Russell Derm Pathology

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Can you name the Russell Derm Pathology ?

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Extension of lentigo maligna (intraepidermal) into the dermis. Long RADIAL GROWTH PHASE.
____ skin: Mostly small melanosomes. Melanosome-comples aggregates are rapidly degraded in keratinocytes. Few stage IV melanosomes.
Histological features are clusters of small, darkly staining basaloid tumor cells invade dermis. Palisading at the periphery of tumor nests. Bluish myxoid stroma.
______ Measurement of Melanoma: Ocular micrometer is used to measure the thickness of the lesion from the stratum granulosum to the greatest depth of tumor invasion.
Extremely common dermal fibrous tumors. Tends to occur on exposed sites on the limbs and the upper back, especially over the scapula.
MUTATIONS that diminish the activity of the retinoblastoma (RB) tumor suppressor proteins and ____ tumor suppressor protein are common in both familial and sporadic melanomas
Pinching causes depression in the center. More common in women.
Spectrum of disorders characterized by increased numbers of mast cells in the skin and occasionally in other organs. Round to oval, red-brown non-scaling multiple prurituc papules
Histologic features are non-nested proliferation of highly dendritic heavily pigmented melanocytes surrounded by fibrosis.
Well-defined, painless, pearlescent nodule in sun-exposed area of older people. The margin is pink with telangiectasias. The most common malignancy of the skin and the entire body.
_____ nevus: Histologic features are similar to acquired compound nevus.
Brown-black pigment, Absorbs UV light at 200-1200nm. Protects from UV damage.
The current lifetime risk for developing invasive melanoma in the US is 1:___, a 2000% increase since 1930
Type of melanoma located on the palm, sole, or under the nail. Differential diagnosis: subungual hematoma.
Skin tumor with the worst prognosis.
Clark's Level ___: Tumor fills the papillary dermis and pushes against the reticular dermis.
White macules, 2-6mm in diameter. Idiopathic. Once formed, macules do not increase in size. Decreased number of melanocytes with decreased amount of melanin.
Autosomal recessive disorder with a defect in nucleotide excision repair
multiple basal cell carcinomas; jaw cysts, etc.
______ Tumors: Apocrine carcinoma, Cylindroma, Pilomatrixoma, Trichilemmoma, Trichoepithelioma, Sebaceous adenoma and carcinoma.
Flat, usually small (0.5cm) macule. Clinically insdistinguishable from junctional nevus.
Clinically indistinguishable from junctional nevus.
_____ growth phase: lateral spread of malignant cells in epidermis and papillary dermis
Histological features are fibrohistiocytic tumor with a storiform growth pattern, trapped subcutaneous fat, and tumor invades subcutaneous fat.
Type of melanoma that develops on lower extremities and back. 70% of cases. Peak incidence in 4th and 5th decade.
Excessive ___ exposure, particularly early in life, is the single most important risk factor for malignant melanoma.
Histological features are hyper and parakeratosis, inflammatory infiltrate in dermis, acanthotic, dysplastic epidermis, and solar elastosis in dermis.
Multiple sebaceous adenomas and sebaceous carcinomas associated with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal carcinomas.
Cutaneous or subcutaneous, usually solitary pink, red, violet, or reddish- brown dome-shaped papule, nodule, or tumor (0.5-5 cm) . Head and extremities (sun-damaged skin) are the m
Histological features are acanthosis, horn cyst, and hyperkeratosis.
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Clark's Level____: Invasive into the subcutaneous fat. High risk of metastasis.
Small, skin colored dome-shaped nodule. Benign.
Benign follicular appendage tumors (trichilemmomas); internal adenocarcinoma (often breast)
Spitz Nevus: ______ Stain. The positively staining cells in the epidermis are Merkel cells.
Small, 1 to several mm in diameter, tan-red or light brown macules. The most common pigmented lesions in fair-skinned and/or red haired individuals.
Present at birth. Often much larger than acquired nevi, measuring more than 1.5cm in diameter, occasionally greater than 20cm.
Melanoma warning signs are Asymmetry, Border, Color, Diameter, and _____
Multiple, small, hyperpigmented, asymptomatic papules on the face of >35% of adult African Americans. Appear at puberty. Histologically resembles seborrheic keratosis. Benign.
The most common benign sun-induced lesion
Extreme hyperkeratosis in Actinic Keratosis may cause development of a cutaneous ______.
Name a feature used to estimate the probability of metastatic spread of melanoma.
Heavily pigmented, blue black nodule with smooth surface. Often confused with nodular melanoma.
A melanocyte-specific enzyme required for melanin synthesis
_____ growth phase: invasion of malignant cells into the dermis and vessels.
Activation of _____ by keratinocyte-derived alpha-MSH (melanocyte stimulating hormone) stimulates melanogenesis, melanocyte differentiation and transfer of melanosomes to keratinoc
Yellow-red pigment. More photolabile than eumelanin. Causes photosensitivity.
Histologic features are lentiginous proliferation of melanocytes at the epidermal-dermal junction, single melanocytes with nuclear atypia, no upward scatter of melanocytes into the
Melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. Defective Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER) leads to an inability of cells to repair DNA damage induced by exposure to UV light and some chemi
Indurated, scaling, erythematous papules, nodules or plaques that occasionally ulcerate and bleed. Often develops in preexisting actinic keratosis
The risk of malignant melanoma rises to 1:__, if melanoma in-situ is included
Large, usually unilateral hyperpigmented, hypertrichotic (=hairy) patch on the shoulder or chest
1-12 mm lentigines around the mouth, on the lips, and on the buccal mucosa, and also on fingers and toes on both the palmar and volar surfaces; absent from the flexor and extensor
A pale nodule with a central pore. A sphere of epidermis gets oriented inward and buried within the skin.
Localized area of dermal edema and erythema (wheal) that occur when lesional skin is rubbed.
Benign neoplasms composed of melanocytes, which are neural crest-derived cells that migrate to the epidermis during embryogenesis. Symmetrical, well-circumscribed, small flat macul
Not all nevi become melanomas because of ________
_____ blue nevus: must be biopsied to rule out melanoma
Autosomal dominant trait associated with germline activating mutations in FGFR3. Thickened, hyperpigmented skin with velvety appearance.
Firm solid nodule arising most frequently on the trunk. Often develop as aggregated 'protuberant' tumors with a firm indurated plaque or nodule that may sometimes ulcerate.
The most common epithelial skin tumor; most people >50 have them. 'Stuck on' appearance. Benign tumor of keratinocytes.
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Type of melanoma with no radial growth and invades the dermis directly. 15-30% of cases. Poor prognosis
Usually large, more than 6mm. Most are 10mm at diagnosis. Upward infiltration into the upper epidermis may not be conspicuous.
Partial _____ in melanoma is an unfavorable prognostic sign.
Intensely pruritic, polygonal papular eruption with violaceous color and sometimes fine scales
Encodes a regulator of melanocortin receptor signaling
Associated with genomic instability including imbalance of telomere-telomerase complex and dicentric chromosomes (2 centromeres). Causes Cardiac Myxomas.
Mutation of _____ gene causes phenotype of red hair, light skin, inability to tan.
_____ syndrome is the leukemoid form of mycosis fungoides with CD4+ T-helper tumor cells in the peripheral blood.
Lifetime risk of developing melanoma approaches 80-100%
Histological features are club-shaped elongated rete ridges, basal hypermelanosis and an increased number but no nesting of melanocytes. Solar elastosis (damaged elastin fibers) in
Besides lentigines, _____ patients develop benign hamartomatous gastrointestinal polyps, mostly in the jejunum, but the entire bowel may affected.
angiofibromas; mental retardation
_____ skin: Large, singly dispersed melanosomes in keratinocytes. Many stage IV melanosomes.
Most common melanoma in patients of African, Hispanic, and Asian descent. Mortality rate is 80-90% within 3-4 years.
Histological features are hyperkeratosis, prominent rete ridges, basal hyperpigmentation, and no melanocyte hyperplasia.
An autoimmune inflammatory response to an unknown antigen in a nevus results in the disappearance of the nevus. The usual patient is less than 20 years old. Back is the typical loc
Histological features are intercellular bridges, keratin, and atypical mitosis.
Histological features are epithelial collarette, central keratin filled 'crater' and prominent dermal inflammatory reaction. Keratinocytes with glassy, keratinized cytoplasm.
Dermal edema resembling a hive occurs in normal skin as a result of localized stroking with a pointed Instrument.
______ Type Basal Cell Carcinoma: Locally destructive with deep invasion into the underlying stroma. Often requires repeated excisions.
Histologic features are elongated rete ridges, increased number of melanocytes in the basal layer. Increased amount of pigment in the keratinocytes.
Larger than most acquired nevi, often larger than 6mm in diameter. Important signs are size, irregular pigmentation, irregular borders, and accentuated surface.
Flesh-colored, pedunculated tags of skin in the neck, axilla, groin, or under a woman's breast
Symmetrical cup-shaped umbilicated tumor with a central depression filled with keratin.
_______ blue nevus: if present for a long time, does not need to be biopsied.
Light brown pigmented macule with many dark brown small, scattered macules (2-3mm) and papules on pigmented background. May be very large >15cm. Less common than junctional or comp
Histological features are hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, and benign fibrohistiocystic proliferation.
Hard, spiky, white keratosis on sun- exposed skin often accompanied by telangiectasia
Type of melanoma. Malignant cells only in epidermis.

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Created Apr 21, 2012ReportNominate
Tags:pathology, russell