Science / Lopes -Block 3 Spring 2011

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Can you name the Lopes -Block 3 Spring 2011?

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Question AnswerExtra Info
Most common indication for lung transplantation in the US
COPD can cause ______ retention.
Common lung disease exhibiting an obstructive pattern
Tests for the amount of specific IgE antibodies in blood which are present if there is a 'true' allergic reaction.
Defined clinically: Persistent cough with sputum production for at least 3 months and in 2 consecutive years.
If the FEV1/FVC is >70 but the FVC is low
Asthma Severity: Symptoms throughout the day, nighttime awakenings often 7 times a week, SABA use several times a day, Extreme interference with normal activity.
4th leading cause of death in the US. 90% of patients have a smoking history.Up to 2% of cases are due to alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency
Most children who have asthma develop symptoms by age ____ years.
Crucial for diagnosis of COPD. (Gold Standard)CXR is useful to rule out pathology, Pulse oximetry, CBC, electrolytes, renal and liver functions
Normal bicarb indicates acute or chronic?
COPD Stage ___: FEV1 between 50-80% MODERATE
COPD Stage ___: FEV1 less than 30% VERY SEVERE
Causes of Increased Diffusing Capacity - DLCO
The addition of regular treatment with inhaled _______ to bronchodilator treatment is appropriate for COPD patients with FEV1 less than 50%
Once a patient develops persistent symptoms, add a daily low-dose _____ to their SABA.
Asthma Severity: Symptoms less than 2 days per week, nighttime awakenings less than 2 times per month, SABA use less than 2 days per week.
Name a cause of Acute Respiratory Acidosis. Acute airway obstruction, neuromuscular disorder, ventilator dysfunction
Cough up blood. Signals disease of the airways, pulmonary parenchyma or the vasculature.
Fluid that has accumulated in the lung insterstitium due to an imbalance between the hydrostatic and oncotic forces within the pulmonary capillaries and surrounding tissue.
Volume of air remaining in the lungs after a maximal exhalation
#1 cause of inherited disorder of increased potential to clot
In the US, almost all cases of HIV transmitted by blood product transfusion occurred before ________.
Pulsus ________: While listening to heart sounds during inspiration, the pulse weakens or may not be palpated with certain heartbeats.
When is immunotherapy potentially contraindicated?
Sound: Tend to be more prominent during expiration. Associated with bronchospasm, airway edema or collapse or intraluminal obstruction.
Most important and common cause of sudden asthma exacerbation.
Name a cause of Respiratory Alkalosis. Drugs, pregnancy, sepsis, hepatic encephalopathy, mechanical ventilation
Question AnswerExtra Info
________ Hypothesis suggest that the pathogenesis of atopy and asthma is triggered by imbalance between Th1 and Th2 cytokines.Some cytokines are protective and some promote allergic response
Less Common DDx of Chronic Cough or DyspneaRecurrent aspiration (e.g. post stroke, frequent vomiting(bulimia), alcoholism)
Reversibility in Asthma is 12% or greater increase of FEV1 and at least ____ml increase in volume expired.
Increased ________ is the probably the most important mechanism that causes hyperventilation during pregnancy.
Tactile ________: Normal lung transmits a palpable vibratory sensation to the chest wall.
Elevation of the neck veins (JVD) signify ____ ventricular failure
The largest volume measured on a complete exhalation after full inspiration. This can also be measured by spirometry and is labeled FVC.
Risk factor for COPD Nutrition, infections, socio-economic status, musculoskeletal limitations
COPD Stage ___: FEV1 less than 80% MILD
FEV1/FVC ratio below 70 signifies the likelihood of __________ lung disease
COPD Stage ___: FEV1 between 30-50% SEVERE
Filling of lung alveoli by fluid or cells.
Sound: Associated with interstitial lung disease or filling of alveoli with liquid.
More Common DDx of Chronic Cough or DyspneaGERD, asthma, transient airway hyperresponsiveness, medication related (ACE inhibitors, beta blockers), CHF
Abnormal stretching and enlarging of the respiratory passages caused by a chronic mucus blockage.
The volume of air in the lungs at maximal inflation.
#1 risk factor for Asthma
Asthma classic triad includes dyspnea, cough, and ______
Asthma Severity: Symptoms > 2days per week, Nightime awakenings >3-4 times per month, and SABA use >2 days per week.
Nasal flaring, accessory muscle use and subcostal retractions, and tripod position leaning forward on hands are signs of respiratory _____.
Causes of Decreased Diffusing Capacity- DLCO
Common allergic reaction that causes inflammation of the lining in the nose. Nasal lining appears pale, boggy blue, clear nasal discharge, and postnasal drip.
Diagnose: CXR with wall of bleb, vertical heart, low set diaphragms, and hyperlucent lung fields.
You should be concerned if the pulse oximeter is less than ______%
Sampling of pleural liquid. Can be diagnostic or palliative. Analyzed for pathogens and malignancy.
Uncommon autoimmune disorder that attacks type IV collagen in the kidney and lung.
Dyspnea due to atelectasis is caused by ________.
Forced expiratory volume in one second. The volume of air exhaled in the first second under force after a maximal inhalation.
Question AnswerExtra Info
Reliably distinguishes obstructive from restrictive disorders.
VSD, RVH, Overriding aorta, and pulmonary stenosis make up this congenital heart defect.
Name a cause of Chronic Respiratory Acidosis.
Abnormal accumulation of fluid between the layers of the membrane that lines the lungs and chest cavity (pleural space)
What does Gravida1 Para0 mean?
Most common cause of high V/Q ratio.
Inward movement of the lower rib cage during inspiration, implying a flat but functioning diaphragm
Measurement of the gas transfer function of the lungs or the patient's ability to absorb alveolar gases.
Characterized by a limitation of expiratory airflow so that airways cannot empty as rapidly compared to normal such as through narrowed airways from bronchospasm and inflammationExamples include asthma, COPD, Bronchiectasis, Cystic Fibrosis
VC + RV = ______
pH 7.50, pCO2 29, HCO3- 22
Prescribe long-term oxygen if SaO2 is less than _____%
Measures the volume of air exhaled and inhaled as a function of time. Most of the values are obtained from having the patient forcefully expel air from a point of maximal inspiration to a point of maximal expiration.
_______ Emphysema: Proximal and central respiratory bronchioles are dilated. Upper lobes of lungs. Smokers.
_______ Emphysema: Distal acini are dilated. Lower lobes. Alpha1 antitrypsin deficiency.
Volume of air in the lungs at resting end - expiration.
Multiple confluent acinar shadows is used to describe this condition when viewing a Chest X-Ray.
A gritty sound produced by the inflamed pleural surfaces rubbing together during respiration.
Most potent drug therapy available for the treatment of allergic rhinitis
Most common seasonal allergen during the Fall in the east of the rockies.
Treatment for Venous Thromboembolism in Pregnancy does not cross the placenta
Harsh inspiration produced by a narrow upper airway.
Characterized by reduced lung volumes/reduced lung compliance.Examples include Interstitial fibrosis, Scoliosis, Obesity, Lung resection, Neuromuscular diseases, Cystic Fibrosis
Normal, healthy lungs can empty over 80% of their volume in less than _____ seconds.
An uncommon disorder characterized by permanent abnormal dilation of bronchi, resulting in chronic cough and purulent sputum, and sometimes hemoptysis. A disease of the medium-sizeBest test is high resolution CT
Low pitched vibratory sounds produced by free liquid in the airway lumen.

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