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DNA molecule into which another DNA fragment of appropriate size can be integrated without loss of the vector’s capacity to replicate. Introduce foreign DNA into host cells, wher
the number of clones that is required to carry a single copy of every sequence in a genome.
are the same as regular nucleotides except they are missing the 3’ hydroxyl group which means they are unable to connect with another nucleotide on the 3’ end.
digestion where a restriction enzyme cuts the DNA in only some recognition sites.
The approximate size of the human genome:
making DNA from and mRNA template.
enzymatic extension of DNA defined by terminating base (ddNTPs). Single stranded DNA serves as template, it is labeled and primed, DNA polymerase and dideoxyribonucleotides added
start with two vector-based primers flanking two ends of an insert. The DNA just after the primer is sequenced to create new primers and this is continued until the entire piece is
vector genes that make it possible to pick out cells that contain recombinant DNA molecules. Use a medium that will kill any cells not containing the recombinance.
similar, related genes within a genome. Form gene families.
only contains information from exons. Made by taking all mRNAs from a tissue, adding reverse transcriptase and four deoxyribose triphosphates, and primers to initiate synthesis. Th
A primer used in making DNA from a RNA template that has a chain of Ts corresponding with the poly-A tail of processed mRNA.
transfer of genes from one species into the germ line of another.
specific nucleotide sequence that tells restriction enzymes where to cut.
depicts distances between loci as well as the order in which they occur.
sequencing approach in which the overlapping insert fragments to be sequenced have been randomly generated in one of three ways and overlaps are analyzed to determine sequence
closely related genes that are clustered or dispersed.
ways to sequence long segments of DNA
generate array of fragments with fluorescent labled 3’end base, fragments separated by gel electrophoresis, as fragments pass through a scanning laser the fluoresce in a certain
study of the genome itself. It focuses on most or all genes.
the linking of two ends of DNA usually by connecting two sticky ends.
result achieved after digestion by many restriction enzymes that cut the DNA backbone so that each end is even with one another.
produce large amounts of specific polypeptides. Transformed into bacteria, yeast, or cultured mammalian cells.
a set of two or more partially overlapping cloned DNA fragmentstht together cover and uninterrupted stretch of the genome.
result achieved after digestion by many restriction enzymes that cut the DNA back bone in slightly different locations leading to a protruding strand at each end
digestion where a restriction enzyme cuts the DNA at every recognition site.
Proteins made by bacteria that recognize specific, short nucleotide sequences, and cut DNA at those sites. Most cut a palindromic sequence.
Bacterial artificial chromosomes, Most common host E. coli. Up to 100-300kb. Used in making genomic libraries.
genes with sequence similarities in two different species, suggests species arose forma common ancestor.
nonfunctional, non coding segments of DNA
Yeast artificial chromosomes. Most common host is yeast. Can hold 250-2000kb (2Mb).
a plasmid containing DNA from another organism within its own DNA sequence. A vector and an inserted fragment from two origins.
look like they code for genes but don’t, result of duplication and divergence events in which one copy of an originally functioning gene has undergone mutations so that it is now
copies of all the organism (nuclear) DNA. Made by compiling a collection of clones. Usually made with four to five genomic equivalents.
variant of a gene or noncoding region that has two or more alleles. Multiple forms.
an entire cDNA library is produced in an expression vector. Must are nonproductive but a proportion of the clones will contain functional proteins which can then be labeled with fl
map of locations of identifiable landmarks (restriction sites, genes, etc). Can comprise of entire nucleotide sequence.
derived repeats, move from place to place within the genome
study of how traits are inherited. Focuses on a single/few traits/genes.
small, circular, DNA. Can be replicated in bacterial cells independently of the bacterial chromosome. Most common host is E. coli. Up to 15kb. Used in making cDNA libraries and sub
creating a an x-ray film image that records the location of radioactively labeled DNA.
blocks of linked loci within a genome.
region of DNA that contains few if any genes, makes up 3% of the genome.
DNA fragments made by the action of restriction enzymes. Calculated by 4n. Ex. An enzyme that recognizes a six base sequence would be 46=4096bp. Probability that a recognition site
Purified fragments of single-stranded DNA that are labeled with radioactive isotopes or fluorescent dyes.

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