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True or False: Normally, The cerebral and brainstem motorsystems act to increase sensory input to alpha-motorneurons.
alpha motorneurons supplying the muscles of the peripheral limbs are located where within the ventral horn of the spinal cord?
reflex are of Group I to a-motorneuron
a peripheral or segmental injury to a muscle stretch reflex results in ____ muscle tone
Lesions at the level of the midbrain produces _____ posturing, which is characterized by flexion and pronation of the upper extremity and extension in the lower extremity
hyperactive tendon reflexes plus hyperactive stretch reflexes results in what?
closed loop formed by the efferent a-motorneuron and group Ia afferent fiber
these type of sensory afferents are found in the intermediate zone of the muscle spindle apparatus and detect muscle length
these tracts originate in the medulla and pons and are responsible for maintaining flexor and extensor muscle tone needed for posture and gait
an a-motorneuron and the muscle fiber it supplies are collectively known what?
alpha motorneurons supplying the axial and limb girdle muscle are located where within the ventral horn of the spinal cord?
most tracts in the ventromedial group of the spinal cord have a ____ bias
Reflex arc of Group II-to a-motorneuron
True or False: The vestibulospinal tracts maintain the antigravity tone necessary for us to sit, stand, and maintain any posture other than horizontal. Useful in maintaining balanc
these muscle fibers are located within the muscle spindle apparatus
this tract originates at the red nucleus
these afferent muscle fibers are sensitive to pressure and pain and act as muscle and visceral receptors
the muscle spindle apparatus are attached to these muscle fibers
Which Brodmann's area is responsible for combining simple motor combinations into complex combinations?
adding muscle units to increase the force of a contraction
these afferent muscle fibers are sensitive to muscle pain
True or False: Group 1a afferent muscle fibers act to excite the a-motorneuron it innervates, along with other agonist muscles,while inhibiting antagonist muscles
occurs when stimulation of the sole of the foot results in dorsiflexion (extending) of the toes
True or False: alpha motorneurons supplying flexor muscles are generally closer to the central canal of the cord.
True or False: An alpha motorneuron involved in fine muscle control has a high ratio of muscle fibers to alpha motorneurons
these type of sensory afferents are wrapped around the nuclear region of the muscle spindle apparatus. They are sensitive to the rate of muscle stretch.
These motorneurons synapse on intrafusal muscles.
these afferent muscle fibers are sensitive to muscle tension
injury to the higher centers of control in the brainstem and cortex as it relates to a muscle stretch reflex results in ____ muscle tone
True or False: Small a-motorneurons fire before large a-motorneurons
tract involved reflexive head and eye movements
decreased or absent reflexes
this is the only descending motor tract to synapse directly on a-motorneurons
a condition characterized by hyperactive deep tendon reflexes and increased static muscle tone
Lesions at the level of the pons produces _____ posturing, which is characterized by profound extensor tone in all extremities
Group III and IV fibers provide _____ input to flexor muscles.
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