Russell Block 3 Spring 2011

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Multiple emboli may cause pulmonary hypertension and __________ due to loss of vascular bed.
_______ Atelectasis: Bronchial obstruction by mucus plugs, foreign body, or endobronchial tumor. Mediastinum shifts toward atelectasis. Reversible.
Presenting triad of hemoptysis, anemia, and diffuse pulmonary infiltrates.
_______ Atelectasis: Local or generalized fibrotic changes in the pleura or lung prevent full expansion. Irreversible.
Granulomatous inflammation and necrotizing vasculitis with striking number of eosinophils affecting small vessels and perivascular tissues in upper respiratory tract, lung, heart.
Obstructive or Restrictive: Decrease of tissue mass. Irregular thin-walled spaces.
Bronchitis or Emphysema: Mild dyspnea, early copious cough, repeated respiratory insufficiency, cor pulmonale, increased airway resistance, blue boater.
Characteristic linear pattern of immunoglobulin deposition is seen in immunofluorescence studies. >90% of patients have antibodies against the noncollagenous domain of the a3 chain of type IV collagen
Pulmonary HTN have a ________ lesion and thick intima and media.
Detached solid, liquid, or gaseous intravascular mass. Carried by blood from the point of origin to a distant site. 99% represent a dislodged thrombus. Consequence is ischemic necrosis.
Obstructive or Restrictive: Inflammation in alveolar walls, thickening of alveolar walls. Hyperplasia and metaplasia of alveolar epithelium.
Coin lesion due to _____ causes Valley Fever
Abnormal permanent enlargement of the air spaces distal to the terminal bronchioli accompanied by destruction of their walls. Etiology are smoking, air pollution, and alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency
Scattered patchy consolidation centered around bronchioles. Caused by staph, strep, haemophilus influenza
Curschmann spirals, massive eosinophilia and charcot-leyden crystals can be found in this disease.
________ emphysema: Age related loss of lung mass (atrophy). Affects the entire lung but it is often more pronounced in the upper lobes.
Consolidation of the entire lobe. Caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (95%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae.
Chronic necrotizing inflammation in bronchial wall leading to destruction of smooth muscle, elastic tissue, and cartilage resulting in cylindrical or saccular dilatation.
Endothelial injury, hypercoagulability, and abnormal blood flow are part of Virchow's triangle and lead to _______.
Atheromatous streaks in large pulmonary arteries, medial hypertrophy, and plexiform lesions are found in pulmonary ______
Arteritis with mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome. Coronary arteries can be involved with aneurysm formation and/or thrombosis. Usually occurs in children. Medium vessel vasculitis
________ emphysema: Acinus is irregularly involved. Almost invariable associated with scarring.
The patient is diagnosed with Pulmonary arterial HTN (PAH), but the chest radiograph and CT scan raise the suggestion of pulmonary edema.
_______ Atelectasis: Fluid, tumor, air in pleural cavity (tension pneumothorax). Abnormal elevation of diaphragm. Mediastinum shifts away from the affected lung. Reversible.
Multiple cavitary lesions, capillaritis, destroyed medium sized artery with necrotizing granulomatous inflammation.
Recurrent pulmonary thromboemboli, heart disease, vasospasm, adulterated olive oil, antiobesity drugs are part of the etiology of ______pulmonary HTN
_________ emphysema: Associated with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. Acini are uniformly enlarged from the level of the respiratory bronchioles to the terminal blind alveoli. Occurs most commonly in the lower zones and in the anterior margins of the lung. Usually most severe at the bases.
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Common in smokers. The earliest manifestation of COPD. Airways less than 2-3mm diameter affected. Small airway disease. Infection does not play a primary role.
________ emphysema: Descriptive term for large subpleural blebs or bullae. Can occur in any form of emphysema. Occurs near apex, sometimes in relation to old scars.
Obstructive or Restrictive: Inflammation in airway walls, thickening of airway walls. Hyperplasia and metaplasia of airway epithelium.
_______ mortem clot in a pulmonary artery has separation of fibrin and cells.
________ emphysema: The proximal portion of the acinus is normal, the distal part is predominantly affected. Probably underlies many cases of spontaneous pneumothorax in youth.
Classic stages of Lobar Pneumonia are Congestion, Red hepatization, Gray hepatization, and ________Macrophages mop up debris
________ emphysema: Dilation of the alveoli but no destruction of septal walls in response to loss of lung substance elsewhere. Results from hyperexpansion of the residual lung.
________ pneumonia is defined as interstitial pneumonia without consolidation. More common in children and young adults. Lab results are elevated cold-agglutinin titers.
________ syndrome: primary ciliary dyskinesia, bronchiectasis, sinusitis, infertility. Autosomal recessive.
Acute or Chronic Rejection: Lung transplant rejection that occurs to some degree in all patients despite routine immunosuppression.Often during early weeks to months after surgery, but may occur years later whenever immunosuppression is decreased.
Acute bacterial pneumonia presents with PMNs in alveoli, Hyperemia, and _______
__________ emphysema: More than 95% of cases. The central or proximal parts of the acini, formed by respiratory bronchioles are affected, distal alveoli are spared.
Antemortem thrombus have Lines of _____ composed of RBC, platelets, and fibrin
Name a complication of pneumonia
BMPR2 signaling is missing in _______ pulmonary HTNBMPR2 signaling causes inhibition of proliferation and favors apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle cells; when stimulus is missing, vascular smooth muscle cells proliferate
Hemosiderin containing macrophages in Grey Hepatization of Lobar Pneumonia.
________ emphysema: Air in the interstitial tissue stroma of the lung, mediastinum, or subcutaneous tissue. Causes alveolar tears, chest wounds that allow air to be sucked in.
Proliferation of smooth muscle in bronchiolar walls, alveolar septa, lymphatics, and perivascular spaces. Cyst formation leading to rupture and spontaneous pneumothorax. Looks like a honeycomb lung
Obstructive or Restrictive: Increase of tissue mass. Irregular thick walled spaces.
Large vessel vasculitis causing granulomatous inflammation in patients younger than age 50.
Acute or Chronic Rejection: At least half of all lung transplanted patient get this by 3-5 years after transplantation. Patchy bronchiolitis obliterans.Manifested by cough, dyspnea, and an irreversible decrease in lung function tests.
Accumulation of surfactant in alveoli and bronchioli is typical in all forms of ______. Can be acquired or congenital. Secondary to hematopoietic disorders & malignancies.
Bronchitis or Emphysema: Early severe dyspnea, late scanty cough, terminal respiratory insufficiency, decreased elastic recoil, hyperinflation, small teardrop heart, pink puffer.
Necrotizing inflammation typically involving renal arteries but sparing pulmonary vessels. Medium vessel vasculitis
Disease: increased irritability of the tracheobronchial tree with intermittent paroxysmal narrowing of the airways which may reverse spontaneously or with treatment.Genetic predisposition to type I hypersensitivity (atopy)
Most common cause of secondary pulmonary hypertension.

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Created May 6, 2011ReportNominate
Tags:2011, block, russell, spring