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Said religion was like a 'Sacred Canopy'
Believed that the growth of science would eventually cause religion to disappear
Ideologies are rigid and inflexible as they claim monopoly on the truth
Uses the functional definition of religion, saying it gives people a set of beliefs to help them cope with life
Ideology is a one-sided view
Says that religion is a set of sacred beliefs and practises, uniting people into a moral community
Came up with 12 factors that makes something a 'religion'
Created the concept of Civil Religion
Christianity was original the religion of the slaves, telling them they'd get salvation after death
Religion prevents change- example = Methodism prevented the working class revolt against the Church of England
The Pope's stance on contraception and abortion has prevented change in Latin American countries
80% of Bishops were educated at Oxbridge or fee paying schools
Religion is ideological in 3 ways
Religion is the opium of the people
Religion helps the Trobriand Islanders cope with uncertainty when fishing at sea
Religion is a kind of spiritual gin, where the slaves of capitalism drown their sorrows
Said functional definitions of religion were too broad, we could include ANY group that helps people!
Charismatic leadership, when causing change, doesn't have a long lasting impact
It is the nature of the religion you believe in which determines whether it will cause change or not
Neo-Marxist who believed religion wasn't directly under the control of the ruling class, so religion can be used to rise up and cause a challenge
Said that Capitalism predated Calvinism, so Calvinism couldn't have caused Capitalism
There is no one answer as to whether religion causes change - it depends on 4 factors
In Latin America, the clergy can provide help and guidance to the oppressed (Liberation Theology)
Created 'The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism'
The higher social classes have higher churchgoing rates
Traditional religions are undergoing a crisis of meaning, as people don't believe them anymore (they claim to love, but cause war)
A denomination is a sect that has cooled down
Carried out 'The Kendall Project'
Some churches have watered down to try and reclaim their followers who have left to join NRMs
Fundamentalist movements offer hope, direction and certainty in a world where we feel confused and lost
Postmodernist society is characterised by a loss of confidence in meta-narratives (e.g. religion as the only explanation)
Did the study 'The making of a Moonie'
Found that most NRMs are increasing in membership (not all)
NAMs take two forms - audience cults and client cults
Cult apologists, who say that many sects are just misunderstood and misrepresented by the media
Pointed out 7 aspects of 'cultist' behaviour (sects!)
The increasing length of education has led to a gap between childhood and adulthood, where people are vulnerable to recruitment by a world rejecting NRM
The modern world is so rational that people want a magical experience, so turn to a world affirming group
Said there are 5 reasons why women don't go to church as much anymore
Some aspects of Islam are positive for women, e.g. keeping their own name when they marry
Women participate in sects at a 2:1 ratio to men
Men may return to fundamentalism out of fear that women will undermine male control
Women see God as loving and forgiving, men see him as being all about power and control
Muslim Feminist who says religion isn't patriarchal in itself, it's just the interpretation of it
Women are more likely to suffer social, organismic and ethical deprivation than men, leading to them joining sects
Christianity is a patriarchal myth
Women are more religious as they are socialised differently and have different roles
A strong Muslim identity provides an alternative to street gangs
87% of 10-14 year olds said church was boring
Lack of religious education can lead to Muslims becoming radicalised, but there are also progressive British Muslims emerging as a response to this
Attendance in under 20 year olds at a Christian church has halved since the 1980s
Talked of 'believing without belonging'
Talked of 'belonging without believing'
72% of young Muslims in the UK say they have a very strong or fairly strong sense of Muslim identity
The young are still interested in spiritual matters but not as prescribed to them by official channels
Believed that ethnic minorities are more religious as they were more religious before they emigrated to the UK, due to coming from more deprived countries
Second generation immigrants are less religious than first generation
71.75% of the British population class themselves as Christian, 14.8% no religion
Christianity has dug its own grave, as the protestant attention given to working hard led to a focus on this life rather than the next
The congregations are ageing over time, as worshippers get older and are not replaced by youngsters
Only 10% of people definitely don't believe in God
The number of clergy in a country is a good indicator of the power of religion there
If we can't define religiosity, how can we measure secularization?
Believes that the emergence of NRMs means that the UK is undergoing a religious revival
Not joining in religious practise may be part of a wider trend in a postmodernist era not to join anything at all
The 'age of faith' in the past may have been an illusion
Differentiated between secularization on a broad vs. narrow level
Disengagement of the church from wider society may be a good thing, as the church can focus on its core functions
Created the secularization cycle
There are 3 key processes linked to secularization - rationalization,disengagement and religious pluralism)
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