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Can you pick the disease or medical condition based on given palaeopathological* evidence?
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*Human palaeopathology is the scientific study of diseases whose existence can be derived from ancient human remains.
The Archaeology of Disease by Roberts and Manchester (2005)
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Failure of bone union between two palate halves
Skull enlargement, observed mostly in young children
Incomplete fusion of posterior neural arches of the sacrum and lumbar vertebrae
Arthritis of the hip joint; creation of a new acetabular joint; shallow 'old' acetabulum; flattened femoral head
Large cavities; opaque spots on the tooth surface
Cavities, or holes, formed on the bone surface around the tooth root
Line, pit, or groove on the enamel surface commonly on the labial surface of incisors and canines
Erosion of the teeth's occlusal surface
Horizontal break in the bone at right angles to the bone shaft
Angled break in the bone
Rotational/circumferential break in the bone
Multiple splintering of bones into more than two broken fragments
Incomplete transverse breaks in young, immature bone
Collapse of the bone due to axial loading
Precise incision of the scalp; removal of one or more skull pieces
Eburnation on joint surfaces; formation of osteophytes; porous joint surfaces
Hypertrophy at attachment sites; depression of bone cortex; bony spurs at attachment sites
Localized erosion of bones (usually at the knee and hip) around the edges of joint surfaces, affecting both children and adults
Excessively long bones, affecting growing children
Excessively wide bones, affecting adult hand, feet and mandibular bones
Small, gracile skeleton; extreme short strature; unfused epiphyses
Depressed nasal area; shortened limbs
Fusion of four or more contiguous (especially thoracic) vertebrae; large candlewax-like osteophytes
Enlarged and/or deformed bone; pitting of bone surface; sequestra; involucrum; abscesses and interior cavities; cloacae
Fine pitting; longitudinal striation; new bone formation on cortical surface, especially of tibia
Bone growth and increased density inside bone; medullary cavity reduced
Osteomyelitic bone destruction at bone ends and joints; abscess formation in and ankylosis of the spine; bone formation on visceral surface of ribs
Damage and loss of the facial bones, hands, feet, tibiae and fibulae; alveolar bone resorption of maxilla; loss of teeth
Destruction of joints, typically the knee; osteomyelitis, especially of the tibia (sabre shin); caries sicca of the parietal and frontal bones
Hutchinson's incisors; mulberry molars; moon molars
Cranial porotic hyperostosis; cribra orbitalia
Porous lesions in the orbital surfaces; bone growth and remodelling; antemortem tooth loss and periodontal disease; occasional haemorrhagic staining of bones
In children: reduced long bone length; flaring of the ends of long bones; biomechanical bending deformities; porosity
In adults: deformity of vertebrae and pelvis
Abnormal, solitary swelling of bone, usually at the ends of long bones; occasional destruction of bone ends and formation of new periosteal shell
Woven bone development in the metaphyseal areas of growth plates
Pathological fracturing and cortical perforation of the bone, especially the skull, often occurs in numbers and not singly
Dense, opaque transverse lines observed on radiographed long bones
Reduction in total bone volume; thinning of cortical bone; thinning, loss and/or porosity of trabecular bone
Erosion of the wrist bones and the joints in the hands; osteoporosis; erosion of the acromio-clavicular joint and margins of humeral heads
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Human Palaeopathology Quiz
Created Nov 17, 2012 in
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