Microbiology/Immunology Terms

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Can you name the Microbiology/Immunology Terms?

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DefinitionsTerms
CDR is an acronym for...
Proteins associated with TCR that transduce activation signal into cell
Term that describes the strength of interaction of all paratopes and epitopes
What enzyme released by CD8 cells enters target cells through pores induced by perforin and cause apoptosis of the target
If a NK Cell binds to MICA or MICB and does NOT bind to MHC-I the target cell will __________. (Live or Die)
Enzyme needed to convert superoxide into hydrogen peroxide
MHC class with three alpha subunits
This subset of chemokines attracts monocytes and T-Cells
Disease characterized by defective lysosome/phagosome fusion
NADPH oxidase is needed to make this
Length of peptides in antigen binding clefts on MHC-II molecules
In CD8 cell activation which cytokine will act in place of B7/IL-1 to serve as the second signal?
Product released by macrophages that is chemotactic for neutrophils
Adhesion molecules on circulating leukocytes
Endogenous antigen processing takes place in the...
The establishment of proliferating microbes on the skin of mucous membranes
There are ______ CDRs on the V-region of the TCR
Process that takes place at thymic corticomedullary border that kills off lymphocytes that have strong interaction with self proteins
Product released from mast cells that increases permeability of blood vessels
Hallmark of inflammation 'tumor'
The main site of secretion of this cytokine is CD4+ cells and it causes B-Cell proliferation and promotes class switching
Any substance that can bind with an antibody and elicit an immune response
Receptor on NK cells that binds to MHC I molecules
Molecule that marks proteins for degradation after translation
This cytokine is secreted by many cell types and can directly kill tumor cells, activate monocytes/macrophages and promotes expression of adhesion molecules
IL-2, IFN gamma and TNF beta are released by which T Cell subset?
Term that describes the strength of binding between a single paratope and epitope
An epitope that comes from the primary structure of a protein is called
Hallmark of inflammation 'rubor'
Which T-Cell subset activates macrophages and CTLs and recruits neutrophils, macrophages and lymphocytes?
Light chain of the TCR
Class switch induced by IL-4
These cytokines are released by all cells and induces an 'antiviral state' and activates NKCs
If an antigen has only one epitope it is considered...
If a NK Cell binds to MICA or MICB and binds to MHC-I the target cell will __________. (Live or Die)
Proteins that create channel for peptide fragments to move into ER
Decreased numbers of phagocytic cells
Subunit(s) of MHC-II molecule that anchors into the membrane
Enzyme needed to convert hydrogen peroxide into products of oxidative burst
Process that takes place in the thymic cortex to confirm that lymphocytes can interact with MHC-I/MHC-II molecules
In the presence of IL-12, IFN gamma or TGF Beta a naive CD4+ cell will differentiate into what subset?
Acute phase of inflammation lasts ___________ hours
Important chemical for light chain rearrangement in B-Cells when heavy chain is on cell surface
Which disease is characterized by a lack of cell-mediated and humoral immunity, opportunistic infections and either a mutation in the IL-2 receptor or mutations in ADA and/or PNP
Length of peptide in antigen binding cleft in MHC-I molecule
DefinitionsTerms
Variable regions of MHC-I molecule
The step in emigration of naive T-cells into secondary lymphoid tissue in which there is further interaction between adhesion molecules causing circulating cells to stop
Non-specific bacterial features that are capable of being recognized by PRRs
This cytokine is released by many cell types and acts in attracting other cells
Chaperone protein that stabilized alpha subunits in ER membrane before association with Beta 2 microglobulin
MHC-I are found on...
Receptors on NK Cells that recognize stress proteins on cells
Stress related molecules
Product released by macrophages that causes fever and is chemotactic
Enzyme needed in oxidative burst that is non-functional in patients with Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD)
Division of the adaptive immune system specialized to deal with intracellular threats
This creates a non-specific antigen response by many T-Cells at once causing systemic release of cytokines.
Which T Cell subset activates B-Cells, eosinophils and mast cells?
Main thymic cells involved in negative selection
What protein on the CD8 cell will bind to a receptor on the target cell to induce apoptosis of the target cell?
Subunit(s) of MHC-I that anchors into the membrane
Autosomal recessive disorder in which phagocytic cells are fully functional but are missing the protein needed to stick to the vessel wall and migrate to the site of infection
Coreceptor on cytotoxic T Cells that recognizes MHC-I molecule
MHC-II are found on...
Small molecule that can bind with antibody but does not elicit an immune response
Thymic cell with both CD4 and CD8 coreceptors is called...
Features of endosome that break down proteins
Conserved region of MHC-I molecule
If a CD4+ cell only binds to Ag/MHC-II complex in the absence of a costimulatory response the cell become...
Class of MHC that CD8 cells recognize
First immunoglobulin released during primary immune response
Primary phagocytic cell in tissues
Product released by macrophages that activates natural killer cells
The main site of secretion of this cytokine is from CD4+ cells and it causes proliferation/differentiation of T-Cells, B-Cells and/or NK cells
Primary phagocytic cell in the blood
Process of using only one light chain allele and one heavy chain allele for recombination
Final products of oxidative burst
Interleukin-1, Interleukin-6 and Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha are all
Protein that loads antigen fragments onto MHC-II in endosome
Proteins synthesized by many cells that interfere with viral replication and activate natural killer cells
TCR Terminal that is variable
Cytokines are considered ______________ because several different types of cytokines can exert the same effect.
Two molecules that are needed for the co stimulatory signal in CD4+ Cell activation
Heavy Chain of the TCR
Coreceptor on Helper T Cells that recognizes MHC-II molecule
This cytokine is secreted only by T-Cells and B-Cells and can directly kill tumor cells, activate monocytes/macrophages and promotes expression of adhesion molecules
Any substance that can bind with an antibody
Receptor on naive CD4+ cells that binds to B7 molecule on activated macrophages
Subunit of NADPH oxidase that is mutated in the X-linked recessive form of chronic granulomatous disease
Which disease is characterized by a loss of CD43 (which controls cytoskeletal movement) and is often associated with thrombocytopenia?
DefinitionsTerms
Which MHC class displays all cellular proteins
An epitope that comes from the tertiary structure of an protein is considered
IL-4, IL-5, IL-6 and IL-13 are released by which T Cell subset?
Adhesion molecules on endothelial cells
If an antigen has two or more epitopes (identical or not) it is considered.
Protein that is defective in Leukocytes adhesion deficiency
Transition of a cell through epithelial cells into tissue
Chemical that breaks disulfide bonds
Treatment for chronic granulomatous disease includes
'Island' macrophages, giant cells, T-Cells and B-Cells around an inflammatory agent that can't be destroyed
Cytokine that causes fever and induction of adhesion proteins and acute phase proteins
Abnormal red blood cell
Hallmark of inflammation 'calor'
Which disease is caused by a selective defect in T-Cell immunity which prevents it from responding to candida albicans infections and is often assiociated with endocrine dysfunctio
Th-1 and Th-2 are considered...
When a structure has one antigen binding site it is
Hallmark of inflammation 'dolor'
In the presence of IL-4 and IL-10 a naive CD4+ cell will differentiate into what subset?
Small soluble protein that delivers signals
This subset of chemokines attract neutrophils and includes IL-8
Division of the adaptive immune system that is specialized to deal with extracellular threats
Receptors on phagocytic cells capable of recognizing non-specific features on bacterial cells
Proteins synthesized by many cell types in response to viral infection
Conserved regions of MHC-II molcules
Phagocytic cell with a lifespan of about 4 days
Variable regions of MHC-II molecule
Enzyme in cytosol that processes proteins into 8-10 amino acid polypeptides
This cytokine is secreted in the thymic cortex by epitelial cells and from stromal cells of the bone marrow and it causes T-Cell and B-Cell proliferation during development
The step in emigration of naive T-cells into secondary lymphoid tissue in which P-selectin and E-selectin on the endothelial cells bind to L-selectin on circulating lymphocytes
TCR Terminal that is constant
Associated part of MHC-I molecule that increases stability of the complex
The main site of secretion of this cytokine is from monocytes and macrophages, it is a necessary signal in the costimulatory response for activating naive CD4+ cells.
Which disease is caused by a retrovirus that infects and reduces the amount of CD4+ cells to levels below 200 per cubic mm?
Antigen dependent point mutations in the hypervariable region of the light and heavy chain in an attempt to increase affinity of antibody to antigen.
Class switch induced by IL-5
Cytokines are considered ______________ because they can affect different cell types in different ways
Which disease is characterized by a lack of a functioning thymus, parathyroid gland and congenital heart defects?
This cytokine is released from T-Cells and NK Cells and induces and antiviral state, activates NKCs and promotes class switching to IgG2,3
Class switch induced by gamme interferon and transforming growth factor beta
Chaperone protein that brings MHC-II molecule to endosome from ER
First immunoglobulin released during secondary immune response
What product, released from CD8 cells, forms holes in the target cell's membrane
Portion of human genome that contains MHC genes
Recognizes MHC/Ag complex
Exogenous antigen processing takes place in the...

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