Lopes -Block 3 Spring 2011

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Can you name the Lopes -Block 3 Spring 2011?

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Question AnswerExtra Info
Abnormal stretching and enlarging of the respiratory passages caused by a chronic mucus blockage.
Volume of air in the lungs at resting end - expiration.
Sound: Tend to be more prominent during expiration. Associated with bronchospasm, airway edema or collapse or intraluminal obstruction.
Most common cause of high V/Q ratio.
Volume of air remaining in the lungs after a maximal exhalation
Name a cause of Chronic Respiratory Acidosis.
Low pitched vibratory sounds produced by free liquid in the airway lumen.
Reversibility in Asthma is 12% or greater increase of FEV1 and at least ____ml increase in volume expired.
Dyspnea due to atelectasis is caused by ________.
More Common DDx of Chronic Cough or DyspneaGERD, asthma, transient airway hyperresponsiveness, medication related (ACE inhibitors, beta blockers), CHF
COPD Stage ___: FEV1 less than 80% MILD
When is immunotherapy potentially contraindicated?
Treatment for Venous Thromboembolism in Pregnancy does not cross the placenta
Name a cause of Acute Respiratory Acidosis. Acute airway obstruction, neuromuscular disorder, ventilator dysfunction
Sound: Associated with interstitial lung disease or filling of alveoli with liquid.
An uncommon disorder characterized by permanent abnormal dilation of bronchi, resulting in chronic cough and purulent sputum, and sometimes hemoptysis. A disease of the medium-sizeBest test is high resolution CT
Most potent drug therapy available for the treatment of allergic rhinitis
The addition of regular treatment with inhaled _______ to bronchodilator treatment is appropriate for COPD patients with FEV1 less than 50%
If the FEV1/FVC is >70 but the FVC is low
4th leading cause of death in the US. 90% of patients have a smoking history.Up to 2% of cases are due to alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency
COPD Stage ___: FEV1 less than 30% VERY SEVERE
Multiple confluent acinar shadows is used to describe this condition when viewing a Chest X-Ray.
Characterized by a limitation of expiratory airflow so that airways cannot empty as rapidly compared to normal such as through narrowed airways from bronchospasm and inflammationExamples include asthma, COPD, Bronchiectasis, Cystic Fibrosis
Most important and common cause of sudden asthma exacerbation.
VSD, RVH, Overriding aorta, and pulmonary stenosis make up this congenital heart defect.
Name a cause of Respiratory Alkalosis. Drugs, pregnancy, sepsis, hepatic encephalopathy, mechanical ventilation
Asthma Severity: Symptoms less than 2 days per week, nighttime awakenings less than 2 times per month, SABA use less than 2 days per week.
Tests for the amount of specific IgE antibodies in blood which are present if there is a 'true' allergic reaction.
Question AnswerExtra Info
Most common seasonal allergen during the Fall in the east of the rockies.
The largest volume measured on a complete exhalation after full inspiration. This can also be measured by spirometry and is labeled FVC.
COPD Stage ___: FEV1 between 30-50% SEVERE
Once a patient develops persistent symptoms, add a daily low-dose _____ to their SABA.
Asthma classic triad includes dyspnea, cough, and ______
COPD Stage ___: FEV1 between 50-80% MODERATE
Causes of Increased Diffusing Capacity - DLCO
What does Gravida1 Para0 mean?
Fluid that has accumulated in the lung insterstitium due to an imbalance between the hydrostatic and oncotic forces within the pulmonary capillaries and surrounding tissue.
Pulsus ________: While listening to heart sounds during inspiration, the pulse weakens or may not be palpated with certain heartbeats.
Forced expiratory volume in one second. The volume of air exhaled in the first second under force after a maximal inhalation.
COPD can cause ______ retention.
In the US, almost all cases of HIV transmitted by blood product transfusion occurred before ________.
Common allergic reaction that causes inflammation of the lining in the nose. Nasal lining appears pale, boggy blue, clear nasal discharge, and postnasal drip.
Inward movement of the lower rib cage during inspiration, implying a flat but functioning diaphragm
Filling of lung alveoli by fluid or cells.
You should be concerned if the pulse oximeter is less than ______%
Prescribe long-term oxygen if SaO2 is less than _____%
________ Hypothesis suggest that the pathogenesis of atopy and asthma is triggered by imbalance between Th1 and Th2 cytokines.Some cytokines are protective and some promote allergic response
Reliably distinguishes obstructive from restrictive disorders.
VC + RV = ______
Asthma Severity: Symptoms > 2days per week, Nightime awakenings >3-4 times per month, and SABA use >2 days per week.
Cough up blood. Signals disease of the airways, pulmonary parenchyma or the vasculature.
Normal bicarb indicates acute or chronic?
#1 risk factor for Asthma
Most common indication for lung transplantation in the US
Tactile ________: Normal lung transmits a palpable vibratory sensation to the chest wall.
_______ Emphysema: Proximal and central respiratory bronchioles are dilated. Upper lobes of lungs. Smokers.
Question AnswerExtra Info
pH 7.50, pCO2 29, HCO3- 22
Most children who have asthma develop symptoms by age ____ years.
Nasal flaring, accessory muscle use and subcostal retractions, and tripod position leaning forward on hands are signs of respiratory _____.
Increased ________ is the probably the most important mechanism that causes hyperventilation during pregnancy.
Causes of Decreased Diffusing Capacity- DLCO
FEV1/FVC ratio below 70 signifies the likelihood of __________ lung disease
Common lung disease exhibiting an obstructive pattern
Crucial for diagnosis of COPD. (Gold Standard)CXR is useful to rule out pathology, Pulse oximetry, CBC, electrolytes, renal and liver functions
The volume of air in the lungs at maximal inflation.
Defined clinically: Persistent cough with sputum production for at least 3 months and in 2 consecutive years.
#1 cause of inherited disorder of increased potential to clot
Abnormal accumulation of fluid between the layers of the membrane that lines the lungs and chest cavity (pleural space)
Less Common DDx of Chronic Cough or DyspneaRecurrent aspiration (e.g. post stroke, frequent vomiting(bulimia), alcoholism)
Sampling of pleural liquid. Can be diagnostic or palliative. Analyzed for pathogens and malignancy.
Elevation of the neck veins (JVD) signify ____ ventricular failure
Normal, healthy lungs can empty over 80% of their volume in less than _____ seconds.
Characterized by reduced lung volumes/reduced lung compliance.Examples include Interstitial fibrosis, Scoliosis, Obesity, Lung resection, Neuromuscular diseases, Cystic Fibrosis
Measures the volume of air exhaled and inhaled as a function of time. Most of the values are obtained from having the patient forcefully expel air from a point of maximal inspiration to a point of maximal expiration.
Uncommon autoimmune disorder that attacks type IV collagen in the kidney and lung.
A gritty sound produced by the inflamed pleural surfaces rubbing together during respiration.
Risk factor for COPD Nutrition, infections, socio-economic status, musculoskeletal limitations
_______ Emphysema: Distal acini are dilated. Lower lobes. Alpha1 antitrypsin deficiency.
Asthma Severity: Symptoms throughout the day, nighttime awakenings often 7 times a week, SABA use several times a day, Extreme interference with normal activity.
Diagnose: CXR with wall of bleb, vertical heart, low set diaphragms, and hyperlucent lung fields.
Harsh inspiration produced by a narrow upper airway.
Measurement of the gas transfer function of the lungs or the patient's ability to absorb alveolar gases.

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