecules and four ATP
a hormone that helps control metamorphosis in insects
the expression of two or more genes where each depends upon the alleles of the other in order for a trait to show
organisms that can live without oxygen in the environment
an organism whose body is made of only two cell layers, the ectoderm and the endoderm. the two are connected by a noncellular layer called the mesoglea. includes porifera and cnida
a hormone released by the hypothalamus that stimulates other glands to release their hormones
a subdivision of flowering plants whose members possess an embryonic seed leaf made of two halves or cotyledons
a variation in some trait of individuals coordinated with some gradual change in temperature or other factor over a geographic range
a nucleotide that binds with guanine. a pyrimidine
factors, such as starvation, that increase directly as the population density increases
animals that can raise their body temperature, although they cannot maintain a stable body temperature
the site at which a crossover and recombination occurs
a channel in a plasma membrane for one specific ion, such as sodium or calcium. in the terminal branch of a neuron, it is responsible for the release of neurotransmitter into the s
the embryonic germ layer that gives rise to the viscera, the digestive tract, and other internal organs
animals in which the blastopore becomes the anus during early embryonic development
an organelle in eukaryotes that lies near the nucleus and that packages and secretes substances for the cell
muscles of glands
produces antibodies
the sensory processes of a neuron
photosynthetic plants that grow on other trees rather than supporting themselves
fat tissue
the general term for the overall movement of a fluid in one direction in an organism, such as sap flowing in a tree or blood flowing in a human
the protein shell that encloses viral DNA or RNA
any process that gives of energy
an example of genetic drift that results from the reduction of a population, typically by natural disaster. The surviving population is no longer genetically representative of the
the process by which cells expel substances
the formation of new species caused by separation by geography, such as mountain ranges, canyons, rivers, lakes, glaciers, altitude, or longitude
plant hormone that promotes stem elongation
consumers that derive their nutrition from nonliving, organic matter
part of the light-dependent reactions in photosynthesis where electrons travel on a short-circuit pathway to replenish ATP levels only
the reciprocal exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids during synapsis of meiosis I
the process by which ATP is produced from the flow of protons through an ATP-synthetase channel in the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast during the light reactions of photosynt
the common type of plant
nonvascular plants like mosses
a ripened ovary of a flowering plant
genes outside the nucleus, in the mitochondria and chloroplasts
the process of leaves falling of a tree or bush.
selection where one phenotype replaced another in the gene pool
a digestive cavity with only one opening, characteristic of cnidarians
a trophic process in which substances in the food chain become more concentrated with each link of the food chain
a system of transport channels inside a eukaryotic cell
an iron-containing pigment present in the electron transport chain of all aerobes
an electrical state where the inside of an excitable cell is made less negative compared with the outside. if an axon is depolarized, an impulse is passing
a protein that serves as a catalyst
accessory photosynthetic pigment that is yellow or orange
hairlike extensions from the cytoplasm used for cell locomotion
an inactivated X chromosome seen as a condensed body lying just inside the nuclear envelope
the internal membranes of mitochondria that are the site of the electron transport chain
evolution that occurs when a population becomes isolated (for any reason) from the rest of the species, becomes exposed to new selective pressures, and evolves into a new species
a synonym for anaerobic respiration. the anaerobic breakdown of glucose into pyruvic acid
any process that absorbs energy
evolution that is caused by two species that interact and influence each other. all predator-prey relationships are examples
a chromosomal mutation where a fragment is lost during cell division
the branch of the vertebrate peripheral nervous system that controls involuntary muscles
a neurotransmitter
two genes interact to produce a novel phenotype
the theory that organisms descend from a common ancestor gradually, over a long period of time, in a linear or branching fashion
a primitive form of sexual reproduction that is characteristic of bacteria and some algae
the first 12 inches (30 cm) of the human small intestine
thin protein filaments that interact with myosin filaments in the contraction of skeletal muscle
a sequence of membrane proteins that carry electrons through a series of redox reactions to produce ATP
programmed cell death
a mechanism or strategy to maximize the rate of diffusion. this is a major strategy to transport substances across membranes passively, such as in the nephron
cells that line the gastrovascular cavity in cnidarians
the network of cell walls and intercellular spaces within a plant body that permits extensive extracellular movement of water within a plant
cloaks the capsid of a virus and aids the virus in infecting the host. derived from membranes of host cells
a scientific naming system where every organism has a unique name consisting of two parts: a genus name and a species name
the type of immunity when an individual makes his or her own antibodies after being ill and recovering or after being given an immunization or vaccine
a regulatory protein whose levels fluctuate cyclically in a cell, in part, related to the timing of cell division
the most common lethal genetic disease in the US; characterized by a buildup of extracellular fluid in the lungs and digestive tract
factors, such as earthquakes, whose occurrence is unrelated to the population density
evolution that occurs when unrelated species occupy the same environment and are subjected to similar selective pressures and show similar adaptations
the interconnected feeding relationships of organisms in an ecosystem
convert nitrates (NO3) into free atmospheric nitrogen
translates as 'true feeding'. a process begun by the entrance of large amounts of nutrients into a lake, ultimately ending with the death of the lake
accessory photosynthetic pigment that expands the wavelengths of light that can be used to pwer photosynthesis
flowering plants.
the food source for the growing embryo in monocots
branching evolution occurs when a new species branches out from a parent
a hormone released from the anterior pituitary that stimulates the ovarian follicle
stinging cells in all cnidarians
a fundamental mechanism in the development of immunity. antigenic molecules select or bind to specific B or T lymphocytes, activating them. The B cells then differentiate into plas
the complex of DNA and protein that makes up a eukaryotic chromosome.
the final, stable community in an ecosystem
certain traits whose expression varies, depending on the parent from which they are inherited. diseases that result from imprinting are prader-willi and angelman sydromes
membranes in the chloroplast where the light reactions occur
the types of genes an organism has
the presence of two or more phenotypically distinct forms of a trait in a single population, such as two varieties of peppered moths, black ones and white ones
collar cells that line the body cavity and have flagella that circulate water in sponges
a neurotransmitter
the positive pole in an electrolytic cell
organisms that sythesize their own nutrients
one of many neurotransmitters.
a plant with anatomical and biochemical modifications for a dry environment, examples are sugarcane and corn
a chemical secreted by blood vessel endothelium and monocytes during an immune response to attract phagocytes to an area
the bright, often red or orange coloration of poisonous animals as a warning that predators should avoid them
the particular three-dimensional shape of a protein molecule
an enzyme found in red blood cells that catalyzes the conversion of carbon dioxide and water into carbonic acid as part of the system that maintains blood pH at 7.4
either of the two strands of a replicated chromosome joined at the centromere
the maximum rate at which a population could increase under ideal conditions
a form of photosynthesis that is an adaptation to dry conditions; stomates remain closed during the day and open only at night
the tightly packed layer of cells that surrounds the vascular cylinder in the root of a plant
an enzyme produced in all cells to decompose hydrogen peroxide, a by-product of cell respiration
the three-base sequence of nucleotides at one end of a tRNA molecule
nonliving and includes temperature, water, sunlight, wind, rocks, and soil.
found in sponges, these cells are mobile and perform numerous functions, including reporduction, transport of food particles to nonfeeding cells, and secretion of material that for
two separate genes control one trait, but one gene masks the expression of the other gene
the germ layer that gives rise to the skin and vervous system
produced by B lymphocytes and destroy antigens
division of the cytoplasm
the intentional selection of specific individuals with desired traits for breeding
an enzyme that permanently attaches pieces of DNA together
part of the digestive tract of many animals where food is temporarily stored until it can continue to the gizzard
one type of learning in which one stimulus becomes linked, through experience, to another
plant hormone that stimulates cell division and delays senescence (aging)
a neurotransmitter
the monoploid generation of a plant
connected to each sieve tube member in the phloem and nurtures the sieve tube elements
an innate, highly stereotypic behavior, which when begun, is continued to completion, no matter how useless
a type of photosynthetic plant cell that is tightly packed around the veins in a leaf
gland in the brain that releases many hormones, including growth hormone, luteinizing hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and follicle-stimulating ho
a shallow groove in the cell surface in an animal cell where cytokinesis is taking place
the type of inheritance when there is no trait that dominates over another; both traits show
a chemical fixative often used in the preparation of tissue for electron microscopy
all the organisms in a given area as well as the abiotic (nonliving) factors with which they interact
the breakdown of glucose into pyruvic acid with the release of a small amount of atp without oxygen
the site of photosynthesis in plant cells
participates directly in the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis
one type of mutation caused by a deletion or addition where the entire reading sequence of DNA is shifted
one type of associative learning that is widely accepted because of the ingenious work of Ivan Pavlov associating a novel stimulus with an innately recognized one
a type of lymphocyte that kills infected body cells and cancer cells
the copycat coloration where one harmless animal mimics the coloration of one that is poisonous. an example is the viceroy butterfly, which is harmless but looks similar to the mon
structures, such as a bat's wing and a fly's wing, that have the same function, but the similarity is superficial and reflects an adaptation to similar environments, not a common a
cells that nourish neurons
selection that increases the extreme types in a population at the expense of intermediate forms
an example of genetic drift, when a small population breaks away from a larger one to colonize a new area; it is most likely not genetically representative of the original larger p
the kingdom that consists of heterotrophs that carry out extracellular digestion and have cell walls made of chitin
very large regions of the earth, named for the climatic conditions and for the predominant vegetation. ex, marine, tropical rain forest, and desert
the range of expression of mutant genes
part of a flowering plant that produces male gametophytes
a molecule with both a positive and negative pole.
Plant hormone that inhibits growth, closes stomates during times of water stress and counteracts breaking of dormancy.
a protective jacket of cells that prevents some plants' gametes and zygotes from drying out
the pathway along which food is transferred from one trophic level to the next
a structural polysaccharide found in the cell walls
structures in plants that produce male gametes
a form of selection that acts to decrease the frequency of the more-common phenotypes and increase the frequency of the less-common types
carbon becomes fixed or incorporated into a molecule of PGAL. This happens during the Calvin cycle
the tail-like structure that propels some single-celled organisms. consist of microtubuls
the body cavity that arises from within the mesoderm and is completely surrounded by mesoderm tissue
a complex network of protein filaments that gives a cell its shape and helps it move
part of the digestive tract of many animals. it is the site of mechanical digestion
strands for expressed sequences of DNA. these are genes
the three-base sequence of nucleotides in mRNA
released by the posterior pituitary, its target is the collecting tube of the nephron
caused by pollutants in the air from combustion of fossil fuels. The pH is less than 5.6
a type of enzyme that changes its conformation and its function in response to a modifier.
a gaseous plant hormone that promotes fruit ripening and opposes auxins in its actions
chemicals that stimulate helper T cells, B cells, and killer T cells
a characteristic of normal cells grown in culture that causes cell division to cease when the culture becomes too crowded
another name for the krebs cycle
one of two structures in animal cells involved with cell division
the limit to the number of individuals that can occupy one area at a particular time
the preferential growth of a plant upward (toward the sun), rather than laterally
all the organisms living in one area
the main component of the waxy cuticle covering leaves to minimize water loss
structures in plants that produce female gametes
a cross between individuals that are hybrid for two different traits, such as height and seed color
a plant hormone that stimulates stem elongation and growth, enhances apical dominance, and is responsible for tropisms
a genetic condition caused by trisomy 21
a rapid change in the membrane of a nerve or muscle cell when a stimulus causes an impulse to pass.
an enzyme that breaks down excess neurotransmitter
the movement of alleles into or out of a population
a model of the food chain that demonstrates the interaction of the organisms and the loss of energy
the sequential rebuilding of an entire ecosystem after a disaster
any abnormal number of a particular chromosome.
an important part of the immune system, a group of about twenty proteins that assists in lysing cells
cells with internal membranes
organisms, like bacteria and fungi, that recycle nutrients back to the soil
change in the gene pool due to chance
plant cells with unevenly thickened primary cell walls that are alive at maturity and that function to support the growing stem
located in the cristae of mitochondria and thylakoids of chloroplasts, these are membrane channels that allow protons to diffuse down a gradient in the production of ATP
the genus name for the bacterium that produces botulism, a very serious form of food poisoning
the emergence of numerous species from one common ancestor introduced into an environment
force of attraction between molecules of water due to hydrogen bonding
a virus that attacks bacteria
a specialized region in a chromosome that holds the two chromatids together
a kinase whose activity depends on the level of dyclins and what controls the timing of cell division
a symbiotic relationship where one organism benefits and one is unaware of the other organism (+/o)
a cyclical metabolic pathway in the dark reactions of photosynthesis that fixes or incorporates carbon into carbon dioxide and produces phosphoglyceraldehyde (PGAL), a three-carbon
acts as an antenna pigment, expanding the wavelengths of light that can be used to power photosythensis
the negative pole in an electrolytic cell
a coenzyme that carries protons or electrons from glycolysis and the krebs cycle to the electron transport chain
this theory states that mitochondria and chloroplasts were once free-living prokaryotes that took up residence inside larger prokaryotic cells in a permanent, symbiotic relationshi
the external surface of a plasma membrane that is important for cell-to-cell communicatoin

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