AP Biology Terms (ABA- Grana)

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part of the digestive tract of many animals where food is temporarily stored until it can continue to the gizzard
a specialized region in a chromosome that holds the two chromatids together
the interconnected feeding relationships of organisms in an ecosystem
the technology of manipulating genes for practical purposes
structures, such as a bat's wing and a fly's wing, that have the same function, but the similarity is superficial and reflects an adaptation to similar environments, not a common a
the three-base sequence of nucleotides in mRNA
a sequence of membrane proteins that carry electrons through a series of redox reactions to produce ATP
a kinase whose activity depends on the level of dyclins and what controls the timing of cell division
a variation in some trait of individuals coordinated with some gradual change in temperature or other factor over a geographic range
a channel in a plasma membrane for one specific ion, such as sodium or calcium. in the terminal branch of a neuron, it is responsible for the release of neurotransmitter into the s
the limit to the number of individuals that can occupy one area at a particular time
the formation of new species caused by separation by geography, such as mountain ranges, canyons, rivers, lakes, glaciers, altitude, or longitude
the positive pole in an electrolytic cell
a nine-step, anaerobic process that breaks down one glucose molecule into two pyruvic acid molecules and four ATP
the main component of the waxy cuticle covering leaves to minimize water loss
an example of genetic drift, when a small population breaks away from a larger one to colonize a new area; it is most likely not genetically representative of the original larger p
the global ecosystem
the tail-like structure that propels some single-celled organisms. consist of microtubuls
a fundamental mechanism in the development of immunity. antigenic molecules select or bind to specific B or T lymphocytes, activating them. The B cells then differentiate into plas
the bright, often red or orange coloration of poisonous animals as a warning that predators should avoid them
organisms that can live without oxygen in the environment
the external surface of a plasma membrane that is important for cell-to-cell communicatoin
a mechanism or strategy to maximize the rate of diffusion. this is a major strategy to transport substances across membranes passively, such as in the nephron
evolution that occurs when a population becomes isolated (for any reason) from the rest of the species, becomes exposed to new selective pressures, and evolves into a new species
the final, stable community in an ecosystem
the internal membranes of mitochondria that are the site of the electron transport chain
genes outside the nucleus, in the mitochondria and chloroplasts
a virus that attacks bacteria
an electrical state where the inside of an excitable cell is made less negative compared with the outside. if an axon is depolarized, an impulse is passing
the preferential growth of a plant upward (toward the sun), rather than laterally
participates directly in the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis
an iron-containing pigment present in the electron transport chain of all aerobes
consumers that derive their nutrition from nonliving, organic matter
caused by pollutants in the air from combustion of fossil fuels. The pH is less than 5.6
a synonym for anaerobic respiration. the anaerobic breakdown of glucose into pyruvic acid
the embryonic germ layer that gives rise to the viscera, the digestive tract, and other internal organs
cloaks the capsid of a virus and aids the virus in infecting the host. derived from membranes of host cells
produces antibodies
cells with internal membranes
a protein that serves as a catalyst
the general term for the overall movement of a fluid in one direction in an organism, such as sap flowing in a tree or blood flowing in a human
a chemical fixative often used in the preparation of tissue for electron microscopy
a genetic condition caused by trisomy 21
this theory states that mitochondria and chloroplasts were once free-living prokaryotes that took up residence inside larger prokaryotic cells in a permanent, symbiotic relationshi
an example of genetic drift that results from the reduction of a population, typically by natural disaster. The surviving population is no longer genetically representative of the
evolution that is caused by two species that interact and influence each other. all predator-prey relationships are examples
found in sponges, these cells are mobile and perform numerous functions, including reporduction, transport of food particles to nonfeeding cells, and secretion of material that for
an organism whose body is made of only two cell layers, the ectoderm and the endoderm. the two are connected by a noncellular layer called the mesoglea. includes porifera and cnida
an organelle in eukaryotes that lies near the nucleus and that packages and secretes substances for the cell
the expression of two or more genes where each depends upon the alleles of the other in order for a trait to show
accessory photosynthetic pigment that is yellow or orange
a double membrane down the midline of a dividing plant cell between which the new cell wall will form
evolution that occurs when unrelated species occupy the same environment and are subjected to similar selective pressures and show similar adaptations
a system of transport channels inside a eukaryotic cell
the sequential rebuilding of an entire ecosystem after a disaster
the process by which ATP is produced from the flow of protons through an ATP-synthetase channel in the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast during the light reactions of photosynt
a molecule with both a positive and negative pole.
a cyclical metabolic pathway in the dark reactions of photosynthesis that fixes or incorporates carbon into carbon dioxide and produces phosphoglyceraldehyde (PGAL), a three-carbon
the first 12 inches (30 cm) of the human small intestine
a hormone released by the hypothalamus that stimulates other glands to release their hormones
a gaseous plant hormone that promotes fruit ripening and opposes auxins in its actions
flowering plants.
very large regions of the earth, named for the climatic conditions and for the predominant vegetation. ex, marine, tropical rain forest, and desert
the type of immunity when an individual makes his or her own antibodies after being ill and recovering or after being given an immunization or vaccine
a form of photosynthesis that is an adaptation to dry conditions; stomates remain closed during the day and open only at night
one of two structures in animal cells involved with cell division
an enzyme that breaks down excess neurotransmitter
the three-base sequence of nucleotides at one end of a tRNA molecule
factors, such as earthquakes, whose occurrence is unrelated to the population density
the reciprocal exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids during synapsis of meiosis I
the movement of alleles into or out of a population
plant hormone that promotes stem elongation
the sensory processes of a neuron
a cross between individuals that are hybrid for two different traits, such as height and seed color
a scientific naming system where every organism has a unique name consisting of two parts: a genus name and a species name
a primitive form of sexual reproduction that is characteristic of bacteria and some algae
a digestive cavity with only one opening, characteristic of cnidarians
the types of genes an organism has
a neurotransmitter
the tightly packed layer of cells that surrounds the vascular cylinder in the root of a plant
nonliving and includes temperature, water, sunlight, wind, rocks, and soil.
a complex network of protein filaments that gives a cell its shape and helps it move
stinging cells in all cnidarians
a chemical secreted by blood vessel endothelium and monocytes during an immune response to attract phagocytes to an area
the pathway along which food is transferred from one trophic level to the next
the breakdown of glucose into pyruvic acid with the release of a small amount of atp without oxygen
a neurotransmitter
a form of selection that acts to decrease the frequency of the more-common phenotypes and increase the frequency of the less-common types
part of a flowering plant that produces male gametophytes
one type of mutation caused by a deletion or addition where the entire reading sequence of DNA is shifted
the network of cell walls and intercellular spaces within a plant body that permits extensive extracellular movement of water within a plant
division of the cytoplasm
cells that nourish neurons
a plant with anatomical and biochemical modifications for a dry environment, examples are sugarcane and corn
a symbiotic relationship where one organism benefits and one is unaware of the other organism (+/o)
the maximum rate at which a population could increase under ideal conditions
photosynthetic plants that grow on other trees rather than supporting themselves
one of many neurotransmitters.
the monoploid generation of a plant
the food source for the growing embryo in monocots
a type of enzyme that changes its conformation and its function in response to a modifier.
two genes interact to produce a novel phenotype
one type of associative learning that is widely accepted because of the ingenious work of Ivan Pavlov associating a novel stimulus with an innately recognized one
a hormone released from the anterior pituitary that stimulates the ovarian follicle
all the organisms living in one area
a rapid change in the membrane of a nerve or muscle cell when a stimulus causes an impulse to pass.
programmed cell death
a ripened ovary of a flowering plant
a type of photosynthetic plant cell that is tightly packed around the veins in a leaf
collar cells that line the body cavity and have flagella that circulate water in sponges
a structural polysaccharide found in the cell walls
convert nitrates (NO3) into free atmospheric nitrogen
translates as 'true feeding'. a process begun by the entrance of large amounts of nutrients into a lake, ultimately ending with the death of the lake
any process that absorbs energy
force of attraction between molecules of water due to hydrogen bonding
any abnormal number of a particular chromosome.
a chromosomal mutation where a fragment is lost during cell division
nonvascular plants like mosses
a regulatory protein whose levels fluctuate cyclically in a cell, in part, related to the timing of cell division
any process that gives of energy
gland in the brain that releases many hormones, including growth hormone, luteinizing hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and follicle-stimulating ho
a subdivision of flowering plants whose members possess an embryonic seed leaf made of two halves or cotyledons
acts as an antenna pigment, expanding the wavelengths of light that can be used to power photosythensis
a protective jacket of cells that prevents some plants' gametes and zygotes from drying out
produced by B lymphocytes and destroy antigens
the process by which cells expel substances
the body cavity that arises from within the mesoderm and is completely surrounded by mesoderm tissue
animals in which the blastopore becomes the anus during early embryonic development
organisms, like bacteria and fungi, that recycle nutrients back to the soil
muscles of glands
hairlike extensions from the cytoplasm used for cell locomotion
a trophic process in which substances in the food chain become more concentrated with each link of the food chain
Plant hormone that inhibits growth, closes stomates during times of water stress and counteracts breaking of dormancy.
change in the gene pool due to chance
the site at which a crossover and recombination occurs
the most common lethal genetic disease in the US; characterized by a buildup of extracellular fluid in the lungs and digestive tract
another name for the krebs cycle
the theory that organisms descend from a common ancestor gradually, over a long period of time, in a linear or branching fashion
the negative pole in an electrolytic cell
an inactivated X chromosome seen as a condensed body lying just inside the nuclear envelope
factors, such as starvation, that increase directly as the population density increases
plant hormone that stimulates cell division and delays senescence (aging)
the protein shell that encloses viral DNA or RNA
connected to each sieve tube member in the phloem and nurtures the sieve tube elements
an enzyme that permanently attaches pieces of DNA together
the common type of plant
located in the cristae of mitochondria and thylakoids of chloroplasts, these are membrane channels that allow protons to diffuse down a gradient in the production of ATP
the presence of two or more phenotypically distinct forms of a trait in a single population, such as two varieties of peppered moths, black ones and white ones
the kingdom that consists of heterotrophs that carry out extracellular digestion and have cell walls made of chitin
released by the posterior pituitary, its target is the collecting tube of the nephron
a nucleotide that binds to thymine and uracil. it is a purine.
the branch of the vertebrate peripheral nervous system that controls involuntary muscles
a shallow groove in the cell surface in an animal cell where cytokinesis is taking place
an important part of the immune system, a group of about twenty proteins that assists in lysing cells
organisms that sythesize their own nutrients
one type of learning in which one stimulus becomes linked, through experience, to another
the emergence of numerous species from one common ancestor introduced into an environment
selection that increases the extreme types in a population at the expense of intermediate forms
an enzyme produced in all cells to decompose hydrogen peroxide, a by-product of cell respiration
plant cells with unevenly thickened primary cell walls that are alive at maturity and that function to support the growing stem
strands for expressed sequences of DNA. these are genes
the germ layer that gives rise to the skin and vervous system
part of the digestive tract of many animals. it is the site of mechanical digestion
structures in plants that produce female gametes
structures in plants that produce male gametes
two separate genes control one trait, but one gene masks the expression of the other gene
carbon becomes fixed or incorporated into a molecule of PGAL. This happens during the Calvin cycle
the genus name for the bacterium that produces botulism, a very serious form of food poisoning
a characteristic of normal cells grown in culture that causes cell division to cease when the culture becomes too crowded
chemicals that stimulate helper T cells, B cells, and killer T cells
a model of the food chain that demonstrates the interaction of the organisms and the loss of energy
the intentional selection of specific individuals with desired traits for breeding
part of the developing embryo that will become the upper part of the stem and the leaves of a plant
thin protein filaments that interact with myosin filaments in the contraction of skeletal muscle
either of the two strands of a replicated chromosome joined at the centromere
a nucleotide that binds with guanine. a pyrimidine
accessory photosynthetic pigment that expands the wavelengths of light that can be used to pwer photosynthesis
fat tissue
a plant hormone that stimulates stem elongation and growth, enhances apical dominance, and is responsible for tropisms
the process of leaves falling of a tree or bush.
a type of lymphocyte that kills infected body cells and cancer cells
the complex of DNA and protein that makes up a eukaryotic chromosome.
certain traits whose expression varies, depending on the parent from which they are inherited. diseases that result from imprinting are prader-willi and angelman sydromes
an enzyme found in red blood cells that catalyzes the conversion of carbon dioxide and water into carbonic acid as part of the system that maintains blood pH at 7.4
membranes in the chloroplast where the light reactions occur
the site of photosynthesis in plant cells
a neurotransmitter
the type of inheritance when there is no trait that dominates over another; both traits show
cells that line the gastrovascular cavity in cnidarians
the particular three-dimensional shape of a protein molecule
animals that can raise their body temperature, although they cannot maintain a stable body temperature
selection where one phenotype replaced another in the gene pool
all the organisms in a given area as well as the abiotic (nonliving) factors with which they interact
an innate, highly stereotypic behavior, which when begun, is continued to completion, no matter how useless
the range of expression of mutant genes
a coenzyme that carries protons or electrons from glycolysis and the krebs cycle to the electron transport chain
the copycat coloration where one harmless animal mimics the coloration of one that is poisonous. an example is the viceroy butterfly, which is harmless but looks similar to the mon
a hormone that helps control metamorphosis in insects
branching evolution occurs when a new species branches out from a parent
part of the light-dependent reactions in photosynthesis where electrons travel on a short-circuit pathway to replenish ATP levels only

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