Cardiovascular Block: Physiology 2

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Can you name the answers to these questions about physiology in the Cardiovascular Block??

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QuestionAnswer
Cardiac output = heart rate x ______ _______, which is based on the ______ of contraction.
Cardiac output can only increase if ______ ______ also increases.
An increase in the rate of force development can also be called an increase in __________, which depends on intracellular _______ concentration.
Mechanisms for changing force of contraction are classified extrinsic or intrinsic, or __________ and __________.
Which type of mechanism is always intrinsic? This mechanism changes the ________ of the contraction and total force developed, but not contractility.
Are neural influences intrinsic or extrinsic?
The cardiac excitation-contraction coupling mechanism: the cardiac action potential leads to the opening of __-type Ca channels and __-tubules during plateau.
The small entry of extracellular Ca leads to a large Ca-induced Ca release from the ___________ _________, via the _________ receptor.
The released Ca diffuses to contractile proteins and binds to ________ on thin filaments, leading to unmasking of ______-_______ cross-bridge sites, leading to contraction.
Ca is taken back into the SR producing relaxation by an enzyme, SERCA. What does SERCA stand for?
Ca is then pumped from the SR to extracellular space in diastole to keep balance in the process, mostly by the __-Ca exchanger, and some by membrane Ca-ATPase.
Inotropic mechanism: increased intracellular Ca leads to more released from SR for excitation-contraction coupling, so more cross bridges can be formed, _______ contraction force.
Sympathetic control can be an ________ influence on the heart, and produce a(n) ________ in contractility of the ventricles.
Noradrenaline binds to a _____-1 receptor on the ventricular cell membrane, activating ______ _______ which converts intracellular ATP into _______ (the second messenger).
The second messenger activates ______ _____ __ which phosphorylates _____-dependent Ca channels, _________ the time they spend in open state.
Longer opening time leads to increased permeability, which allows more Ca to enter the cell during the ______ phase of the cardiac AP.
Rate-induced regulation: lower heart rate leads to shorter diastole, so ____ Ca is pumped to the EC space and intracellular Ca _______.
True/false - the vagus nerve cannot influence the force of contraction.
Increased venous return leads to increased filling of the ventricle, which ______ the force of contraction. Does the contractility change? (Yes/No)
Increased arterial pressure leads to an initial drop in _____ _______, which then ________ end-systolic and end-diastolic volume, leading to an increase in force of contraction.
For striated muscle, there is an optimum length. If it is too long, there is an _______ of actin and myosin, while if it is too short then there is _______ of filaments.
Cardiac muscle is normally at (below/around/above) optimum length, while skeletal muscle is at (below/around/above) optimum length.
The cardiac function curve is a graphical representation of cardiac _____ __ _________ against ______ of ventricular muscle.
Usually the y-axis is ______ ______ or stroke volume, while the x-axis is ______ ______ ________.
A ___________ change leads to a shift in the curve while a __________ change means the heart operates at a new location on the curve (movement along the curve).
QuestionAnswer
Overfilling of the heart leads to a decline in force, a condition known as ________ _____ ______.
Veins have a volume ________ function as they have high ________ and are easy to stretch - ___% of total blood volume is in the veins.
Venous pressure is the pressure in _______ veins driving blood back to the heart, and has a value of around ___-___ mmHg.
Central venous pressure is the pressure in the _____ _____, and has a value of around __-__ mmHg (similar to ____ ______ pressure).
Mean circulatory filling pressure is pressure in circulation when flow is equal to _____. It is also the __-intercept on the vascular function curve.
Venous return is directly proportional to the pressure gradient between the ______ and the _____ ______.
The vascular function curve plots ______ _____ against _____ ______ _______.
For RAP below zero, the vascular function curve levels off as the decreased ______ counteracts the increased ______ _______.
Pressure in any vessel depends on the ______ of blood inside it, and its ________.
Sympathetic nerve activity leads to smooth muscle ________, ________ in venous compliance, ________ in venous pressure and therefore increase in venous return.
The above mechanism corresponds to a shift (inward/outward) of the vascular function curve.
Increase in blood volume leads to increased venous volume and therefore an increase in venous _______, (increasing/decreasing) venous return.
Increase in peripheral resistance means more blood pools (centrally/peripherally) which means that pressure is higher (centrally/peripherally).
Increase in peripheral resistance ________ venous pressure and venous return. MCFP is (unchanged/increased/decreased).
Rhythmic skeletal muscle contractions and compression of veins leads to an _____ in venous pressure and pumps blood back to the heart.
Maintained skeletal muscle contraction is equivalent to an increase in _______ ________.
On inspiration, thoracic volume (increases/decreases) compared to abdominal and therefore the pressure gradient between abdominal and thoracic pressure is (less/more).
Upright posture leads to an increase in gravitational pressure on blood in lower limbs. Is the pressure gradient changed? (Yes/No)
However, higher gravitational pressure leads to increased _______ pressure, and (less/more) pooling of blood in the lower limbs, _________ venous return.
The decreased venous return leads to less stroke volume and cardiac output, so systolic BP ________. This is detected by _________ which lead to a reflex increase in _______ ______
By this mechanism, diastolic BP is (higher/normal/lower) and mean blood pressure is (higher/normal/lower).
The heart must be operating at the _________ of the cardiac and vascular function curves.
Which of the following changes would affect both the cardiac and vascular function curves: increased blood volume, increased contractility or increased total peripheral resistance?
The two main mechanisms by which substances cross the capillary wall are _______ and ______.
The amount of diffusion of a substance that takes place depends only on its _________ gradient across the capillary wall and the ______ ____ available.
QuestionAnswer
Lipid soluble substances have a (large/small) surface area available for diffusion; water soluble substances: (large/small), and respiratory gases: (large/small).
Filtration is passive: net driving force = algebraic sum of the ________ and ______ forces across the capillary wall.
Filtration forces try to move water (into/out of) the capillary into interstitial spaces. Absorption forces do the opposite.
Oncotic pressure is the _______ osmotic pressure - osmotic pressure created by _____ molecules which themselves (can/cannot) diffuse.
The main filtration force is ________ _________ pressure. This depends on blood volume, which depends on arterial + venous pressures and ratio of post: pre capillary resistance.
Increase in arterial pressure leads to an _______ in capillary blood volume, leading to an _______ in capillary hydrostatic pressure.
Increase in venous pressure leads to an _______ in capillary blood volume, leading to an _______ in capillary hydrostatic pressure.
The ratio determines how much blood is retained in the capillary. If precapillary resistance increases there is (more/less) retained.
If postcapillary resistance increases there is (more/less) retained, leading to a (higher/lower) capillary hydrostatic pressure.
In human skin, the level of Pc is around ___ mmHg at the arterial end and ___-___ mmHg at the venous end.
Interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure opposes ________, but its value is low - it is (positive/negative) __-__mmHg in brain or kidney.
Interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure is (positive/negative) in subcutaneous tissues or muscle, around ___-___mmHg.
The negative pressure probably involves removal of fluid from interstital space, which is achieved through __________ of fluid, or via the _________.
Capillary oncotic pressure arises from the plasma proteins (65% ______, 15% ________, 20% lots of other stuff) and its value is about ___mmHg.
If there is starvation or nephrosis, there is a decrease in plasma proteins, leading to a decrease in _______ pressure. Filtration exceeds reabsorption, presenting as ______.
Interstitial fluid oncotic pressure arises because of the escape of a little plasma _______. Its value ranges from ___ to __ mmHg.
Starling's hypothesis for interstital fluid formation: at the arterial end of the capillary net ________ occurs, while at the venous end net ________ occurs. Overall it is balanced
The idealized balance only occurs in some tissues (e.g. _____ ____), while in some only filtration occurs (e.g. ____ ________) and in some only absorption occurs (e.g. ____)
Fill in increases or decreases for all (?): Congestive heart failure --> right atrial pressure (?) --> venous return (?) --> venous pressure (?) --> venous pressure (?)
Right heart failure will lead to (systemic/pulmonary) oedema while left heart failure leads to the opposite.
Lymph vessels commence from blind ends in the __________ spaces, and consist of a series of '_______' separated by _____.
Lymph flow is around __-__L a day.
When the chamber contracts pressure rises to around ___mmHg while when it is not contracting the pressure is around __mmHg.

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Created Mar 11, 2013ReportNominate
Tags:block, cardiovascular, physiology