Chemical Neurotransmission and Electrophysiology

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Can you name the concepts concerning Chemical Neurotransmission?

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purines, gases, and endogenous cannabinoids are examples of _______ neurotransmitters.
Where in the neuron is GABA produced?
True or False: Bloackage of Voltage Gated Ca channels prevents the release of Neurotransmitters.
PCP or angel dust is known to bind to what glutamate receptor?
Glycinergic neuron can be primarily found where?
GABA B receptor is an _____ receptor, which potentiates potassium conductance..(ionotrophic or metabotrophic)
Excitatory, Inhibitory, and Modulatory are all examples of ____ synapses
how many subunits are in neuromuscular nicotinic receptors?
What is the equilibrium potential of Sodium (mV)?
What is the morphological feature of an electrical synapse?
Repolarization is characterized by the efflux of what ion?
Ion _____ allow ions to move down its concentration gradient across a cell membrane.
the ability of opoids to bind to endorphin and enkephalin receptors (the basis of 'side effects') refers to what process?
What type of acetylcholine receptor is located within the parasympathetic nervous system?
major excitatory neurotransmitter of the brain
Activation of this channel is dependent upon the binding of glutamate, and a change in voltage that influences the binding Mg to the channel..
Name a drug commonly used for the treatment of seizures.This drug acts by inhibiting the opening of voltage gated channels. These channels are important because they facilitate the
α Ketoglutarate is the pre-cursor for which neurotransmitter?
what enzyme catalyzes the conversion of glutamine to glutamate?
GABA A and GABA C receptors are _____, which potentiate Cl conductance. (ionotrophic or metabotrophic)
True or False: Neuropeptides are synthesized in the axon terminal
What is the threshold voltage needed to initiate action potential?
What 2 neuropeptides are involved in the perception of pain?
used for long-term treatment of addiction (opiate receptor antagonist) and alcoholism (blocking of “reward” effect).
True or False: The neuromuscular junction has a convoluted post-synaptic membrane.
membrane's ability to store charge is known as ______.
Receptors located on the presynaptic cell that respond to its own chemical signal are known as _____.
This class or receptors are enriched in substantia nigra, caudate putamen, cerebellum, neocortex, hippocampus and known to bind THC (CB1)
this snake venom toxin blocks ACH receptors
After threshold has been reached, the increase of membrane potential toward sodium equilibrium potential is known as the _____ phase of the action potential.
True or False: GABA acts to hyperpolarize the post-synaptic membrane, reducing it's ability to produce an action potential.
True or False: Glutamate acts in neuron signaling by binding to metabotrophic neurons, and activating a G protein cascade.
True or False: Most Neurotransmitters with the exception of proteins are made in the axon terminal through biogenic enzymes.
when a neurotransmitter affects multiple behaviors such as in depression (neurochemical imbalance affecting multiple brain centers) is known as a ____system.
Astrocytes are responsible for producing _____ , a precursor for glutamate
GABAb agonist and it used to treat spasticity via receptors on spinal interneurons
True or False: The conduction of an action potential is 2 way.
is GABA inhibitory or excitatory?
Botulinum Toxin A is also known as _____.
drug that acts as a muscarinic receptor antagonist used for the treatment of motion sickness
What is the mM concentration of Sodium outside the cell?
Highest concentration of Sodium channels in the axon is located at the _____ __ _____.
these receptors activate G-protein 2nd messenger systems after the bind of a neurotransmitter
What are the 2 major classes of Aectylcholine receptors?
What is the equilibrium potential of Potassium (mV)?
What is the mM concentration of Sodium intside the cell?
drug that acts as a muscarinic receptor antagonist used in pupil dilations
endogenous opoids are known as ____.
What is the mM concentration of Potassium outside the cell?
If Potassium were to be doubled on the outside of the cell, would the equilbrium potential (-88) increase or decrease?
a drug/substance that binds to a receptor and produces a response.
Seizures can be caused by hyper-excitation of the brain via what neurotransmitter?
What would the equilibrium potential be if Potassium were equal on both sides of the plasma membrane?
GABA and glycine act by opening ____ channels, causing hyperpolarization of post-synaptic cells.
True or False: neurotransmitters can be inactivated by catabolism by an enzyme, reuptake and catabolism, or diffusion out of the cleft
What co factor is needed for the production of GABA?
Ion _____ move ions against their concentration gradient.
how are neuropeptides inactivated?
autoimmune condition marked by destruction cholingeric receptors
A neurotransmitter or other compound that binds to a receptor is known as a _____.
The release of Neurotransmitters is triggered by the influx of what ion through voltage gated channels?
True or False: Chemical Neurotransmission alters the post-synaptic membrane potential
The period which no quantity of EPSPs will elicit another action potential.(Sodium channels will NOT open during this time)
The summation of EPSPs and the opening of Na or Ca Voltage gated channels increasing the membrane potential from resting to threshold potential is known as what phase of the action
What 2 gradients determine the transmembrane potential?
This agonist of GABA A receptors increases the duration of Cl Channel opening.
Where are neurotransmitters stored within the transmitting neuron?
principal neurotransmitter of interneurons
How does a neurotransmitter reach the post-synaptic cell after being released into the synaptic cleft?
used to counter opioid overdose
The neuromuscular junction involves a pre-synaptic cell derived from neuroectoderm and a post-synaptic cell derived from ______.
The degree of depolarization elicited by the binding of the contents of all the vesicles released by a presynaptic terminal is called an ______ _______ ______.
Barbiturates, Benzodiazepines, and Ethanol are known to bind to which GABA receptor?
direct neurotransmitter receptors that activate ion channels are known as _______.
The conversion of acetyl-CoA and choline to acetylcholine is catalyzed by _______.
Influx of what ion depolarizes cells?
What type of acetylcholine receptor is located at neuromuscular junctions and autonomic ganglia?
neurotransmitter effect confined to a specific modality such as in the case of pain is known as ____system.
Ketamine,primarily used for the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia, is known to act as an antagonist to what type of glutamate receptor?
chronic intensive stimulation of neurotransmitter receptors may induce a reduction in the density of receptors
a drug/substance that attaches to the receptor but does not activate it or displaces an agonist and thus reverses the agonist’s effect.
This agonist of GABA A receptors increases the frequency of Cl Channel opening.
Which type of Neurotransmitter receptor elicits a faster response? (Ionotrophic or Metabotrophic)
GABA is catabolized or broken down via what enzyme?
Small molecule Neurotransmitters are transported via ___ axonal transport.
A decrease in the concentration of Ca, decreases the amount of ____ ____.
what is the second most widespread inhibitory neurotransmitter?
The differential distribution, selective permeability, and leakiness of the plasma membrane all contribute to _______ ______.
The midbrain reticular formation, the basal ganglia, and the basal forebrain are sites that contain ______ neurons.
What is the mM concentration of Potassium inside the cell?
This GABA receptor is both pre and post synaptic. Pre synaptically it prevents NT release and post synaptically it mediates a slow inhibitory response
Disease characterized by severe loss of acetylcholinergic neurons in the medial septal nuclei and in the nucleus basalis of Meynert, resulting in a loss of memory
True or False: Receptor downregulation increases the sensitivity of target cells.
this disease is characterized by degeneration of striatal GABAergic neurons
About how many molecules are contained in one synaptic vesicle?
Acetylcholine is degraded in the synaptic cleft by which enzyme?
Which glutamate receptor is heavily involved in learning and memory (long term potentiation)?
True or False: The synaptic clefts of neuron to neuron synapses is filled with basal lamina.
The degree of hyperpolarization elicited by the binding of the contents of all the vesicles released by a presynaptic terminal is called an ______ _______ ______.
Large molecule Neurotransmitters are transported via ___ axonal transport.
Neurotransmitters of Chemical Synapses are released through what cellular process?
If Potassium were to be doubled on the inside of the cell, would the equilbrium potential (-88) increase or decrease?
GABA is synthesized from glutamate via what enzyme?
True or False: Acetylcholine functions as a single system modulator in the CNS.
Name 2 proteins involved in synaptic vesicle fusion with the presynaptic membrane

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