Receptors and Cell Signalling and The Thyroid Gland

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abnormal disorder of the thyroid that is characterized by decreased appetite, weight gain, cold intolerance, and decreased sweating
What percentage of the ingested iodine actually makes it to the thyroid?
True or False: Metabolism and Feedback Regulation are key in control of the endocrine system.
When there is an iodine deficiency, the percentage of T4 made increases or decreases?
water soluble hormones generally bind to receptors that are located where?
this disorder occurs due to a defective V2 receptor in the kidney that causes an inability to retain water.
the addition of two iodine to tyrosine results in what molecule?
TRH is made in the ______ and the _____ nuclei of the hypothalamus.
hormone that arise form axon terminal instead of endocrine cells are known as _____.
True or False: The thyroid hormones are made within the thyroid epithelial cells.
intracellular receptors for thyroid hormones are primarily bound to what?
Calcitonin can be found in the _______ cells of the thyroid.
intracellular receptors for glucocorticoid and mineralcorticoid are primarily located where within a cell?
hyperthyroidism cause by the binding of an autoantibody to the TSH receptor.
The thyroid gland synthesizes T4 ___% of the time.
this receptor type opens as a channel in response to ligand binding
True or False: During times of starvation, the biologically inactive r-T3 is produced to conserve energy stores.
a system of chemical messengers that are released into the interstitial fluid to act on adjacent cells is known as _____
True or False: The half life of T3 is longer than T4.
intracellular receptors for estrogen and progesterone are primarily located where within a cell?
enzyme responsible for the liberation of iodine and the iodination of tyrosine to produce the thyroid hormones
what transporter is responsible for actively moving iodine into the thyroid gland?
True or False: T3 promotes the storage of energy.
what molecule is bound to a G protein in its inactive form?
When there is an iodine deficiency, the percentage of T3 made increases or decreases?
One possible cause of this disorder can be the binding of autoantibodies to the TSH receptor preventing the release of thyroid hormones.
20% of circulatory T3 and T4 is bound to what protein?
True or False: The thyroid hormone binding proteins serve to protect T3 and T4 from metabolism and excretion. They also allow for large pools of readily available hormone in the bl
QuestionAnswer
catalyzes the conversion of T4 to T3
thyroid hormone are formed by adding what molecule to tyrosine?
abnormal disorder of the thyroid that is characterized by increased appetite, weight loss, heat intolerance, and increased sweating.
an increase in basal metabolic rate is known as ______. It is regulated by Thyroid hormones.
True or False: Protein or peptide hormones have a short half-life
Which thyroid hormone is responsible for the negative feedback regulation of TRH and TSH?
chemical messengers that are transported by the blood to act on target organs and cells.
patients with graves disease have a higher or lower plasma TSH level?
Where is TSH made? (Be specific)
In order to maintain, normal thyroid function we must ingest how much iodine per week (in mg)?
The thyroid hormones are released into circulation via what process?
10% of circulatory T3 and T4 is bound to what protein?
This hormone acts to increase iodine uptake via NIS, activates thyroid peroxidase, increases the production of thyroglobulin, and increases the secretion of T3 and T4.
this disorder occurs when the G alpha stimulatory subunt of the PTH receptor is defective and causes the patient to have hypocalcemia.
The release of TSH is stimulated by what?
which tyrosine derived group of hormones act similar to protein/ peptide hormones
When there is an iodine deficiency, the total amount of thyroid hormone produced increases or decreases?
70% of circulatory T3 and T4 is bound to what protein?
steroid hormones are released from cells via (diffusion or exocytosis?)
found in the apical membrane of the follicular cells and is responsible for transporting iodine from the follicular cells into the lumen of the thyroid follicle.
the addition of one iodine to tyrosine results in what molecule?
which tyrosine derived group of hormones act similar to steroid hormones
True or False: The thyroid hormones pre-dominantly travel in the blood in free form.
patients with iodine deficiency have a higher or lower plasma TSH level?
a system of chemical messengers that are released into the interstitial fluid to act on itself is known as _____
lipid soluble hormones generally bind to what types of receptors?
protein/ peptide hormones are released from cells via (diffusion or exocytosis?)

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