Sleep Physiology

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Can you name the Sleep Physiology ?

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_________(“time-givers”) are environmental cues that usually help keep the circadian cycleSunlight, noise, social interactions, alarm clock
(2 clusters ~10,000 - 50,000 neurons) are located in the hypothalamus just above the optic chiasm, on either side of the 3rd ventricle (rat)
The SCN is innervated by the retina, via the ______.
PER protein is susceptible to degradation unless it forms a ___
PER/PER and PER/CRY dimers translocate into the nucleus. The dimers interact with BMAL1/CLOCK to _____ activation.
Mammalian CK1e is a critical regulator of ______ oscillations.
CK1e in the cytoplasm phosphorylates susceptible PER proteins, making them less stable and eventually resulting in their __________.
The ____ mutation in CK1e results in a change in the timing of production of proteins which influence circadian behaviors
Cytoplasmic activity of mutant CK1e results in a _____ period
Mutant human _____ gene results in shortened sleep cycle
_________ peptides are usually found in bacterial walls and can induce sleep when a person has a bacterial infection.
ML1 receptors in the SCN and neural retina are G-protein coupled receptors that _______ SCN activity.
Receives fibers from the sensory pathways and influences alertness, maintenance of attention and wakefulness. Extends from the brainstem rostrally to the basal forebrain
________waves (13-30 Hz) - Awake, alert
_____waves (8-12 Hz) - Awake, relaxedA for awake and relaxed
_____waves (3.5-7.5 Hz) - Sleep
_____waves (less than 3.5Hz) Slow-wave deep sleep Deep for Delta
Beta activity (found in the alert individual) has _____ amplitude (height of the wave) and high frequency.
In Stage 1 sleep, EEG activity is of higher amplitude and ______ frequency than during waking. EMG shows some muscle activity. EOG shows some eye movement
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In Stage 2 sleep,the EEG is higher in amplitude and lower in frequency than during Stage 1, and contains both k-complexes (spike) and sleep _______(the rapid burst).
In Stage 3 sleep, waves are slower and higher in amplitude, indicating greater ______ synchrony.
In Stage 4 sleep, the EEG is higher in amplitude and lower in frequency than in any other stage. We call this highly synchronized pattern ______ activity.
In REM sleep, the EEG is that of an _____ individual, muscle activity ceases completely, HR returns to the level it had at the start of sleep, and the eyes dart back and forth toge
Congenitally blind people have ______ dreams
___% of dreams associated with sadness, apprehension or anger
Penile/clitoral erection occurs in most people during _______ sleep.
Selective deprivation of REM sleep results in REM _______
______ spikes are thought to trigger REM sleep Electrical activity from brainstem to visual cortex. Precede REM sleep and continue throughout REM. Highly synchronized to eye movements. PGO deprived animals “make-up” lost PGOs more readily than REM
Serotonergic neurons in dorsal raphe nucleus and midbrain periaqueductal gray matter fire maximally during waking, and stop firing during _______sleep. May normally suppress PGO waves. Thus these neurons normally suppress REM, and their inactivity indicates a termination of this inhibition.
Neurons that fire together during a learning episode also fire together during _____ following that episode
Difficulty falling/staying asleep at nightUsually a symptom of other underlying disorder e.g., anxiety/mood disorders, poor sleep environment, etc. Very common, especially in the elderly
Relaxation of muscles at back of mouth and throat collapses airway Unable to inhale 10 sec to > 1 minute CO2 levels rise O2 levels fall => sleeper awakened
Symptoms include sleep deprivation, high BP, abnormal heart rhythms, heart attacks, stroke, impaired memory/concentration
Incidence increases with age, obesity
sleep attacks (2-5 min). Caused by defect in REM mechanisms. Symptoms include cataplexy, sleep paralysis, hypnogogic hallucinations
REM without atonia Lesions to the locus coeruleus (in Pons) result in loss of atonia during REM sleep. Nightmares.
Stages 4 (and 5, old classification) (all most common in children). Enuresis - bed wetting. Sleep walking. Night terrors -stage 4 Anguished screams, trembling, rapid pulse, no memoSlow-wave disorder
“creepy-crawly” or aching dysesthesias accompanied by irresistable urge to move legs symptoms temporarily disappear with movement worse during evening or night interfere with a

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Created Sep 10, 2011ReportNominate
Tags:physiology, sleep