Basic Neuroscience

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Can you name the names and functions of the different parts of the brain?

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HintAnswerExtra Info
All Axons Have:An end; have vesicles that carry neurotransmitters
Electrical Force that Makes Ions Move
Ohm's Law
Brain and Spinal Chord
Medium Cytoskeleton ComponentForm a lattice structure used for strength
Produce ATPFats, carbs, proteins, and oxygen go in; ATP comes out
Wires Made of Bunches of Fibers
Largest Cytoskeleton ComponentThick hollow pipes made of tubulin; used for transport
Specialized Gap Between NeuronsWhere 2 neurons communicate
An Even Distribution of the Charge Across a Molecule
Long Strands of Protein Within the NucleusContain DNA
The Relative Inability of an Electrical Charge to MigrateRepresented by R, measured in Ohms
Electrical Potential The force exerted on a charged particle
Process or Intron Removal
Front Section of the Brainsoft and squishy, controls sensory information
Transport from Dendrites to SomaTravels via chynein 'feet' on microtubules
Theory That Brain Cells are a Continuous MassProposed by Golgi (he was wrong)
Hollow Spaces Inside the Braincause muscles to move and contain fluid
Theory That Each Brain Cell is an Individual CellProposed by Cajal; neurons are separated by synapses
Nervous System Within ANS'Rest and Digest'
All Axons Have:A middle
Chemical Force that Makes Ions MoveDown the concentration gradient
Double-Stranded, Antiparallel Nucleotide Polymer
3-Dimensional Folding of a Polypeptide
Little Membrane Balloons (Organelle)Used to transport proteins
Neuron With 1 Neurite
Glial Cell; Secretes Cerebrospinal FluidLines the walls of the ventricles in the brain
Membrane Formed by Hydrophobic Tails and Hydrophilic HeadsForms a barrier to water-soluble ions
The Wires that Carry Neuron OutputBundles of fibers that make up nerves; variances in diameter affect speed of transfer
HintAnswerExtra Info
States That Nerves Can Only Carry Information Unidirectionally
Glial Cell; Defensive Function; Protects against invading organisms
Various Polypeptides Bonded Together to Form a Larger Protein
Branch Coming off the Soma that has 2 Types
The Regions of a Primary RNA Transcript Not Used to Code Protein
Transmembrane Protein That is Gated or Non-Gated
Neuron With 2 Neurites
Transport from Soma to TerminalsTravels via kinesin 'feet' on microtubules
Very Deep Groove
Coiling of a Polypeptide into an Alpha-Helix
The Potential of the Cell at Which There is No Net Movement of Ions
Structure of NeuronProtein strands that give the neuron shape; has 3 parts
Transmembrane Protein That Actively Transports IonsUse ATP
Process of Destroying Pieces of Brain Tube Led to discovery of different sections of the brain
All Axons Have:A beginning
Glial Cell; Forms Myelin Around Axons in Brain & Spinal CordAsymmetrical
Used to Calculate Equilibrium Potential
Contained Within PNSControls sensation and motion
Inner Matter of the Brain
Positively Charged Atoms or Molecules
Membrane Voltage Maintained by a Cell When not Generating Action PotentialsNeurons have one of -65mV
Relative Ability of an Electrical Charge to Migrate from One Point to AnotherRepresented by g (Siemens, or S)
Cellular Fluid Within the Neuron
Back Section of the BrainFirm, used for muscle control
Transmembrane Protein That is Always Open for Transport
Bumps of the Surface of the Brain
Nerve Split Towards the Back of the Spinal CordCarries information from the body to the brain
Grooves on the Surface of the Brain
An Unequal Distribution of the Charge Across a Molecule
The Movement of Electrical ChargeRepresented by I (amps)
ER Studded with Ribosomes Used for protein synthesis
HintAnswerExtra Info
Take in mRNA and Synthesize ProteinEither free-floating or associated with Rough ER
Transmembrane Protein That Removes Intracellular Na and Concentrates Intracellular KUses energy in the form of ATP
Neuron With 3 or More Neurites
Supporting Cells Glue vital to nervous system; 5 major types
Central Dogma Process of RNA SynthesisInitiated at the promoter region; stopped at the terminator region
Used to Calculate RMP
Outer Matter of the Brain
Transport Along Microtubules
Nervous System Within ANS'Fight or Flight'
Central Dogma Process Protein SynthesisFollows genetic instructions carried by mRNA
All Nervous Tissues(i.e. everything else)
Sections of DNA Containing Information Needed for Polypeptide Chains
Region of Contact Where a Neuron Transfers Info to Another Cell
String of Polypeptides
String of Amino AcidsChain larger than 20 = a protein!
Glial Cell; Forms Myelin in PNSAsymmetrical; cleans up damage by guiding axons to re-grow and re-connect
Smallest Cytoskeleton ComponentMade of actin; forms a network beneath the cell membrane
RNA-Synthesizing EnzymeBinds at Promoter
'Antennae'; Receives Incoming Signals
Nerve Split Towards the Front of the Spinal CordCarries information from the brain to the body
Stacks of Disc-Shaped Membrane
Chemicals Released From Presynaptic NeuronsElicits a response in the postsynaptic neuron
Makes Signals Travel Faster Down an AxonSticky-Notes wrapped around a pencil
Glial Cell; Nutritive and Support FunctionsStar-shaped and symmetrical; surround and isolate synapses; control fluid around neurons; clean up debris and fill area with glia
Stacks of Disc-Shaped MembranesUsed to wrap and package proteins
Silver Stain Showing Entire Cell Body and Neurites
Contained Within PNSControls breathing, heart rate, and digestion
Negatively Charged Atoms or Molecules
Purple Stain Showing Cell BodiesDoesn't show anything other than location of cell bodies
Regions of RNA Used in Coding

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