Subset of adenocarcinoma. Arises in the terminal bronchioles and alveoli. Typically peripheral gray-white nodules. 'Lepidic' growth pattern is a typical feature.
Most common primary kidney tumor in children and the 3rd most common tumor in children less than 10yo. Large abdominal mass is the usual presenting symptom.
Tumor of the urinary bladder and collecting system that is almost invariably benign. Frond-like structures with a delicate fibrovascular core, lined by normal urothelium.
Diffuse damage to alveolar capillary walls. The underlying mechanism is an imbalance of pro and antiinflammatory mediators.
70-80% of all renal cell carcinomas. High fat content in the tumor cells gives the tumor a yellow-orange color. Richly vascular stroma.
Tumor cell morphology may vary from the classic lipid-laden clear cells with abundant cytoplasm to cells with granular cytoplasm and large hyperchromatic, pleomorphic nuclei and abnormal mitoses.
Replacement of one type of epithelium by another.
Ratio of the thickness of the mucous gland layer to the thickness of the wall between the epithelium and the carilage. Normal =0.4. Increased in Chronic bronchitis.
5% of all renal cell carcinomas. Arise from intercalated cells of collecting ducts. Better prognosis than other renal cell carcinomas.
Benign tumor with an admixture of thick-walled vessels, mature fat, and smooth muscle. Presenting symptoms are flank pain due to intra-tumor hemorrhage.
Intrathoracic tumor spread include spread into hilar lymph nodes, spread into contralateral lung, and _______ syndrome.
Polypoid plugs of connective tissue in alveoli and bronchioli. Connective tissue is all of the same age in contrast to UIP. No honeycomb changes usually.
Neuroendocrine origin. The most malignant of all lung tumors. Usually central. Strongly associated with smoking. Patients often older than average lung cancer patients.
Metastasizes early and widely. Bone marrow metastases common and often present at the time of diagnosis. Invasion and obstruction of superior vena cava is common leading to superior vena cava syndrome.
Usually appears as a gray-white peripheral mass with pleural puckering. Tumor forms glands and may produce mucin. More common in women.
Not as strongly associated with smoking as squamous cell carcinoma.
______ Carcinoma: EBV is found in close to 100% of cases. Rare. high frequency in Chinese people.
Variants are keratinizing and non-keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma and undifferentiated carcinoma (most common). Tumors invade locally and metastasize to cervical lymph nodes and beyond. Radiosensitive.
DDx Chromophobe vs. Oncocytoma: Chromophobe is _______ positive.
Both originate in the intercalated cells of the renal collecting ducts
The most common (95%) oral malignant tumor. Arises form foci of dysplastic epithelium.
Associated with tobacco, alcohol, and HPV
Atypical carcinoid has increased _______ rate, cellular pleiomorphism, tumor necrosis, and higher incidence of hilar lymph node and distant metastases.
DDx Chromophobe vs. Oncocytoma:Oncocytoma is ______ positive
Both originate in the intercalated cells of the renal collecting ducts.
The most common benign solid renal tumor. Originate in the intercalated cells of the renal collecting ducts. Characteristic mahogany brown color.
Three histologic components of Wilms tumor are stroma, blastema, and _______.
Uncommon idiopathic systemic granulomatous disease. Often affects the lungs and causes respiratory insufficiency. Lesions are non-caseating granulomas without identifiable organism
Hilar nodes are usually affected. Sarcoidosis may 'burn out' but leaves a scarred fibrotic lung.
_______ Cell Carcinoma: More common in males than females. Usually centrally located, gray-white bronchial mass. Often leads to bronchial obstruction.
Progression from metaplasia to dysplasia to carcinoma in-situ to invasive carcinoma
Small Cell Lung Carcinoma survival even with treatment is less than _____ year.