Sensation and Perception 1 - 4

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type of neuron important for perception specialized to respond to environmental stimuli
2mm thick layer on the surface of the brain
automatic response that makes the 2 pupils the same size
representation of a particular object in the environment by patterns of firing groups of neurons specialized to recognize a specific stimulus
ability to see fine detail
the nucleus in the thalamas that receives inputs from the optic nerve and cortex, and in turn sends fibers to the cortex
remove/destruct tissue from the nerves system
shift from cone vision to rod vision that causes enhanced perception of short wavelengths during dark adaptation
pathway from v1 to the temporal lobe. responsible for identifying an obj.
eyeball too long. Far objects don't focus
map in which each point on the LGN corresponds to the point on the retina
condition marked by the destruction of foveal receptors creates a blind spot. common in old people
stimulus adjusted until observer can barely detect a stimulus
the difference in intensity at which the bars can barely be seen
area activated by bodies and parts of bodies
disorder which makes the someone unable to recognize faces
inability to recognize objects as wholes, only parts of them.
concatenated column made up of the 3 columns in the striate
the point where the observer reliably marks the difference between standard and comparator stimuli
band of energy in the electromagnetic spectrum visible to the human naked eye
distance between peaks of electromagnetic waves
a neuron that transmits signals laterally in the retina. Cells synapse with bipolar cells and ganglion cells.
2 muscles that control the pupil size
column in the striate cortex that contain cells that respond best to a particular orient. Adjacent columns have only slight variation
theory stating that detection of a stimulus depends on both the participant's sensitivity to the stimulus and their response criterion
column in the striate cortex where all neurons are grouped have their receptive field at the same place as on the retina
changes shape to adjust the eye's focus for objects at differing distances
shortest wavelength on the electromagnetic spectrum
A conscious sensory experience
neurons in this cortex respond preferentially to specific forms
eyeball is too short. Near objects don't focus
example of a feature detector
difference in spectral sensitivity is due to what?
fixed number of stimuli chosen with different intensities and presented at random
located in the occipital lobe. Also known as the primary visual receiving area
2 components that make up rhodopsin
group of neurons with similar selective responses
6 cells in the retina
a cell that responds only to a specific stimulus
made up of only cones. More detailed vision
all the thins in our environment we could potentially perceive
what does the complex cortical cell respond best to?
part of a neuron that conducts nerve impulses over distances. Aka nerve fibre.
representation of a particular object in the environment by the firing of neurons tuned to respond specifically to that object
eye chart
an observer's sensitivity to light at each wavelength accross the visible spectrum
longest wavelength on the electromagnetic spectrum
range of visible light
specialized cell for coloured vision, detailed vision, and photopic vision
process where the lens varies its focus to bring the focus point forward so a near object falls on the retina
representation of a particular object in the environment by the firing of relatively small number of neurons
smallest amount of difference a person can detect
inhibition that's transmitted across the retina
knowledge based processing
genetic disorder causing the degradation of the retin
proportion of the stimulus for the observer to notice a change 50% of the time
area in the retina in which light alters the firing rates of a cell
difference in electrical charge between the inside and outside of a cell
rapid increase of positive charge in a nerve fibre that traveles down the fiber. Also called the nerve impulse.
disorder where the cornea or lens bends too much
gathers and concentrates light to form objects on the retina.
pathway from the v1 to the parietal lobe. The Action pathway
normal eye
transform one kind of energy into another
impinging on receptors results in an internalized schema of the stimulus
neuron becoming more positive. preparing for action potential
processing based on incoming data
column in the striate cortex where neurons are grouped based on what eye they respond better to
visual pigment molecules in rods
response of proportion of neurons can be shaped by experience
interval between one action potential occuring and the next is being generated
which LGN layers receive signals from the ipsilateral eye?
located in the fusiform gyrus on the underside of the brain. Face recognition
illusion made up of 9 black boxes with white lines between. Explained by lateral inhibition
action potential with the absence of a stimuli
the stimulus that a person is attending to at a given point in time
physiological effect of selective adaptation on neurons
small area where the optic never leaves the back of the eye. No visual receptors in they area.
which LGN layers receive signals from the contralateral eye?
the competition between the center and surround regions of a centre surround receptive field, caused by the fact that one is excitatory and the other is inhibitory. Stimulation the
area activated by indoor/outdoor rooms, contains info about spatial layout
hole bounded by the iris
cells that respond best to corners and angles
disorder where the eyeball is too short (specific)
in vision, bringing objects located at different distances into focus by changing the shape of the lens.
excititory and inhibitory areas are arranged side by side. This cell responds best to bars of a particular orientation
What is a property of the optic nerve cell (ganglion cell)
to measure absolute threshold. The Experimenter presents stimuli in ascending/descending order
how many layers does the LGN have?
the hypothesis that an area’s appearance is influenced in part by the surroundings that the area appears to belong to. This principal has been used to explain White’s Illusion
minimum amount of stimulus needed to perceive it
specialized cell for achromatic vision and scotopic vision
area involved in controlling eye movements and other visual behaviors
once a response is triggered it travels all the way down the axon without decreasing in size

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