Rounded ________ is associated with pleural disease, particularly following asbestos exposure.
Malignant lesions tend to have more irregular and _______ borders, whereas benign lesions often have a relatively smooth and discrete border.
Excision of a nodule can be performed by thoracotomy or _________.
The probability of a SPN being malignant rises with increasing patient ______.
Centrally located endobroncial lesions. Malignant neoplasms characterized by neuroendocrine tumor.
Can produce histamine, serotonin and cause flushing, wheezing, and asthma
Benign lesions generally have a doubling time that is either less than ____ days or greater than 480 days.
The presence of calcification does not exclude _________.
Certain patterns of calcification strongly suggest that SPN is likely benign - popcorn, laminated, central, diffuse, homogenous
Cause approximately 80% of benign nodules.
Endemic fungi, mycobacteria
Metastasis from lung cancer to ______ is frequently symptomatic.
The characteristic appearance of a ________ on a CXR is a SPN with 'popcorn' calcification, although this pattern is observed in less than 10% of cases.
CT scanning of the lesion is particularly useful because it may demonstrate focal areas of fat, or calcification alternating with fat, which are virtually diagnostic of a hamartoma.
Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer mortality worldwide for both men and women, causing approximately ______ million deaths per year.
Approximately 95% of lung cancers are classified as either small cell lung cancer (SCLC) or ________.
In this procedure, a core of tissue is obtained using a cutting needle. Up to 97% of patients with a malignant or benign lung nodule will have a definitive diagnosis.
A lesion that is both within and surrounded by pulmonary parenchyma. It is usually detected incidentally on a plain chest radiograph or computed tomographic (CT) scan.
All types of primary lung cancer can present as SPN.
A nodule that has been stable for over 2-3 years can be considered ________.
Lung cancers arising in the superior sulcus cause a characteristic ________ syndrome manifested by pain in the shoulder, forearm, and scapula.
horner syndrome, bony destruction, and atropy of hand muscles. C8, T1, and T2 nerve root involvement
Fastest growing lung cancer that has a median doubling time of about 30 days.
Any amount of hemoptysis in intrathoracic effects of cancer can be alarming to the patient and large volumes of hemoptysis may cause ________.
Asphyxia is a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body that arises from being unable to breathe normally. An example of asphyxia is choking. Asphyxia causes generalized hypoxia, which primarily affects the tissues and organs.
Limited SCLC may benefit from thoracic _____ therapy in addition to systemic chemotherapy.
All patients with suspected NSCLC should undergo contrast-enhanced CT that extends through the lungs, liver and ______ glands.
Stage ___: treated with complete surgical resection whenever possible.
Surgical ____ offers the best opportunity for long-term survival and cure in patients with resectable NSCLC.
Lesions that are malignant tend to have a volume doubling time between _______ days.
Doubling = 30% increase in diameter
Stage I or II NSCLC who are not candidates for surgical resection or who refuse surgery may be candidates for _______.
Stage____: palliative chemotherapy and radiation treatment.
A patient with lung cancer may be resectable by virtue of having a surgically removable NSCLC, but may not be operable due to poor pulmonary function or _________.
Assess performance status with concurrent comorbities and pulmonary function to allow prediction of postoperative function.
_______ is frequently caused by SCLC as a paraneoplastic phenoma and results in hyponatremia.
Larger lesions are more likely to be ______ than smaller lesions.
_________ can help distinguish malignant and benign lesions because cancers are metabolically active and take up FDG avidly.
95% of patients with malignant nodules will have an abnormal FDG-PET