Gastric Physiology

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failure of the pyloric sphincter to relax for gastric emptying... leads to projectile vomiting
2 causes of peptic ulcers
leptin is release by which type of tissue?
T/F: In some cases of peptic ulcer disease, acid from the stomach erodes the D cells of the stomach preventing the brake mechanism for acid production.
T/F: After a large meal, the alkaline tide (removal of bicarbonate from the parietal cell) causes an increase in the pH of the blood.
T/F: Ileal fat increase gastric emptying.
which two products of oxidative phosphorylation are important for the production of stomach acid.
essential for binding and absorption of vitamin B12
pespinogen and HCl are released into the lumen of the stomach... where is histamine released?
these cells produce somatostatin
this hormone acts at the hypothalamus to suppress appetite
H2 blockers prevent the binding of ____ to prevent the production of acid.
T/F: ECL cells can be activated by acetylcholine or gastrin
Secretin ____ (promotes or inhibits) gastric emptying
these cells produce pepsinogen and gastric lipase
Peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY) and glucagon like peptide (GLP1 and GLP2) ____ (stimulates/inhibits) gastric emptying
this hormone acts on the G cell in the antrum of the stomach to inhibit the release of gastrin
enzyme important for the production of protons and bicarbonate in the parietal cell
All stomach cell types are activated by the neurotransmitter (from the enteric nervous system) Acetylcholine, except which cell?
occurs due to a defiency in vitamin B12, which inhibits the body's ability to go through erythropoesis
Hypoglycemia ___ (increase or decreases) gastric emptying.
T/F: Proton pump inhibitors bind irreversibly to the H/K proton pump.
T/F: Large volumes in the stomach increase gastric emptying
T/F: Tagemet and cimetidine prevent acid production by blocking H1 histamine receptors
CCK ____ (promotes or inhibits) gastric emptying
This type of drug inhibits prostaglandin related defense mechanisms within the stomach
The gland of the stomach is known an ____ gland.
made by the S cells of the duodenum
T/F: Prilosec or Omeprazole acts at the basolateral membrane of the parietal cell.
these cells produce gastrin
occurs due to uncontrolled gastric emptying due to the lack of feedback inhibition by the duodenum and undigested food makes it to the colon
Which histamine receptor is found on the basolateral membrane of the parietal cell?
How does potassium get out of the parietal cell?
2nd messenger involved in activation of the parietal cell
these cells produce HCl and intrinsic factor
P/D1 cells release what hormone?
T/F: Ghelin is released during fasting which stimulates appetite
The movement of Cl into the parietal cell is coupled to the movement of which ion out of the cell?
P/D1 cells are located where?
prilosec or omeprazole acts by inhibiting what?
T/F: An increase in pH (basicity) slows gastric emptying.
___ are hormones released by the duodenum and cause feedback on stomach to decrease gastric emptying and secretions
Cl ions are transported into the parietal cell using which type of transport protein?
Cl ions are transported into the lumen of the stomach using which type of transport protein?
these cells produce histamine
responsible for getting H+ ions into the lumen of the stomach
These cells in the stomach are activated by the H+ions in the stomach to reduce the release of gastrin
T/F: The parietal cell can be activated by Acetylcholine, histamine, or gastrin.
T/F: The stomach is the major site for digestion.
severely delayed gastric emptying or no emptying
Nutrients in the ileum and the colon influence gastric emptying through the _____ mechanism
The superficial epithelial cells along with which other cell type in the stomach act to lubricate and protect the stomach wall?
made by the I cells of the duodenum
what activates pepsinogen?
T/F: Rate of gastric emptying increases with rectal and colonic distention.

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