AP Biology Terms (ABA- Grana)

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a subdivision of flowering plants whose members possess an embryonic seed leaf made of two halves or cotyledons
a characteristic of normal cells grown in culture that causes cell division to cease when the culture becomes too crowded
evolution that is caused by two species that interact and influence each other. all predator-prey relationships are examples
an enzyme that breaks down excess neurotransmitter
a type of lymphocyte that kills infected body cells and cancer cells
a model of the food chain that demonstrates the interaction of the organisms and the loss of energy
an innate, highly stereotypic behavior, which when begun, is continued to completion, no matter how useless
a neurotransmitter
produced by B lymphocytes and destroy antigens
a digestive cavity with only one opening, characteristic of cnidarians
the external surface of a plasma membrane that is important for cell-to-cell communicatoin
consumers that derive their nutrition from nonliving, organic matter
a ripened ovary of a flowering plant
strands for expressed sequences of DNA. these are genes
a primitive form of sexual reproduction that is characteristic of bacteria and some algae
translates as 'true feeding'. a process begun by the entrance of large amounts of nutrients into a lake, ultimately ending with the death of the lake
gland in the brain that releases many hormones, including growth hormone, luteinizing hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and follicle-stimulating ho
a symbiotic relationship where one organism benefits and one is unaware of the other organism (+/o)
one of many neurotransmitters.
a synonym for anaerobic respiration. the anaerobic breakdown of glucose into pyruvic acid
the sensory processes of a neuron
the types of genes an organism has
the main component of the waxy cuticle covering leaves to minimize water loss
the reciprocal exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids during synapsis of meiosis I
the sequential rebuilding of an entire ecosystem after a disaster
a gaseous plant hormone that promotes fruit ripening and opposes auxins in its actions
the theory that organisms descend from a common ancestor gradually, over a long period of time, in a linear or branching fashion
a double membrane down the midline of a dividing plant cell between which the new cell wall will form
evolution that occurs when unrelated species occupy the same environment and are subjected to similar selective pressures and show similar adaptations
evolution that occurs when a population becomes isolated (for any reason) from the rest of the species, becomes exposed to new selective pressures, and evolves into a new species
carbon becomes fixed or incorporated into a molecule of PGAL. This happens during the Calvin cycle
plant hormone that promotes stem elongation
connected to each sieve tube member in the phloem and nurtures the sieve tube elements
structures in plants that produce female gametes
an organelle in eukaryotes that lies near the nucleus and that packages and secretes substances for the cell
animals in which the blastopore becomes the anus during early embryonic development
a plant with anatomical and biochemical modifications for a dry environment, examples are sugarcane and corn
a complex network of protein filaments that gives a cell its shape and helps it move
the global ecosystem
the network of cell walls and intercellular spaces within a plant body that permits extensive extracellular movement of water within a plant
an example of genetic drift, when a small population breaks away from a larger one to colonize a new area; it is most likely not genetically representative of the original larger p
Plant hormone that inhibits growth, closes stomates during times of water stress and counteracts breaking of dormancy.
flowering plants.
the common type of plant
the process by which ATP is produced from the flow of protons through an ATP-synthetase channel in the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast during the light reactions of photosynt
any process that gives of energy
a hormone that helps control metamorphosis in insects
the particular three-dimensional shape of a protein molecule
the preferential growth of a plant upward (toward the sun), rather than laterally
a plant hormone that stimulates stem elongation and growth, enhances apical dominance, and is responsible for tropisms
a channel in a plasma membrane for one specific ion, such as sodium or calcium. in the terminal branch of a neuron, it is responsible for the release of neurotransmitter into the s
a form of photosynthesis that is an adaptation to dry conditions; stomates remain closed during the day and open only at night
any abnormal number of a particular chromosome.
the three-base sequence of nucleotides in mRNA
branching evolution occurs when a new species branches out from a parent
the emergence of numerous species from one common ancestor introduced into an environment
an enzyme that permanently attaches pieces of DNA together
a nucleotide that binds to thymine and uracil. it is a purine.
one of two structures in animal cells involved with cell division
found in sponges, these cells are mobile and perform numerous functions, including reporduction, transport of food particles to nonfeeding cells, and secretion of material that for
a specialized region in a chromosome that holds the two chromatids together
the body cavity that arises from within the mesoderm and is completely surrounded by mesoderm tissue
an example of genetic drift that results from the reduction of a population, typically by natural disaster. The surviving population is no longer genetically representative of the
the internal membranes of mitochondria that are the site of the electron transport chain
the germ layer that gives rise to the skin and vervous system
organisms that can live without oxygen in the environment
the embryonic germ layer that gives rise to the viscera, the digestive tract, and other internal organs
a hormone released from the anterior pituitary that stimulates the ovarian follicle
a mechanism or strategy to maximize the rate of diffusion. this is a major strategy to transport substances across membranes passively, such as in the nephron
participates directly in the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis
the positive pole in an electrolytic cell
a type of photosynthetic plant cell that is tightly packed around the veins in a leaf
acts as an antenna pigment, expanding the wavelengths of light that can be used to power photosythensis
the movement of alleles into or out of a population
all the organisms living in one area
the branch of the vertebrate peripheral nervous system that controls involuntary muscles
nonvascular plants like mosses
photosynthetic plants that grow on other trees rather than supporting themselves
a protective jacket of cells that prevents some plants' gametes and zygotes from drying out
a genetic condition caused by trisomy 21
plant cells with unevenly thickened primary cell walls that are alive at maturity and that function to support the growing stem
a chemical secreted by blood vessel endothelium and monocytes during an immune response to attract phagocytes to an area
the limit to the number of individuals that can occupy one area at a particular time
the expression of two or more genes where each depends upon the alleles of the other in order for a trait to show
cells with internal membranes
the presence of two or more phenotypically distinct forms of a trait in a single population, such as two varieties of peppered moths, black ones and white ones
a system of transport channels inside a eukaryotic cell
factors, such as starvation, that increase directly as the population density increases
a shallow groove in the cell surface in an animal cell where cytokinesis is taking place
the most common lethal genetic disease in the US; characterized by a buildup of extracellular fluid in the lungs and digestive tract
the copycat coloration where one harmless animal mimics the coloration of one that is poisonous. an example is the viceroy butterfly, which is harmless but looks similar to the mon
membranes in the chloroplast where the light reactions occur
a protein that serves as a catalyst
selection that increases the extreme types in a population at the expense of intermediate forms
a hormone released by the hypothalamus that stimulates other glands to release their hormones
the site of photosynthesis in plant cells
division of the cytoplasm
the interconnected feeding relationships of organisms in an ecosystem
force of attraction between molecules of water due to hydrogen bonding
the kingdom that consists of heterotrophs that carry out extracellular digestion and have cell walls made of chitin
nonliving and includes temperature, water, sunlight, wind, rocks, and soil.
thin protein filaments that interact with myosin filaments in the contraction of skeletal muscle
any process that absorbs energy
hairlike extensions from the cytoplasm used for cell locomotion
the tail-like structure that propels some single-celled organisms. consist of microtubuls
part of a flowering plant that produces male gametophytes
a trophic process in which substances in the food chain become more concentrated with each link of the food chain
genes outside the nucleus, in the mitochondria and chloroplasts
a virus that attacks bacteria
muscles of glands
the genus name for the bacterium that produces botulism, a very serious form of food poisoning
the first 12 inches (30 cm) of the human small intestine
the technology of manipulating genes for practical purposes
the intentional selection of specific individuals with desired traits for breeding
collar cells that line the body cavity and have flagella that circulate water in sponges
chemicals that stimulate helper T cells, B cells, and killer T cells
an enzyme produced in all cells to decompose hydrogen peroxide, a by-product of cell respiration
programmed cell death
another name for the krebs cycle
part of the developing embryo that will become the upper part of the stem and the leaves of a plant
part of the digestive tract of many animals where food is temporarily stored until it can continue to the gizzard
fat tissue
one type of associative learning that is widely accepted because of the ingenious work of Ivan Pavlov associating a novel stimulus with an innately recognized one
the complex of DNA and protein that makes up a eukaryotic chromosome.
two separate genes control one trait, but one gene masks the expression of the other gene
accessory photosynthetic pigment that expands the wavelengths of light that can be used to pwer photosynthesis
certain traits whose expression varies, depending on the parent from which they are inherited. diseases that result from imprinting are prader-willi and angelman sydromes
all the organisms in a given area as well as the abiotic (nonliving) factors with which they interact
a scientific naming system where every organism has a unique name consisting of two parts: a genus name and a species name
the food source for the growing embryo in monocots
part of the digestive tract of many animals. it is the site of mechanical digestion
located in the cristae of mitochondria and thylakoids of chloroplasts, these are membrane channels that allow protons to diffuse down a gradient in the production of ATP
change in the gene pool due to chance
the site at which a crossover and recombination occurs
the maximum rate at which a population could increase under ideal conditions
the breakdown of glucose into pyruvic acid with the release of a small amount of atp without oxygen
organisms, like bacteria and fungi, that recycle nutrients back to the soil
a neurotransmitter
the process of leaves falling of a tree or bush.
a type of enzyme that changes its conformation and its function in response to a modifier.
the process by which cells expel substances
structures in plants that produce male gametes
animals that can raise their body temperature, although they cannot maintain a stable body temperature
a nucleotide that binds with guanine. a pyrimidine
a regulatory protein whose levels fluctuate cyclically in a cell, in part, related to the timing of cell division
accessory photosynthetic pigment that is yellow or orange
very large regions of the earth, named for the climatic conditions and for the predominant vegetation. ex, marine, tropical rain forest, and desert
one type of mutation caused by a deletion or addition where the entire reading sequence of DNA is shifted
the protein shell that encloses viral DNA or RNA
stinging cells in all cnidarians
cells that nourish neurons
organisms that sythesize their own nutrients
two genes interact to produce a novel phenotype
either of the two strands of a replicated chromosome joined at the centromere
convert nitrates (NO3) into free atmospheric nitrogen
the range of expression of mutant genes
selection where one phenotype replaced another in the gene pool
a neurotransmitter
a rapid change in the membrane of a nerve or muscle cell when a stimulus causes an impulse to pass.
the formation of new species caused by separation by geography, such as mountain ranges, canyons, rivers, lakes, glaciers, altitude, or longitude
a kinase whose activity depends on the level of dyclins and what controls the timing of cell division
cells that line the gastrovascular cavity in cnidarians
this theory states that mitochondria and chloroplasts were once free-living prokaryotes that took up residence inside larger prokaryotic cells in a permanent, symbiotic relationshi
an enzyme found in red blood cells that catalyzes the conversion of carbon dioxide and water into carbonic acid as part of the system that maintains blood pH at 7.4
the monoploid generation of a plant
released by the posterior pituitary, its target is the collecting tube of the nephron
structures, such as a bat's wing and a fly's wing, that have the same function, but the similarity is superficial and reflects an adaptation to similar environments, not a common a
an organism whose body is made of only two cell layers, the ectoderm and the endoderm. the two are connected by a noncellular layer called the mesoglea. includes porifera and cnida
factors, such as earthquakes, whose occurrence is unrelated to the population density
a chemical fixative often used in the preparation of tissue for electron microscopy
the final, stable community in an ecosystem
plant hormone that stimulates cell division and delays senescence (aging)
a structural polysaccharide found in the cell walls
one type of learning in which one stimulus becomes linked, through experience, to another
the type of inheritance when there is no trait that dominates over another; both traits show
the pathway along which food is transferred from one trophic level to the next
caused by pollutants in the air from combustion of fossil fuels. The pH is less than 5.6
a cross between individuals that are hybrid for two different traits, such as height and seed color
a chromosomal mutation where a fragment is lost during cell division
the three-base sequence of nucleotides at one end of a tRNA molecule
a nine-step, anaerobic process that breaks down one glucose molecule into two pyruvic acid molecules and four ATP
an iron-containing pigment present in the electron transport chain of all aerobes
a fundamental mechanism in the development of immunity. antigenic molecules select or bind to specific B or T lymphocytes, activating them. The B cells then differentiate into plas
an inactivated X chromosome seen as a condensed body lying just inside the nuclear envelope
an electrical state where the inside of an excitable cell is made less negative compared with the outside. if an axon is depolarized, an impulse is passing
cloaks the capsid of a virus and aids the virus in infecting the host. derived from membranes of host cells
the negative pole in an electrolytic cell
a sequence of membrane proteins that carry electrons through a series of redox reactions to produce ATP
part of the light-dependent reactions in photosynthesis where electrons travel on a short-circuit pathway to replenish ATP levels only
an important part of the immune system, a group of about twenty proteins that assists in lysing cells
the bright, often red or orange coloration of poisonous animals as a warning that predators should avoid them
the type of immunity when an individual makes his or her own antibodies after being ill and recovering or after being given an immunization or vaccine
a coenzyme that carries protons or electrons from glycolysis and the krebs cycle to the electron transport chain
the tightly packed layer of cells that surrounds the vascular cylinder in the root of a plant
the general term for the overall movement of a fluid in one direction in an organism, such as sap flowing in a tree or blood flowing in a human
a form of selection that acts to decrease the frequency of the more-common phenotypes and increase the frequency of the less-common types
a variation in some trait of individuals coordinated with some gradual change in temperature or other factor over a geographic range
produces antibodies
a cyclical metabolic pathway in the dark reactions of photosynthesis that fixes or incorporates carbon into carbon dioxide and produces phosphoglyceraldehyde (PGAL), a three-carbon
a molecule with both a positive and negative pole.

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