Calcium and Phosphate Regulation

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When there is enough Vitamin D, sufficient Ca, and high renal phosphate which vitamin D3 metabolite is made?
this peptide hormone is responsible for the increasing blood calcium levels
The PTH hormone acts on which two portions of the kidney nephron to increase Ca reabsorption?
What percentage of Phosphate is ionized?
pathological condition usually caused by a benign parathyroid gland tumor. Results in high PTH, hypercalcemia, hypophophatemia, hypercalinuria and the patient may have kidney stone
in the acute phase, PTH promotes bone _____.
What percentage of Phosphate is protein bound?
True or False: Increased concentration of Phosphate in the kidney, increases the catalytic activity of renal 1 hydroxylase.
which protein is responsible for the transport of vitamin D3 and 25 hydroxy D3
True or False: Low levels of Ca increase secretion of PTH, but does not influence transcription of PTH.
catalyzes the conversion of 25 hydroxy D3 to 1, 25 dihydroxy D3.
often caused by autoimmune destruction of parathyroid gland or surgical removal of the gland resulting in hypocalcemia
softening of bones in adults due to a Vitamin D deficiency or impaired metabolism of Vitamin D3 - defective mineralization
What hormone inhibits bone resorption as a result of the stimulation of osteoprotegerin?
Calcitonin is responsible for reducing levels of what ion in the plasma?
The action of PTH at the ____ promotes Ca reabsorption, P excretion, and promotes the synthesis of 1, 25 dihydroxy D3.
pathological condition usually caused by renal failure, in which PTH acts to promote bone resorption but it is unable to act at the kidney ( with inability to synthesize 1, 25 dihy
Calcitonin acts primarily at what target organ?
PTH receptors are located on what types of cells?
How is PTH released from the parathyroid gland?
PTH is composed of __ amino acids.
PTH promotes bone _____.
True or False: when Ca or P are bound to proteins it can be filtered by the glomerulus and acted on by hormones
The decrease in renal phosphate by PTH does what to the catalytic activity of renal 1 hyrdoxylase?
Where is Vitamin D3 converted into 25 monohydroxy D3?
Where in the kidney does 1, 25 dihydroxy D3 act to promote Ca resorption?
major target organs of PTH
True or False: PTH is a steroid hormone.
QuestionAnswer
Which cells of the parathyroid gland synthesize PTH?
True or False: 1, 25 dihydroxy D3 acts at the intestine to increase Ca and Phosphate absorbption into the blood.
occurs because of a disruption in PTH signalling (mutation in the Gs protien coupled to PTH receptors in bone and kidney) which results in hypocalcemia and hyperphophatemia and hig
What percentage of Ca is ionized?
softening of bones in children due to a Vitamin D deficiency or impaired metabolism of Vitamin D3
Calcitonin is produced where in the body?
True or False: 1, 25 dihydroxy D3 acts antagonistically to PTH helping to excrete Ca
The CaSR receptor is a G protein receptor, and when there are high levels of Ca, the receptor activates a G protein that ____ cAMP levels.
True or False: The short term secretion of 1, 25, dihydroxyD3 is to help increase blood Ca, supporting PTh
What percentage of Phosphate is complexed?
this peptide hormone is responsible for the decreasing blood calcium levels
responsible for conversion of 25 hydroxy D3 to the biologically inactive form of dihydroxyD3
pathological condition that is caused by a tumor in the adrenal cortex causing an increase in secretion of glucocorticoids which inhibit calcium reabsoption at the kidney and calci
True or False: Calcitonin serves to inhibit collagen production and an increases production of proteases to breakdown bone.
occurs as a result of hypoparathyroidism that leads to spontaneous discharge of peripheral motor neurons or muscle spasms and seizures
this molecule serves to inhibit the cytokine activation of osteoclasts
Another name for vitamin D3
True or False: 1, 25, dihydroxy D3 provides a long term negative feedback mechanism for secretion of PTH by acting at the chief cell to decrease PTH synthesis
What percentage of Ca is protein bound?
What percentage of Ca is complexed?
What is responsible for detecting the blood Ca levels for regulation of the release of the PTH hormone?
The osteoblasts release _____ that cause an increase in number and activity of the osteoclasts
responsible for the transport of 1, 25 dihydroxy D3 to bone and intestines
true or false: Calcitonin acts to inhibit osteoclast activity.
catakyzes the conversion of vitamin D3 to 25monohydroxyD3
PTH acts on what two portions of the kidney nephron to decrease Phosphate absorption?
a CaR activator that mimics the effect of high plasma Ca to inhibit PTH synthesis
What is the major regulator of PTH secretion?

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