Russell Derm Pathology

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_____ growth phase: lateral spread of malignant cells in epidermis and papillary dermis
Pinching causes depression in the center. More common in women.
Histologic features are non-nested proliferation of highly dendritic heavily pigmented melanocytes surrounded by fibrosis.
Histological features are acanthosis, horn cyst, and hyperkeratosis.
Histological features are hyper and parakeratosis, inflammatory infiltrate in dermis, acanthotic, dysplastic epidermis, and solar elastosis in dermis.
An autoimmune inflammatory response to an unknown antigen in a nevus results in the disappearance of the nevus. The usual patient is less than 20 years old. Back is the typical loc
Mutation of _____ gene causes phenotype of red hair, light skin, inability to tan.
Histological features are club-shaped elongated rete ridges, basal hypermelanosis and an increased number but no nesting of melanocytes. Solar elastosis (damaged elastin fibers) in
Firm solid nodule arising most frequently on the trunk. Often develop as aggregated 'protuberant' tumors with a firm indurated plaque or nodule that may sometimes ulcerate.
Usually large, more than 6mm. Most are 10mm at diagnosis. Upward infiltration into the upper epidermis may not be conspicuous.
Heavily pigmented, blue black nodule with smooth surface. Often confused with nodular melanoma.
Besides lentigines, _____ patients develop benign hamartomatous gastrointestinal polyps, mostly in the jejunum, but the entire bowel may affected.
_____ nevus: Histologic features are similar to acquired compound nevus.
multiple basal cell carcinomas; jaw cysts, etc.
Histologic features are elongated rete ridges, increased number of melanocytes in the basal layer. Increased amount of pigment in the keratinocytes.
Indurated, scaling, erythematous papules, nodules or plaques that occasionally ulcerate and bleed. Often develops in preexisting actinic keratosis
______ Tumors: Apocrine carcinoma, Cylindroma, Pilomatrixoma, Trichilemmoma, Trichoepithelioma, Sebaceous adenoma and carcinoma.
Localized area of dermal edema and erythema (wheal) that occur when lesional skin is rubbed.
Histologic features are lentiginous proliferation of melanocytes at the epidermal-dermal junction, single melanocytes with nuclear atypia, no upward scatter of melanocytes into the
Histological features are clusters of small, darkly staining basaloid tumor cells invade dermis. Palisading at the periphery of tumor nests. Bluish myxoid stroma.
Histological features are epithelial collarette, central keratin filled 'crater' and prominent dermal inflammatory reaction. Keratinocytes with glassy, keratinized cytoplasm.
Flat, usually small (0.5cm) macule. Clinically insdistinguishable from junctional nevus.
The most common epithelial skin tumor; most people >50 have them. 'Stuck on' appearance. Benign tumor of keratinocytes.
Excessive ___ exposure, particularly early in life, is the single most important risk factor for malignant melanoma.
Extremely common dermal fibrous tumors. Tends to occur on exposed sites on the limbs and the upper back, especially over the scapula.
_______ blue nevus: if present for a long time, does not need to be biopsied.
Type of melanoma that develops on lower extremities and back. 70% of cases. Peak incidence in 4th and 5th decade.
Melanoma warning signs are Asymmetry, Border, Color, Diameter, and _____
The current lifetime risk for developing invasive melanoma in the US is 1:___, a 2000% increase since 1930
The most common benign sun-induced lesion
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Flesh-colored, pedunculated tags of skin in the neck, axilla, groin, or under a woman's breast
Present at birth. Often much larger than acquired nevi, measuring more than 1.5cm in diameter, occasionally greater than 20cm.
Most common melanoma in patients of African, Hispanic, and Asian descent. Mortality rate is 80-90% within 3-4 years.
Brown-black pigment, Absorbs UV light at 200-1200nm. Protects from UV damage.
Type of melanoma with no radial growth and invades the dermis directly. 15-30% of cases. Poor prognosis
____ skin: Mostly small melanosomes. Melanosome-comples aggregates are rapidly degraded in keratinocytes. Few stage IV melanosomes.
Hard, spiky, white keratosis on sun- exposed skin often accompanied by telangiectasia
Small, 1 to several mm in diameter, tan-red or light brown macules. The most common pigmented lesions in fair-skinned and/or red haired individuals.
Small, skin colored dome-shaped nodule. Benign.
The risk of malignant melanoma rises to 1:__, if melanoma in-situ is included
Name a feature used to estimate the probability of metastatic spread of melanoma.
Associated with genomic instability including imbalance of telomere-telomerase complex and dicentric chromosomes (2 centromeres). Causes Cardiac Myxomas.
______ Measurement of Melanoma: Ocular micrometer is used to measure the thickness of the lesion from the stratum granulosum to the greatest depth of tumor invasion.
Yellow-red pigment. More photolabile than eumelanin. Causes photosensitivity.
Melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. Defective Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER) leads to an inability of cells to repair DNA damage induced by exposure to UV light and some chemi
Clinically indistinguishable from junctional nevus.
Well-defined, painless, pearlescent nodule in sun-exposed area of older people. The margin is pink with telangiectasias. The most common malignancy of the skin and the entire body.
_____ growth phase: invasion of malignant cells into the dermis and vessels.
Benign neoplasms composed of melanocytes, which are neural crest-derived cells that migrate to the epidermis during embryogenesis. Symmetrical, well-circumscribed, small flat macul
A melanocyte-specific enzyme required for melanin synthesis
Benign follicular appendage tumors (trichilemmomas); internal adenocarcinoma (often breast)
White macules, 2-6mm in diameter. Idiopathic. Once formed, macules do not increase in size. Decreased number of melanocytes with decreased amount of melanin.
Histological features are hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, and benign fibrohistiocystic proliferation.
Dermal edema resembling a hive occurs in normal skin as a result of localized stroking with a pointed Instrument.
Extension of lentigo maligna (intraepidermal) into the dermis. Long RADIAL GROWTH PHASE.
Partial _____ in melanoma is an unfavorable prognostic sign.
_____ blue nevus: must be biopsied to rule out melanoma
angiofibromas; mental retardation
Not all nevi become melanomas because of ________
_____ skin: Large, singly dispersed melanosomes in keratinocytes. Many stage IV melanosomes.
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Type of melanoma. Malignant cells only in epidermis.
Multiple, small, hyperpigmented, asymptomatic papules on the face of >35% of adult African Americans. Appear at puberty. Histologically resembles seborrheic keratosis. Benign.
Skin tumor with the worst prognosis.
Encodes a regulator of melanocortin receptor signaling
Activation of _____ by keratinocyte-derived alpha-MSH (melanocyte stimulating hormone) stimulates melanogenesis, melanocyte differentiation and transfer of melanosomes to keratinoc
Clark's Level____: Invasive into the subcutaneous fat. High risk of metastasis.
Large, usually unilateral hyperpigmented, hypertrichotic (=hairy) patch on the shoulder or chest
Clark's Level ___: Tumor fills the papillary dermis and pushes against the reticular dermis.
Multiple sebaceous adenomas and sebaceous carcinomas associated with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal carcinomas.
_____ syndrome is the leukemoid form of mycosis fungoides with CD4+ T-helper tumor cells in the peripheral blood.
MUTATIONS that diminish the activity of the retinoblastoma (RB) tumor suppressor proteins and ____ tumor suppressor protein are common in both familial and sporadic melanomas
Extreme hyperkeratosis in Actinic Keratosis may cause development of a cutaneous ______.
1-12 mm lentigines around the mouth, on the lips, and on the buccal mucosa, and also on fingers and toes on both the palmar and volar surfaces; absent from the flexor and extensor
Lifetime risk of developing melanoma approaches 80-100%
Autosomal dominant trait associated with germline activating mutations in FGFR3. Thickened, hyperpigmented skin with velvety appearance.
Light brown pigmented macule with many dark brown small, scattered macules (2-3mm) and papules on pigmented background. May be very large >15cm. Less common than junctional or comp
Cutaneous or subcutaneous, usually solitary pink, red, violet, or reddish- brown dome-shaped papule, nodule, or tumor (0.5-5 cm) . Head and extremities (sun-damaged skin) are the m
Type of melanoma located on the palm, sole, or under the nail. Differential diagnosis: subungual hematoma.
Histological features are intercellular bridges, keratin, and atypical mitosis.
Spitz Nevus: ______ Stain. The positively staining cells in the epidermis are Merkel cells.
Intensely pruritic, polygonal papular eruption with violaceous color and sometimes fine scales
Autosomal recessive disorder with a defect in nucleotide excision repair
Larger than most acquired nevi, often larger than 6mm in diameter. Important signs are size, irregular pigmentation, irregular borders, and accentuated surface.
Histological features are fibrohistiocytic tumor with a storiform growth pattern, trapped subcutaneous fat, and tumor invades subcutaneous fat.
Histological features are hyperkeratosis, prominent rete ridges, basal hyperpigmentation, and no melanocyte hyperplasia.
Spectrum of disorders characterized by increased numbers of mast cells in the skin and occasionally in other organs. Round to oval, red-brown non-scaling multiple prurituc papules
Symmetrical cup-shaped umbilicated tumor with a central depression filled with keratin.
______ Type Basal Cell Carcinoma: Locally destructive with deep invasion into the underlying stroma. Often requires repeated excisions.
A pale nodule with a central pore. A sphere of epidermis gets oriented inward and buried within the skin.

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