Basic Neuroscience

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Can you name the names and functions of the different parts of the brain?

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HintAnswerExtra Info
Neuron With 2 Neurites
Hollow Spaces Inside the Braincause muscles to move and contain fluid
Very Deep Groove
Glial Cell; Forms Myelin in PNSAsymmetrical; cleans up damage by guiding axons to re-grow and re-connect
Branch Coming off the Soma that has 2 Types
Medium Cytoskeleton ComponentForm a lattice structure used for strength
Take in mRNA and Synthesize ProteinEither free-floating or associated with Rough ER
Used to Calculate RMP
Makes Signals Travel Faster Down an AxonSticky-Notes wrapped around a pencil
All Axons Have:An end; have vesicles that carry neurotransmitters
Back Section of the BrainFirm, used for muscle control
Central Dogma Process of RNA SynthesisInitiated at the promoter region; stopped at the terminator region
3-Dimensional Folding of a Polypeptide
Membrane Formed by Hydrophobic Tails and Hydrophilic HeadsForms a barrier to water-soluble ions
Double-Stranded, Antiparallel Nucleotide Polymer
The Regions of a Primary RNA Transcript Not Used to Code Protein
Neuron With 3 or More Neurites
Central Dogma Process Protein SynthesisFollows genetic instructions carried by mRNA
Glial Cell; Secretes Cerebrospinal FluidLines the walls of the ventricles in the brain
Sections of DNA Containing Information Needed for Polypeptide Chains
Glial Cell; Defensive Function; Protects against invading organisms
Membrane Voltage Maintained by a Cell When not Generating Action PotentialsNeurons have one of -65mV
Little Membrane Balloons (Organelle)Used to transport proteins
Inner Matter of the Brain
Nervous System Within ANS'Fight or Flight'
Chemicals Released From Presynaptic NeuronsElicits a response in the postsynaptic neuron
The Wires that Carry Neuron OutputBundles of fibers that make up nerves; variances in diameter affect speed of transfer
Structure of NeuronProtein strands that give the neuron shape; has 3 parts
Supporting Cells Glue vital to nervous system; 5 major types
Silver Stain Showing Entire Cell Body and Neurites
Stacks of Disc-Shaped Membrane
HintAnswerExtra Info
'Antennae'; Receives Incoming Signals
Purple Stain Showing Cell BodiesDoesn't show anything other than location of cell bodies
Ohm's Law
Outer Matter of the Brain
Cellular Fluid Within the Neuron
Glial Cell; Nutritive and Support FunctionsStar-shaped and symmetrical; surround and isolate synapses; control fluid around neurons; clean up debris and fill area with glia
Transmembrane Protein That is Gated or Non-Gated
Regions of RNA Used in Coding
Nervous System Within ANS'Rest and Digest'
All Nervous Tissues(i.e. everything else)
Various Polypeptides Bonded Together to Form a Larger Protein
Long Strands of Protein Within the NucleusContain DNA
String of Amino AcidsChain larger than 20 = a protein!
Transport Along Microtubules
Region of Contact Where a Neuron Transfers Info to Another Cell
All Axons Have:A beginning
Theory That Each Brain Cell is an Individual CellProposed by Cajal; neurons are separated by synapses
Specialized Gap Between NeuronsWhere 2 neurons communicate
Transport from Dendrites to SomaTravels via chynein 'feet' on microtubules
Brain and Spinal Chord
Chemical Force that Makes Ions MoveDown the concentration gradient
States That Nerves Can Only Carry Information Unidirectionally
Transport from Soma to TerminalsTravels via kinesin 'feet' on microtubules
Bumps of the Surface of the Brain
Front Section of the Brainsoft and squishy, controls sensory information
Electrical Potential The force exerted on a charged particle
Transmembrane Protein That Removes Intracellular Na and Concentrates Intracellular KUses energy in the form of ATP
Largest Cytoskeleton ComponentThick hollow pipes made of tubulin; used for transport
RNA-Synthesizing EnzymeBinds at Promoter
Grooves on the Surface of the Brain
Positively Charged Atoms or Molecules
HintAnswerExtra Info
Negatively Charged Atoms or Molecules
Water-LovingPolar
Contained Within PNSControls breathing, heart rate, and digestion
Wires Made of Bunches of Fibers
String of Polypeptides
Transmembrane Protein That Actively Transports IonsUse ATP
Relative Ability of an Electrical Charge to Migrate from One Point to AnotherRepresented by g (Siemens, or S)
The Movement of Electrical ChargeRepresented by I (amps)
Used to Calculate Equilibrium Potential
Produce ATPFats, carbs, proteins, and oxygen go in; ATP comes out
Theory That Brain Cells are a Continuous MassProposed by Golgi (he was wrong)
An Even Distribution of the Charge Across a Molecule
The Potential of the Cell at Which There is No Net Movement of Ions
Smallest Cytoskeleton ComponentMade of actin; forms a network beneath the cell membrane
ER Studded with Ribosomes Used for protein synthesis
Contained Within PNSControls sensation and motion
Nerve Split Towards the Back of the Spinal CordCarries information from the body to the brain
An Unequal Distribution of the Charge Across a Molecule
All Axons Have:A middle
Stacks of Disc-Shaped MembranesUsed to wrap and package proteins
Water-HatingNonpolar
Nerve Split Towards the Front of the Spinal CordCarries information from the brain to the body
The Relative Inability of an Electrical Charge to MigrateRepresented by R, measured in Ohms
Glial Cell; Forms Myelin Around Axons in Brain & Spinal CordAsymmetrical
Transmembrane Protein That is Always Open for Transport
Coiling of a Polypeptide into an Alpha-Helix
Process of Destroying Pieces of Brain Tube Led to discovery of different sections of the brain
Electrical Force that Makes Ions Move
Process or Intron Removal
Neuron With 1 Neurite

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