Chemical Neurotransmission and Electrophysiology

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Can you name the concepts concerning Chemical Neurotransmission?

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QuestionAnswer
direct neurotransmitter receptors that activate ion channels are known as _______.
Large molecule Neurotransmitters are transported via ___ axonal transport.
GABA A and GABA C receptors are _____, which potentiate Cl conductance. (ionotrophic or metabotrophic)
What is the morphological feature of an electrical synapse?
This GABA receptor is both pre and post synaptic. Pre synaptically it prevents NT release and post synaptically it mediates a slow inhibitory response
the ability of opoids to bind to endorphin and enkephalin receptors (the basis of 'side effects') refers to what process?
What 2 gradients determine the transmembrane potential?
True or False: Chemical Neurotransmission alters the post-synaptic membrane potential
A neurotransmitter or other compound that binds to a receptor is known as a _____.
when a neurotransmitter affects multiple behaviors such as in depression (neurochemical imbalance affecting multiple brain centers) is known as a ____system.
What is the equilibrium potential of Potassium (mV)?
What is the mM concentration of Potassium outside the cell?
PCP or angel dust is known to bind to what glutamate receptor?
The differential distribution, selective permeability, and leakiness of the plasma membrane all contribute to _______ ______.
True or False: The neuromuscular junction has a convoluted post-synaptic membrane.
membrane's ability to store charge is known as ______.
drug that acts as a muscarinic receptor antagonist used for the treatment of motion sickness
True or False: GABA acts to hyperpolarize the post-synaptic membrane, reducing it's ability to produce an action potential.
This class or receptors are enriched in substantia nigra, caudate putamen, cerebellum, neocortex, hippocampus and known to bind THC (CB1)
How does a neurotransmitter reach the post-synaptic cell after being released into the synaptic cleft?
The degree of depolarization elicited by the binding of the contents of all the vesicles released by a presynaptic terminal is called an ______ _______ ______.
What is the mM concentration of Potassium inside the cell?
purines, gases, and endogenous cannabinoids are examples of _______ neurotransmitters.
used to counter opioid overdose
drug that acts as a muscarinic receptor antagonist used in pupil dilations
Barbiturates, Benzodiazepines, and Ethanol are known to bind to which GABA receptor?
a drug/substance that attaches to the receptor but does not activate it or displaces an agonist and thus reverses the agonist’s effect.
What is the equilibrium potential of Sodium (mV)?
GABA and glycine act by opening ____ channels, causing hyperpolarization of post-synaptic cells.
What is the mM concentration of Sodium outside the cell?
these receptors activate G-protein 2nd messenger systems after the bind of a neurotransmitter
endogenous opoids are known as ____.
If Potassium were to be doubled on the outside of the cell, would the equilbrium potential (-88) increase or decrease?
Glycinergic neuron can be primarily found where?
GABA is synthesized from glutamate via what enzyme?
QuestionAnswer
The release of Neurotransmitters is triggered by the influx of what ion through voltage gated channels?
how are neuropeptides inactivated?
a drug/substance that binds to a receptor and produces a response.
Influx of what ion depolarizes cells?
GABA is catabolized or broken down via what enzyme?
The conversion of acetyl-CoA and choline to acetylcholine is catalyzed by _______.
What 2 neuropeptides are involved in the perception of pain?
The summation of EPSPs and the opening of Na or Ca Voltage gated channels increasing the membrane potential from resting to threshold potential is known as what phase of the action
Activation of this channel is dependent upon the binding of glutamate, and a change in voltage that influences the binding Mg to the channel..
True or False: Receptor downregulation increases the sensitivity of target cells.
what is the second most widespread inhibitory neurotransmitter?
chronic intensive stimulation of neurotransmitter receptors may induce a reduction in the density of receptors
True or False: Bloackage of Voltage Gated Ca channels prevents the release of Neurotransmitters.
GABAb agonist and it used to treat spasticity via receptors on spinal interneurons
This agonist of GABA A receptors increases the frequency of Cl Channel opening.
True or False: Acetylcholine functions as a single system modulator in the CNS.
What co factor is needed for the production of GABA?
α Ketoglutarate is the pre-cursor for which neurotransmitter?
True or False: neurotransmitters can be inactivated by catabolism by an enzyme, reuptake and catabolism, or diffusion out of the cleft
What is the threshold voltage needed to initiate action potential?
Neurotransmitters of Chemical Synapses are released through what cellular process?
What are the 2 major classes of Aectylcholine receptors?
Repolarization is characterized by the efflux of what ion?
Highest concentration of Sodium channels in the axon is located at the _____ __ _____.
used for long-term treatment of addiction (opiate receptor antagonist) and alcoholism (blocking of “reward” effect).
Which type of Neurotransmitter receptor elicits a faster response? (Ionotrophic or Metabotrophic)
The midbrain reticular formation, the basal ganglia, and the basal forebrain are sites that contain ______ neurons.
Ion _____ move ions against their concentration gradient.
Name a drug commonly used for the treatment of seizures.This drug acts by inhibiting the opening of voltage gated channels. These channels are important because they facilitate the
True or False: Neuropeptides are synthesized in the axon terminal
Which glutamate receptor is heavily involved in learning and memory (long term potentiation)?
The degree of hyperpolarization elicited by the binding of the contents of all the vesicles released by a presynaptic terminal is called an ______ _______ ______.
is GABA inhibitory or excitatory?
What type of acetylcholine receptor is located within the parasympathetic nervous system?
True or False: Most Neurotransmitters with the exception of proteins are made in the axon terminal through biogenic enzymes.
QuestionAnswer
principal neurotransmitter of interneurons
What type of acetylcholine receptor is located at neuromuscular junctions and autonomic ganglia?
About how many molecules are contained in one synaptic vesicle?
how many subunits are in neuromuscular nicotinic receptors?
GABA B receptor is an _____ receptor, which potentiates potassium conductance..(ionotrophic or metabotrophic)
Seizures can be caused by hyper-excitation of the brain via what neurotransmitter?
Disease characterized by severe loss of acetylcholinergic neurons in the medial septal nuclei and in the nucleus basalis of Meynert, resulting in a loss of memory
Ion _____ allow ions to move down its concentration gradient across a cell membrane.
A decrease in the concentration of Ca, decreases the amount of ____ ____.
This agonist of GABA A receptors increases the duration of Cl Channel opening.
After threshold has been reached, the increase of membrane potential toward sodium equilibrium potential is known as the _____ phase of the action potential.
Astrocytes are responsible for producing _____ , a precursor for glutamate
autoimmune condition marked by destruction cholingeric receptors
Receptors located on the presynaptic cell that respond to its own chemical signal are known as _____.
The period which no quantity of EPSPs will elicit another action potential.(Sodium channels will NOT open during this time)
this snake venom toxin blocks ACH receptors
True or False: The conduction of an action potential is 2 way.
Ketamine,primarily used for the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia, is known to act as an antagonist to what type of glutamate receptor?
The neuromuscular junction involves a pre-synaptic cell derived from neuroectoderm and a post-synaptic cell derived from ______.
major excitatory neurotransmitter of the brain
Excitatory, Inhibitory, and Modulatory are all examples of ____ synapses
If Potassium were to be doubled on the inside of the cell, would the equilbrium potential (-88) increase or decrease?
Small molecule Neurotransmitters are transported via ___ axonal transport.
True or False: Glutamate acts in neuron signaling by binding to metabotrophic neurons, and activating a G protein cascade.
What is the mM concentration of Sodium intside the cell?
What would the equilibrium potential be if Potassium were equal on both sides of the plasma membrane?
Name 2 proteins involved in synaptic vesicle fusion with the presynaptic membrane
True or False: The synaptic clefts of neuron to neuron synapses is filled with basal lamina.
this disease is characterized by degeneration of striatal GABAergic neurons
Where are neurotransmitters stored within the transmitting neuron?
Where in the neuron is GABA produced?
neurotransmitter effect confined to a specific modality such as in the case of pain is known as ____system.
what enzyme catalyzes the conversion of glutamine to glutamate?
Botulinum Toxin A is also known as _____.
Acetylcholine is degraded in the synaptic cleft by which enzyme?

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