Chemical Neurotransmission and Electrophysiology

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Can you name the concepts concerning Chemical Neurotransmission?

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If Potassium were to be doubled on the outside of the cell, would the equilbrium potential (-88) increase or decrease?
What is the equilibrium potential of Sodium (mV)?
autoimmune condition marked by destruction cholingeric receptors
used to counter opioid overdose
After threshold has been reached, the increase of membrane potential toward sodium equilibrium potential is known as the _____ phase of the action potential.
A neurotransmitter or other compound that binds to a receptor is known as a _____.
What type of acetylcholine receptor is located at neuromuscular junctions and autonomic ganglia?
What type of acetylcholine receptor is located within the parasympathetic nervous system?
when a neurotransmitter affects multiple behaviors such as in depression (neurochemical imbalance affecting multiple brain centers) is known as a ____system.
major excitatory neurotransmitter of the brain
Repolarization is characterized by the efflux of what ion?
True or False: The conduction of an action potential is 2 way.
direct neurotransmitter receptors that activate ion channels are known as _______.
how are neuropeptides inactivated?
Highest concentration of Sodium channels in the axon is located at the _____ __ _____.
drug that acts as a muscarinic receptor antagonist used for the treatment of motion sickness
This GABA receptor is both pre and post synaptic. Pre synaptically it prevents NT release and post synaptically it mediates a slow inhibitory response
Ketamine,primarily used for the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia, is known to act as an antagonist to what type of glutamate receptor?
True or False: The neuromuscular junction has a convoluted post-synaptic membrane.
True or False: neurotransmitters can be inactivated by catabolism by an enzyme, reuptake and catabolism, or diffusion out of the cleft
About how many molecules are contained in one synaptic vesicle?
Excitatory, Inhibitory, and Modulatory are all examples of ____ synapses
used for long-term treatment of addiction (opiate receptor antagonist) and alcoholism (blocking of “reward” effect).
what enzyme catalyzes the conversion of glutamine to glutamate?
True or False: Neuropeptides are synthesized in the axon terminal
What is the mM concentration of Sodium outside the cell?
The period which no quantity of EPSPs will elicit another action potential.(Sodium channels will NOT open during this time)
drug that acts as a muscarinic receptor antagonist used in pupil dilations
What 2 neuropeptides are involved in the perception of pain?
How does a neurotransmitter reach the post-synaptic cell after being released into the synaptic cleft?
The summation of EPSPs and the opening of Na or Ca Voltage gated channels increasing the membrane potential from resting to threshold potential is known as what phase of the action
This agonist of GABA A receptors increases the duration of Cl Channel opening.
Activation of this channel is dependent upon the binding of glutamate, and a change in voltage that influences the binding Mg to the channel..
Receptors located on the presynaptic cell that respond to its own chemical signal are known as _____.
this disease is characterized by degeneration of striatal GABAergic neurons
The neuromuscular junction involves a pre-synaptic cell derived from neuroectoderm and a post-synaptic cell derived from ______.
What is the mM concentration of Potassium outside the cell?
endogenous opoids are known as ____.
What co factor is needed for the production of GABA?
Neurotransmitters of Chemical Synapses are released through what cellular process?
GABA is synthesized from glutamate via what enzyme?
this snake venom toxin blocks ACH receptors
True or False: Chemical Neurotransmission alters the post-synaptic membrane potential
True or False: Receptor downregulation increases the sensitivity of target cells.
What 2 gradients determine the transmembrane potential?
Name 2 proteins involved in synaptic vesicle fusion with the presynaptic membrane
What is the threshold voltage needed to initiate action potential?
Acetylcholine is degraded in the synaptic cleft by which enzyme?
Where are neurotransmitters stored within the transmitting neuron?
these receptors activate G-protein 2nd messenger systems after the bind of a neurotransmitter
principal neurotransmitter of interneurons
Where in the neuron is GABA produced?
The differential distribution, selective permeability, and leakiness of the plasma membrane all contribute to _______ ______.
Glycinergic neuron can be primarily found where?
Ion _____ allow ions to move down its concentration gradient across a cell membrane.
Disease characterized by severe loss of acetylcholinergic neurons in the medial septal nuclei and in the nucleus basalis of Meynert, resulting in a loss of memory
is GABA inhibitory or excitatory?
Barbiturates, Benzodiazepines, and Ethanol are known to bind to which GABA receptor?
the ability of opoids to bind to endorphin and enkephalin receptors (the basis of 'side effects') refers to what process?
The degree of depolarization elicited by the binding of the contents of all the vesicles released by a presynaptic terminal is called an ______ _______ ______.
The degree of hyperpolarization elicited by the binding of the contents of all the vesicles released by a presynaptic terminal is called an ______ _______ ______.
True or False: GABA acts to hyperpolarize the post-synaptic membrane, reducing it's ability to produce an action potential.
Botulinum Toxin A is also known as _____.
What is the equilibrium potential of Potassium (mV)?
purines, gases, and endogenous cannabinoids are examples of _______ neurotransmitters.
The midbrain reticular formation, the basal ganglia, and the basal forebrain are sites that contain ______ neurons.
Influx of what ion depolarizes cells?
What is the mM concentration of Sodium intside the cell?
GABA is catabolized or broken down via what enzyme?
Ion _____ move ions against their concentration gradient.
GABA A and GABA C receptors are _____, which potentiate Cl conductance. (ionotrophic or metabotrophic)
If Potassium were to be doubled on the inside of the cell, would the equilbrium potential (-88) increase or decrease?
a drug/substance that binds to a receptor and produces a response.
The conversion of acetyl-CoA and choline to acetylcholine is catalyzed by _______.
What is the morphological feature of an electrical synapse?
True or False: Bloackage of Voltage Gated Ca channels prevents the release of Neurotransmitters.
Name a drug commonly used for the treatment of seizures.This drug acts by inhibiting the opening of voltage gated channels. These channels are important because they facilitate the
True or False: The synaptic clefts of neuron to neuron synapses is filled with basal lamina.
chronic intensive stimulation of neurotransmitter receptors may induce a reduction in the density of receptors
how many subunits are in neuromuscular nicotinic receptors?
True or False: Acetylcholine functions as a single system modulator in the CNS.
What is the mM concentration of Potassium inside the cell?
This agonist of GABA A receptors increases the frequency of Cl Channel opening.
Astrocytes are responsible for producing _____ , a precursor for glutamate
PCP or angel dust is known to bind to what glutamate receptor?
Which type of Neurotransmitter receptor elicits a faster response? (Ionotrophic or Metabotrophic)
α Ketoglutarate is the pre-cursor for which neurotransmitter?
a drug/substance that attaches to the receptor but does not activate it or displaces an agonist and thus reverses the agonist’s effect.
A decrease in the concentration of Ca, decreases the amount of ____ ____.
Seizures can be caused by hyper-excitation of the brain via what neurotransmitter?
This class or receptors are enriched in substantia nigra, caudate putamen, cerebellum, neocortex, hippocampus and known to bind THC (CB1)
membrane's ability to store charge is known as ______.
GABAb agonist and it used to treat spasticity via receptors on spinal interneurons
True or False: Most Neurotransmitters with the exception of proteins are made in the axon terminal through biogenic enzymes.
what is the second most widespread inhibitory neurotransmitter?
neurotransmitter effect confined to a specific modality such as in the case of pain is known as ____system.
GABA and glycine act by opening ____ channels, causing hyperpolarization of post-synaptic cells.
What would the equilibrium potential be if Potassium were equal on both sides of the plasma membrane?
Large molecule Neurotransmitters are transported via ___ axonal transport.
Small molecule Neurotransmitters are transported via ___ axonal transport.
True or False: Glutamate acts in neuron signaling by binding to metabotrophic neurons, and activating a G protein cascade.
What are the 2 major classes of Aectylcholine receptors?
The release of Neurotransmitters is triggered by the influx of what ion through voltage gated channels?
GABA B receptor is an _____ receptor, which potentiates potassium conductance..(ionotrophic or metabotrophic)
Which glutamate receptor is heavily involved in learning and memory (long term potentiation)?

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