Viral Pathogens of the Skin - HERMEL

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Can you name the Viral Pathogens of the Skin ?

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_______: Like HSV, especially dangerous to immunocompromised pts, who may develop severe pneumonitis, encephalitis, hepatitis or systemic disease
A reactivation of VZV that affects mainly the flanks and can be excruciating.
Typically have a carpet-like (verrucous) surface.
Mortality rate for chicken pox is ~3-9/100,000; up to 15% in children with ___ cell defects.
Causes the development of Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) in pts with depressed cellular immunity, especially AIDS pts
_______ infection: as per HSV. Visceral dissemination is associated with a mortality rate of 5- 15%.
The most common complication of herpes zoster, occurring in 10–18% of patients.
Herpetic _____: Often seen in health care workers; causes painful ulcerations on fingers (can also be caused by HSV-2).
HPV _____ wart: They appear as individualized papules or nodules with a rough surface.
____ patients: Get disseminated infection of HSV involving respiratory, GI tract, or liver
A second VZV vaccine (Zostavax) was developed to prevent shingles/PHN by boosting a waning cell-mediated immune response to VZV with advancing age greater than _____years old.
Bacterial _______: Caused by Staphylococcal colonization of a lesion, from scratching.
Varicella zoster: Early ______ therapy is beneficial in reducing acute pain for HZ. Pts will generally also require analgesics. NSAIDS are usually ineffective, and opioids may be r
Usually diagnosed from clinical signs (rash, pocks). Electron Microscopy is the gold standard.
Pathogen of farm animals; occasionally infects humans (farm workers or veterinarians). Causes solitary cutaneous vesicular mass that later develops a central necrosis, typically on
HPV _____ warts are slightly raised, of skin color or pigmented with flat, slightly rough surface. The face and back of hands are the most common locations.
Varicella zoster: The rash is more pronounced on _____ and trunk
Rare infection of humans. The virus naturally infects nonhuman primates in the tropical rain forests in Africa.
______ is an AIDS-defining illness and is the most common neoplasm in HIV+ pts
dsDNA enveloped virus: member of Poxvirus family. Only one serotype. Spread by aerosoles.
HSV: _____ is the drug of choice. Valacyclovir, famciclovir and penciclovir (topical) are also used.
_______ Vaccine: Live virus vaccine consists of vaccinia, the causative pathogen of cowpox. Vaccine should be given within 4 days of exposure.
Fever and rash concurrent in _______.
HPV _____ wart: Found more in adolescents and young adults on the plantar region of the foot. Caused mainly by HPV type 1. They are commonly painful.
Enveloped, icosahedral ds DNA viruses.
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A common, benign, self-limiting infection in children; typically in the 2-5 year age group.
Nonenveloped dsDNA viruses. Causes persisten infections (even after resolution)
Fever before rash in ________.
_____, attenuated viral vaccine available for chicken pox (Varivax). Recommended for children at 12 and 18 mos.
HPV: Viral replication causes ____ and prickle cell (stratum spinosum) layers to thicken, with overproduction of keratin (keratosis).
A _____ (papilloma) is a benign, self-limited proliferation of skin that generally will regress over time.
______ Differentials: chickenpox, vaccinia (cowpox) and other poxvirus diseases [esp. with travel history and/or animal exposure], herpes simplex, measles, acne, insect bites.
_____ infection of HSV: Virus enters cutaneous neurons, and migrates to ganglion where it enters a latent state.
HSV: Virus travels up the ____ to the root ganglion, where it enters a latent (non-lytic) state.
Effective HAART prevents the development of, and treats _____ in in HIV+ pts; modifying immunosuppressive regimen in transplant pts
Virus is highly transmissible via airbrone droplets.
Causes nodular, smooth umbilicated papular eruptions with a dimple or pit in the center, generally on the face, trunk, genitals or extremities.
Smallpox Variola ____: 1% mortality rate. Caused by less virulent strains, or infection in a partially immune host
HPV does not _______ its genome into host cell DNA, but exists as a separately replicating episome (akin to plasmid replication in bacteria).
Herpes _____: characterized by herpes lesions clustering most often on the neck, chest, face, stomach, and legs of wrestlers and high school athletes
HSV: Primary (as opposed to reactivation infections) tend to be more severe and have more ______ symptoms (headache, fever, lymphadenopathy, etc).
Rash clearly follows a single dermatome
Smallpox Variola ______: has characteristic vesicular rash and ~30% mortality rate
HSV is ______ and results in cell death, leading to ulceration
Diagnosed histologically from findings of large eosinophilic vacuolated cells. Treatment are ablative techniques (curettage, electrocautery or liquid N2)
Diagnosis of HSV.
Category A bioweapons that may produce cutaneous manifestations include agents causing anthrax, plague, _______, tularemia, and certain viral hemorrhagic fevers.
(enlarged keratinocytes with clear haloes and shrunken nuclei) are characteristic of HPV infection.
HPV: Virus persists in the ____ cell layer

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