Basic Neuroscience

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Can you name the names and functions of the different parts of the brain?

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HintAnswerExtra Info
Glial Cell; Defensive Function; Protects against invading organisms
Nerve Split Towards the Front of the Spinal CordCarries information from the brain to the body
Ohm's Law
Electrical Force that Makes Ions Move
All Axons Have:A middle
Positively Charged Atoms or Molecules
Back Section of the BrainFirm, used for muscle control
Take in mRNA and Synthesize ProteinEither free-floating or associated with Rough ER
Transmembrane Protein That Removes Intracellular Na and Concentrates Intracellular KUses energy in the form of ATP
Bumps of the Surface of the Brain
Process or Intron Removal
Transmembrane Protein That is Always Open for Transport
Glial Cell; Forms Myelin in PNSAsymmetrical; cleans up damage by guiding axons to re-grow and re-connect
The Potential of the Cell at Which There is No Net Movement of Ions
Glial Cell; Forms Myelin Around Axons in Brain & Spinal CordAsymmetrical
Brain and Spinal Chord
Inner Matter of the Brain
Water-HatingNonpolar
Nervous System Within ANS'Fight or Flight'
Contained Within PNSControls breathing, heart rate, and digestion
Purple Stain Showing Cell BodiesDoesn't show anything other than location of cell bodies
Neuron With 3 or More Neurites
Theory That Each Brain Cell is an Individual CellProposed by Cajal; neurons are separated by synapses
Stacks of Disc-Shaped Membrane
Transmembrane Protein That is Gated or Non-Gated
ER Studded with Ribosomes Used for protein synthesis
Water-LovingPolar
Hollow Spaces Inside the Braincause muscles to move and contain fluid
'Antennae'; Receives Incoming Signals
Neuron With 1 Neurite
Various Polypeptides Bonded Together to Form a Larger Protein
HintAnswerExtra Info
Central Dogma Process Protein SynthesisFollows genetic instructions carried by mRNA
RNA-Synthesizing EnzymeBinds at Promoter
Branch Coming off the Soma that has 2 Types
Neuron With 2 Neurites
Supporting Cells Glue vital to nervous system; 5 major types
The Wires that Carry Neuron OutputBundles of fibers that make up nerves; variances in diameter affect speed of transfer
Sections of DNA Containing Information Needed for Polypeptide Chains
Negatively Charged Atoms or Molecules
Transport Along Microtubules
Electrical Potential The force exerted on a charged particle
Used to Calculate Equilibrium Potential
Long Strands of Protein Within the NucleusContain DNA
Double-Stranded, Antiparallel Nucleotide Polymer
Silver Stain Showing Entire Cell Body and Neurites
Central Dogma Process of RNA SynthesisInitiated at the promoter region; stopped at the terminator region
String of Polypeptides
Wires Made of Bunches of Fibers
The Regions of a Primary RNA Transcript Not Used to Code Protein
Produce ATPFats, carbs, proteins, and oxygen go in; ATP comes out
An Unequal Distribution of the Charge Across a Molecule
The Relative Inability of an Electrical Charge to MigrateRepresented by R, measured in Ohms
Medium Cytoskeleton ComponentForm a lattice structure used for strength
Transport from Dendrites to SomaTravels via chynein 'feet' on microtubules
Smallest Cytoskeleton ComponentMade of actin; forms a network beneath the cell membrane
Relative Ability of an Electrical Charge to Migrate from One Point to AnotherRepresented by g (Siemens, or S)
Regions of RNA Used in Coding
Glial Cell; Secretes Cerebrospinal FluidLines the walls of the ventricles in the brain
Transmembrane Protein That Actively Transports IonsUse ATP
The Movement of Electrical ChargeRepresented by I (amps)
Structure of NeuronProtein strands that give the neuron shape; has 3 parts
Coiling of a Polypeptide into an Alpha-Helix
HintAnswerExtra Info
Little Membrane Balloons (Organelle)Used to transport proteins
All Nervous Tissues(i.e. everything else)
Glial Cell; Nutritive and Support FunctionsStar-shaped and symmetrical; surround and isolate synapses; control fluid around neurons; clean up debris and fill area with glia
String of Amino AcidsChain larger than 20 = a protein!
3-Dimensional Folding of a Polypeptide
Chemical Force that Makes Ions MoveDown the concentration gradient
Grooves on the Surface of the Brain
Very Deep Groove
Transport from Soma to TerminalsTravels via kinesin 'feet' on microtubules
Nerve Split Towards the Back of the Spinal CordCarries information from the body to the brain
Largest Cytoskeleton ComponentThick hollow pipes made of tubulin; used for transport
Makes Signals Travel Faster Down an AxonSticky-Notes wrapped around a pencil
Specialized Gap Between NeuronsWhere 2 neurons communicate
Nervous System Within ANS'Rest and Digest'
Outer Matter of the Brain
States That Nerves Can Only Carry Information Unidirectionally
Theory That Brain Cells are a Continuous MassProposed by Golgi (he was wrong)
Chemicals Released From Presynaptic NeuronsElicits a response in the postsynaptic neuron
Membrane Voltage Maintained by a Cell When not Generating Action PotentialsNeurons have one of -65mV
Process of Destroying Pieces of Brain Tube Led to discovery of different sections of the brain
Contained Within PNSControls sensation and motion
Cellular Fluid Within the Neuron
All Axons Have:An end; have vesicles that carry neurotransmitters
Used to Calculate RMP
Region of Contact Where a Neuron Transfers Info to Another Cell
An Even Distribution of the Charge Across a Molecule
All Axons Have:A beginning
Membrane Formed by Hydrophobic Tails and Hydrophilic HeadsForms a barrier to water-soluble ions
Front Section of the Brainsoft and squishy, controls sensory information
Stacks of Disc-Shaped MembranesUsed to wrap and package proteins

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