Lopes -Block 3 Spring 2011

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Can you name the Lopes -Block 3 Spring 2011?

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Question AnswerExtra Info
Reliably distinguishes obstructive from restrictive disorders.
Volume of air remaining in the lungs after a maximal exhalation
When is immunotherapy potentially contraindicated?
Reversibility in Asthma is 12% or greater increase of FEV1 and at least ____ml increase in volume expired.
FEV1/FVC ratio below 70 signifies the likelihood of __________ lung disease
An uncommon disorder characterized by permanent abnormal dilation of bronchi, resulting in chronic cough and purulent sputum, and sometimes hemoptysis. A disease of the medium-sizeBest test is high resolution CT
Increased ________ is the probably the most important mechanism that causes hyperventilation during pregnancy.
Sampling of pleural liquid. Can be diagnostic or palliative. Analyzed for pathogens and malignancy.
Common lung disease exhibiting an obstructive pattern
More Common DDx of Chronic Cough or DyspneaGERD, asthma, transient airway hyperresponsiveness, medication related (ACE inhibitors, beta blockers), CHF
The addition of regular treatment with inhaled _______ to bronchodilator treatment is appropriate for COPD patients with FEV1 less than 50%
Diagnose: CXR with wall of bleb, vertical heart, low set diaphragms, and hyperlucent lung fields.
Name a cause of Respiratory Alkalosis. Drugs, pregnancy, sepsis, hepatic encephalopathy, mechanical ventilation
COPD Stage ___: FEV1 between 30-50% SEVERE
The largest volume measured on a complete exhalation after full inspiration. This can also be measured by spirometry and is labeled FVC.
VC + RV = ______
The volume of air in the lungs at maximal inflation.
#1 risk factor for Asthma
Less Common DDx of Chronic Cough or DyspneaRecurrent aspiration (e.g. post stroke, frequent vomiting(bulimia), alcoholism)
Name a cause of Acute Respiratory Acidosis. Acute airway obstruction, neuromuscular disorder, ventilator dysfunction
Inward movement of the lower rib cage during inspiration, implying a flat but functioning diaphragm
_______ Emphysema: Proximal and central respiratory bronchioles are dilated. Upper lobes of lungs. Smokers.
COPD Stage ___: FEV1 between 50-80% MODERATE
A gritty sound produced by the inflamed pleural surfaces rubbing together during respiration.
Sound: Associated with interstitial lung disease or filling of alveoli with liquid.
Elevation of the neck veins (JVD) signify ____ ventricular failure
Most common cause of high V/Q ratio.
Abnormal stretching and enlarging of the respiratory passages caused by a chronic mucus blockage.
Question AnswerExtra Info
Tests for the amount of specific IgE antibodies in blood which are present if there is a 'true' allergic reaction.
Harsh inspiration produced by a narrow upper airway.
Common allergic reaction that causes inflammation of the lining in the nose. Nasal lining appears pale, boggy blue, clear nasal discharge, and postnasal drip.
Asthma Severity: Symptoms > 2days per week, Nightime awakenings >3-4 times per month, and SABA use >2 days per week.
Low pitched vibratory sounds produced by free liquid in the airway lumen.
COPD Stage ___: FEV1 less than 30% VERY SEVERE
Cough up blood. Signals disease of the airways, pulmonary parenchyma or the vasculature.
Asthma Severity: Symptoms throughout the day, nighttime awakenings often 7 times a week, SABA use several times a day, Extreme interference with normal activity.
Defined clinically: Persistent cough with sputum production for at least 3 months and in 2 consecutive years.
Causes of Decreased Diffusing Capacity- DLCO
Fluid that has accumulated in the lung insterstitium due to an imbalance between the hydrostatic and oncotic forces within the pulmonary capillaries and surrounding tissue.
Volume of air in the lungs at resting end - expiration.
COPD can cause ______ retention.
Multiple confluent acinar shadows is used to describe this condition when viewing a Chest X-Ray.
Characterized by a limitation of expiratory airflow so that airways cannot empty as rapidly compared to normal such as through narrowed airways from bronchospasm and inflammationExamples include asthma, COPD, Bronchiectasis, Cystic Fibrosis
Normal bicarb indicates acute or chronic?
VSD, RVH, Overriding aorta, and pulmonary stenosis make up this congenital heart defect.
Once a patient develops persistent symptoms, add a daily low-dose _____ to their SABA.
Most children who have asthma develop symptoms by age ____ years.
Prescribe long-term oxygen if SaO2 is less than _____%
Asthma Severity: Symptoms less than 2 days per week, nighttime awakenings less than 2 times per month, SABA use less than 2 days per week.
Tactile ________: Normal lung transmits a palpable vibratory sensation to the chest wall.
In the US, almost all cases of HIV transmitted by blood product transfusion occurred before ________.
Normal, healthy lungs can empty over 80% of their volume in less than _____ seconds.
Asthma classic triad includes dyspnea, cough, and ______
Treatment for Venous Thromboembolism in Pregnancy does not cross the placenta
Most potent drug therapy available for the treatment of allergic rhinitis
You should be concerned if the pulse oximeter is less than ______%
Question AnswerExtra Info
Most common indication for lung transplantation in the US
Pulsus ________: While listening to heart sounds during inspiration, the pulse weakens or may not be palpated with certain heartbeats.
What does Gravida1 Para0 mean?
If the FEV1/FVC is >70 but the FVC is low
Nasal flaring, accessory muscle use and subcostal retractions, and tripod position leaning forward on hands are signs of respiratory _____.
Name a cause of Chronic Respiratory Acidosis.
Risk factor for COPD Nutrition, infections, socio-economic status, musculoskeletal limitations
Forced expiratory volume in one second. The volume of air exhaled in the first second under force after a maximal inhalation.
#1 cause of inherited disorder of increased potential to clot
pH 7.50, pCO2 29, HCO3- 22
________ Hypothesis suggest that the pathogenesis of atopy and asthma is triggered by imbalance between Th1 and Th2 cytokines.Some cytokines are protective and some promote allergic response
Causes of Increased Diffusing Capacity - DLCO
Most important and common cause of sudden asthma exacerbation.
Crucial for diagnosis of COPD. (Gold Standard)CXR is useful to rule out pathology, Pulse oximetry, CBC, electrolytes, renal and liver functions
4th leading cause of death in the US. 90% of patients have a smoking history.Up to 2% of cases are due to alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency
Measures the volume of air exhaled and inhaled as a function of time. Most of the values are obtained from having the patient forcefully expel air from a point of maximal inspiration to a point of maximal expiration.
Most common seasonal allergen during the Fall in the east of the rockies.
Filling of lung alveoli by fluid or cells.
COPD Stage ___: FEV1 less than 80% MILD
Measurement of the gas transfer function of the lungs or the patient's ability to absorb alveolar gases.
Abnormal accumulation of fluid between the layers of the membrane that lines the lungs and chest cavity (pleural space)
Dyspnea due to atelectasis is caused by ________.
Characterized by reduced lung volumes/reduced lung compliance.Examples include Interstitial fibrosis, Scoliosis, Obesity, Lung resection, Neuromuscular diseases, Cystic Fibrosis
Uncommon autoimmune disorder that attacks type IV collagen in the kidney and lung.
Sound: Tend to be more prominent during expiration. Associated with bronchospasm, airway edema or collapse or intraluminal obstruction.
_______ Emphysema: Distal acini are dilated. Lower lobes. Alpha1 antitrypsin deficiency.

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