Chemical Neurotransmission and Electrophysiology

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Can you name the concepts concerning Chemical Neurotransmission?

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What is the morphological feature of an electrical synapse?
Small molecule Neurotransmitters are transported via ___ axonal transport.
Ion _____ move ions against their concentration gradient.
The midbrain reticular formation, the basal ganglia, and the basal forebrain are sites that contain ______ neurons.
Name 2 proteins involved in synaptic vesicle fusion with the presynaptic membrane
After threshold has been reached, the increase of membrane potential toward sodium equilibrium potential is known as the _____ phase of the action potential.
chronic intensive stimulation of neurotransmitter receptors may induce a reduction in the density of receptors
GABA is synthesized from glutamate via what enzyme?
What type of acetylcholine receptor is located within the parasympathetic nervous system?
What is the mM concentration of Potassium outside the cell?
Seizures can be caused by hyper-excitation of the brain via what neurotransmitter?
GABA A and GABA C receptors are _____, which potentiate Cl conductance. (ionotrophic or metabotrophic)
What 2 neuropeptides are involved in the perception of pain?
What is the mM concentration of Sodium outside the cell?
Disease characterized by severe loss of acetylcholinergic neurons in the medial septal nuclei and in the nucleus basalis of Meynert, resulting in a loss of memory
Where in the neuron is GABA produced?
This GABA receptor is both pre and post synaptic. Pre synaptically it prevents NT release and post synaptically it mediates a slow inhibitory response
major excitatory neurotransmitter of the brain
used to counter opioid overdose
membrane's ability to store charge is known as ______.
Which glutamate receptor is heavily involved in learning and memory (long term potentiation)?
used for long-term treatment of addiction (opiate receptor antagonist) and alcoholism (blocking of “reward” effect).
True or False: Glutamate acts in neuron signaling by binding to metabotrophic neurons, and activating a G protein cascade.
True or False: The conduction of an action potential is 2 way.
What is the equilibrium potential of Potassium (mV)?
What is the equilibrium potential of Sodium (mV)?
Glycinergic neuron can be primarily found where?
principal neurotransmitter of interneurons
What is the mM concentration of Potassium inside the cell?
a drug/substance that attaches to the receptor but does not activate it or displaces an agonist and thus reverses the agonist’s effect.
what is the second most widespread inhibitory neurotransmitter?
What are the 2 major classes of Aectylcholine receptors?
The differential distribution, selective permeability, and leakiness of the plasma membrane all contribute to _______ ______.
these receptors activate G-protein 2nd messenger systems after the bind of a neurotransmitter
This agonist of GABA A receptors increases the duration of Cl Channel opening.
how many subunits are in neuromuscular nicotinic receptors?
What is the mM concentration of Sodium intside the cell?
GABA and glycine act by opening ____ channels, causing hyperpolarization of post-synaptic cells.
PCP or angel dust is known to bind to what glutamate receptor?
What is the threshold voltage needed to initiate action potential?
If Potassium were to be doubled on the inside of the cell, would the equilbrium potential (-88) increase or decrease?
True or False: The synaptic clefts of neuron to neuron synapses is filled with basal lamina.
this disease is characterized by degeneration of striatal GABAergic neurons
What would the equilibrium potential be if Potassium were equal on both sides of the plasma membrane?
GABA B receptor is an _____ receptor, which potentiates potassium conductance..(ionotrophic or metabotrophic)
Excitatory, Inhibitory, and Modulatory are all examples of ____ synapses
α Ketoglutarate is the pre-cursor for which neurotransmitter?
Astrocytes are responsible for producing _____ , a precursor for glutamate
Repolarization is characterized by the efflux of what ion?
True or False: Most Neurotransmitters with the exception of proteins are made in the axon terminal through biogenic enzymes.
GABAb agonist and it used to treat spasticity via receptors on spinal interneurons
A decrease in the concentration of Ca, decreases the amount of ____ ____.
This agonist of GABA A receptors increases the frequency of Cl Channel opening.
How does a neurotransmitter reach the post-synaptic cell after being released into the synaptic cleft?
About how many molecules are contained in one synaptic vesicle?
Receptors located on the presynaptic cell that respond to its own chemical signal are known as _____.
endogenous opoids are known as ____.
The summation of EPSPs and the opening of Na or Ca Voltage gated channels increasing the membrane potential from resting to threshold potential is known as what phase of the action
What 2 gradients determine the transmembrane potential?
how are neuropeptides inactivated?
GABA is catabolized or broken down via what enzyme?
True or False: Bloackage of Voltage Gated Ca channels prevents the release of Neurotransmitters.
Acetylcholine is degraded in the synaptic cleft by which enzyme?
Name a drug commonly used for the treatment of seizures.This drug acts by inhibiting the opening of voltage gated channels. These channels are important because they facilitate the
Highest concentration of Sodium channels in the axon is located at the _____ __ _____.
The conversion of acetyl-CoA and choline to acetylcholine is catalyzed by _______.
True or False: Receptor downregulation increases the sensitivity of target cells.
Neurotransmitters of Chemical Synapses are released through what cellular process?
autoimmune condition marked by destruction cholingeric receptors
True or False: Acetylcholine functions as a single system modulator in the CNS.
True or False: Neuropeptides are synthesized in the axon terminal
The neuromuscular junction involves a pre-synaptic cell derived from neuroectoderm and a post-synaptic cell derived from ______.
True or False: The neuromuscular junction has a convoluted post-synaptic membrane.
The period which no quantity of EPSPs will elicit another action potential.(Sodium channels will NOT open during this time)
drug that acts as a muscarinic receptor antagonist used in pupil dilations
when a neurotransmitter affects multiple behaviors such as in depression (neurochemical imbalance affecting multiple brain centers) is known as a ____system.
neurotransmitter effect confined to a specific modality such as in the case of pain is known as ____system.
is GABA inhibitory or excitatory?
True or False: neurotransmitters can be inactivated by catabolism by an enzyme, reuptake and catabolism, or diffusion out of the cleft
The degree of hyperpolarization elicited by the binding of the contents of all the vesicles released by a presynaptic terminal is called an ______ _______ ______.
direct neurotransmitter receptors that activate ion channels are known as _______.
True or False: Chemical Neurotransmission alters the post-synaptic membrane potential
A neurotransmitter or other compound that binds to a receptor is known as a _____.
What co factor is needed for the production of GABA?
a drug/substance that binds to a receptor and produces a response.
Large molecule Neurotransmitters are transported via ___ axonal transport.
Which type of Neurotransmitter receptor elicits a faster response? (Ionotrophic or Metabotrophic)
The release of Neurotransmitters is triggered by the influx of what ion through voltage gated channels?
The degree of depolarization elicited by the binding of the contents of all the vesicles released by a presynaptic terminal is called an ______ _______ ______.
the ability of opoids to bind to endorphin and enkephalin receptors (the basis of 'side effects') refers to what process?
drug that acts as a muscarinic receptor antagonist used for the treatment of motion sickness
Activation of this channel is dependent upon the binding of glutamate, and a change in voltage that influences the binding Mg to the channel..
What type of acetylcholine receptor is located at neuromuscular junctions and autonomic ganglia?
Where are neurotransmitters stored within the transmitting neuron?
this snake venom toxin blocks ACH receptors
purines, gases, and endogenous cannabinoids are examples of _______ neurotransmitters.
Ketamine,primarily used for the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia, is known to act as an antagonist to what type of glutamate receptor?
Barbiturates, Benzodiazepines, and Ethanol are known to bind to which GABA receptor?
what enzyme catalyzes the conversion of glutamine to glutamate?
If Potassium were to be doubled on the outside of the cell, would the equilbrium potential (-88) increase or decrease?
Botulinum Toxin A is also known as _____.
Influx of what ion depolarizes cells?
Ion _____ allow ions to move down its concentration gradient across a cell membrane.
True or False: GABA acts to hyperpolarize the post-synaptic membrane, reducing it's ability to produce an action potential.
This class or receptors are enriched in substantia nigra, caudate putamen, cerebellum, neocortex, hippocampus and known to bind THC (CB1)

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