Russell Derm Pathology

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Can you name the Russell Derm Pathology ?

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Skin tumor with the worst prognosis.
______ Tumors: Apocrine carcinoma, Cylindroma, Pilomatrixoma, Trichilemmoma, Trichoepithelioma, Sebaceous adenoma and carcinoma.
Besides lentigines, _____ patients develop benign hamartomatous gastrointestinal polyps, mostly in the jejunum, but the entire bowel may affected.
Larger than most acquired nevi, often larger than 6mm in diameter. Important signs are size, irregular pigmentation, irregular borders, and accentuated surface.
Brown-black pigment, Absorbs UV light at 200-1200nm. Protects from UV damage.
Associated with genomic instability including imbalance of telomere-telomerase complex and dicentric chromosomes (2 centromeres). Causes Cardiac Myxomas.
Lifetime risk of developing melanoma approaches 80-100%
Type of melanoma that develops on lower extremities and back. 70% of cases. Peak incidence in 4th and 5th decade.
Hard, spiky, white keratosis on sun- exposed skin often accompanied by telangiectasia
Multiple sebaceous adenomas and sebaceous carcinomas associated with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal carcinomas.
Pinching causes depression in the center. More common in women.
Firm solid nodule arising most frequently on the trunk. Often develop as aggregated 'protuberant' tumors with a firm indurated plaque or nodule that may sometimes ulcerate.
Localized area of dermal edema and erythema (wheal) that occur when lesional skin is rubbed.
Flesh-colored, pedunculated tags of skin in the neck, axilla, groin, or under a woman's breast
Histological features are club-shaped elongated rete ridges, basal hypermelanosis and an increased number but no nesting of melanocytes. Solar elastosis (damaged elastin fibers) in
Not all nevi become melanomas because of ________
Usually large, more than 6mm. Most are 10mm at diagnosis. Upward infiltration into the upper epidermis may not be conspicuous.
Indurated, scaling, erythematous papules, nodules or plaques that occasionally ulcerate and bleed. Often develops in preexisting actinic keratosis
______ Type Basal Cell Carcinoma: Locally destructive with deep invasion into the underlying stroma. Often requires repeated excisions.
_____ growth phase: lateral spread of malignant cells in epidermis and papillary dermis
Large, usually unilateral hyperpigmented, hypertrichotic (=hairy) patch on the shoulder or chest
Small, skin colored dome-shaped nodule. Benign.
Multiple, small, hyperpigmented, asymptomatic papules on the face of >35% of adult African Americans. Appear at puberty. Histologically resembles seborrheic keratosis. Benign.
1-12 mm lentigines around the mouth, on the lips, and on the buccal mucosa, and also on fingers and toes on both the palmar and volar surfaces; absent from the flexor and extensor
Histologic features are lentiginous proliferation of melanocytes at the epidermal-dermal junction, single melanocytes with nuclear atypia, no upward scatter of melanocytes into the
Autosomal recessive disorder with a defect in nucleotide excision repair
Heavily pigmented, blue black nodule with smooth surface. Often confused with nodular melanoma.
Histologic features are elongated rete ridges, increased number of melanocytes in the basal layer. Increased amount of pigment in the keratinocytes.
Extremely common dermal fibrous tumors. Tends to occur on exposed sites on the limbs and the upper back, especially over the scapula.
Mutation of _____ gene causes phenotype of red hair, light skin, inability to tan.
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A pale nodule with a central pore. A sphere of epidermis gets oriented inward and buried within the skin.
Name a feature used to estimate the probability of metastatic spread of melanoma.
Benign follicular appendage tumors (trichilemmomas); internal adenocarcinoma (often breast)
Histologic features are non-nested proliferation of highly dendritic heavily pigmented melanocytes surrounded by fibrosis.
Benign neoplasms composed of melanocytes, which are neural crest-derived cells that migrate to the epidermis during embryogenesis. Symmetrical, well-circumscribed, small flat macul
Small, 1 to several mm in diameter, tan-red or light brown macules. The most common pigmented lesions in fair-skinned and/or red haired individuals.
multiple basal cell carcinomas; jaw cysts, etc.
Histological features are intercellular bridges, keratin, and atypical mitosis.
Cutaneous or subcutaneous, usually solitary pink, red, violet, or reddish- brown dome-shaped papule, nodule, or tumor (0.5-5 cm) . Head and extremities (sun-damaged skin) are the m
____ skin: Mostly small melanosomes. Melanosome-comples aggregates are rapidly degraded in keratinocytes. Few stage IV melanosomes.
The most common epithelial skin tumor; most people >50 have them. 'Stuck on' appearance. Benign tumor of keratinocytes.
_____ growth phase: invasion of malignant cells into the dermis and vessels.
_____ syndrome is the leukemoid form of mycosis fungoides with CD4+ T-helper tumor cells in the peripheral blood.
Clark's Level____: Invasive into the subcutaneous fat. High risk of metastasis.
_______ blue nevus: if present for a long time, does not need to be biopsied.
Clinically indistinguishable from junctional nevus.
Excessive ___ exposure, particularly early in life, is the single most important risk factor for malignant melanoma.
Symmetrical cup-shaped umbilicated tumor with a central depression filled with keratin.
White macules, 2-6mm in diameter. Idiopathic. Once formed, macules do not increase in size. Decreased number of melanocytes with decreased amount of melanin.
Histological features are hyperkeratosis, prominent rete ridges, basal hyperpigmentation, and no melanocyte hyperplasia.
Light brown pigmented macule with many dark brown small, scattered macules (2-3mm) and papules on pigmented background. May be very large >15cm. Less common than junctional or comp
Histological features are fibrohistiocytic tumor with a storiform growth pattern, trapped subcutaneous fat, and tumor invades subcutaneous fat.
MUTATIONS that diminish the activity of the retinoblastoma (RB) tumor suppressor proteins and ____ tumor suppressor protein are common in both familial and sporadic melanomas
_____ nevus: Histologic features are similar to acquired compound nevus.
Type of melanoma. Malignant cells only in epidermis.
An autoimmune inflammatory response to an unknown antigen in a nevus results in the disappearance of the nevus. The usual patient is less than 20 years old. Back is the typical loc
The risk of malignant melanoma rises to 1:__, if melanoma in-situ is included
Well-defined, painless, pearlescent nodule in sun-exposed area of older people. The margin is pink with telangiectasias. The most common malignancy of the skin and the entire body.
The current lifetime risk for developing invasive melanoma in the US is 1:___, a 2000% increase since 1930
Spectrum of disorders characterized by increased numbers of mast cells in the skin and occasionally in other organs. Round to oval, red-brown non-scaling multiple prurituc papules
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______ Measurement of Melanoma: Ocular micrometer is used to measure the thickness of the lesion from the stratum granulosum to the greatest depth of tumor invasion.
Histological features are hyper and parakeratosis, inflammatory infiltrate in dermis, acanthotic, dysplastic epidermis, and solar elastosis in dermis.
Autosomal dominant trait associated with germline activating mutations in FGFR3. Thickened, hyperpigmented skin with velvety appearance.
The most common benign sun-induced lesion
Melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. Defective Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER) leads to an inability of cells to repair DNA damage induced by exposure to UV light and some chemi
Intensely pruritic, polygonal papular eruption with violaceous color and sometimes fine scales
Present at birth. Often much larger than acquired nevi, measuring more than 1.5cm in diameter, occasionally greater than 20cm.
angiofibromas; mental retardation
Partial _____ in melanoma is an unfavorable prognostic sign.
Clark's Level ___: Tumor fills the papillary dermis and pushes against the reticular dermis.
Extension of lentigo maligna (intraepidermal) into the dermis. Long RADIAL GROWTH PHASE.
Activation of _____ by keratinocyte-derived alpha-MSH (melanocyte stimulating hormone) stimulates melanogenesis, melanocyte differentiation and transfer of melanosomes to keratinoc
Most common melanoma in patients of African, Hispanic, and Asian descent. Mortality rate is 80-90% within 3-4 years.
Histological features are hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, and benign fibrohistiocystic proliferation.
Melanoma warning signs are Asymmetry, Border, Color, Diameter, and _____
Spitz Nevus: ______ Stain. The positively staining cells in the epidermis are Merkel cells.
Histological features are epithelial collarette, central keratin filled 'crater' and prominent dermal inflammatory reaction. Keratinocytes with glassy, keratinized cytoplasm.
_____ skin: Large, singly dispersed melanosomes in keratinocytes. Many stage IV melanosomes.
Dermal edema resembling a hive occurs in normal skin as a result of localized stroking with a pointed Instrument.
_____ blue nevus: must be biopsied to rule out melanoma
A melanocyte-specific enzyme required for melanin synthesis
Type of melanoma with no radial growth and invades the dermis directly. 15-30% of cases. Poor prognosis
Type of melanoma located on the palm, sole, or under the nail. Differential diagnosis: subungual hematoma.
Yellow-red pigment. More photolabile than eumelanin. Causes photosensitivity.
Flat, usually small (0.5cm) macule. Clinically insdistinguishable from junctional nevus.
Extreme hyperkeratosis in Actinic Keratosis may cause development of a cutaneous ______.
Histological features are clusters of small, darkly staining basaloid tumor cells invade dermis. Palisading at the periphery of tumor nests. Bluish myxoid stroma.
Histological features are acanthosis, horn cyst, and hyperkeratosis.
Encodes a regulator of melanocortin receptor signaling

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