The urinary bladder and collecting systems are lined by transitional epithelium.
Diseases induced by inorganic and organic particulates and chemical fumes and vapors. Development depends on the amount of dust retained in the airways and lung parenchyma.
______ Carcinoma: EBV is found in close to 100% of cases. Rare. high frequency in Chinese people.
Variants are keratinizing and non-keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma and undifferentiated carcinoma (most common). Tumors invade locally and metastasize to cervical lymph nodes and beyond. Radiosensitive.
Three histologic components of Wilms tumor are stroma, blastema, and _______.
Endobronchial polypoid obstructing mass or mucosal plaque. Appear in younger population than bronchogenic carcinomas. Mean age 40 years. Cough and hemoptysis presenting symptoms.
Neuroendocrine origin. The most malignant of all lung tumors. Usually central. Strongly associated with smoking. Patients often older than average lung cancer patients.
Metastasizes early and widely. Bone marrow metastases common and often present at the time of diagnosis. Invasion and obstruction of superior vena cava is common leading to superior vena cava syndrome.
Polypoid plugs of connective tissue in alveoli and bronchioli. Connective tissue is all of the same age in contrast to UIP. No honeycomb changes usually.
DDx Chromophobe vs. Oncocytoma:Oncocytoma is ______ positive
Both originate in the intercalated cells of the renal collecting ducts.
70-80% of all renal cell carcinomas. High fat content in the tumor cells gives the tumor a yellow-orange color. Richly vascular stroma.
Tumor cell morphology may vary from the classic lipid-laden clear cells with abundant cytoplasm to cells with granular cytoplasm and large hyperchromatic, pleomorphic nuclei and abnormal mitoses.
Benign tumor with an admixture of thick-walled vessels, mature fat, and smooth muscle. Presenting symptoms are flank pain due to intra-tumor hemorrhage.
10-15% of all renal cell carcinomas. Often multifocal and bilateral.
Composed of nests and cords of uniform cells that have regular round nuclei with 'salt and pepper' chromatin, absent or rare mitoses and little pleomorphism.
Most common primary kidney tumor in children and the 3rd most common tumor in children less than 10yo. Large abdominal mass is the usual presenting symptom.
Uncommon idiopathic systemic granulomatous disease. Often affects the lungs and causes respiratory insufficiency. Lesions are non-caseating granulomas without identifiable organism
Hilar nodes are usually affected. Sarcoidosis may 'burn out' but leaves a scarred fibrotic lung.
Atypical carcinoid has increased _______ rate, cellular pleiomorphism, tumor necrosis, and higher incidence of hilar lymph node and distant metastases.
Small Cell Lung Carcinoma survival even with treatment is less than _____ year.
Large Cell Undifferentiated Carcinoma is often widely disseminated at the time of diagnosis. Aggressive tumors with ______ prognosis.
Ratio of the thickness of the mucous gland layer to the thickness of the wall between the epithelium and the carilage. Normal =0.4. Increased in Chronic bronchitis.
The most common benign solid renal tumor. Originate in the intercalated cells of the renal collecting ducts. Characteristic mahogany brown color.
_______ Cell Carcinoma: More common in males than females. Usually centrally located, gray-white bronchial mass. Often leads to bronchial obstruction.
Progression from metaplasia to dysplasia to carcinoma in-situ to invasive carcinoma
_______ tumor: Apical lung cancer in the superior pulmonary sulcus invades nerves around trachea including the cervical sympathetic plexus. Causes severe pain in the distribution o
The most common (95%) oral malignant tumor. Arises form foci of dysplastic epithelium.
Associated with tobacco, alcohol, and HPV
Intrathoracic tumor spread include spread into hilar lymph nodes, spread into contralateral lung, and _______ syndrome.
Subset of adenocarcinoma. Arises in the terminal bronchioles and alveoli. Typically peripheral gray-white nodules. 'Lepidic' growth pattern is a typical feature.
Tumor of the urinary bladder and collecting system that is almost invariably benign. Frond-like structures with a delicate fibrovascular core, lined by normal urothelium.
Replacement of one type of epithelium by another.
May have a biphasic pattern with epithelial appearing carcinomatous and fibrous-appearing sarcomatous elements. Iron-coated asbestos body in Broncho-alveolar lavage.
DDx Chromophobe vs. Oncocytoma: Chromophobe is _______ positive.
Both originate in the intercalated cells of the renal collecting ducts