Microbiology/Immunology Terms

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Can you name the Microbiology/Immunology Terms?

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DefinitionsTerms
The main site of secretion of this cytokine is CD4+ cells and it causes B-Cell proliferation and promotes class switching
Hallmark of inflammation 'calor'
Class switch induced by gamme interferon and transforming growth factor beta
Variable regions of MHC-II molecule
If an antigen has two or more epitopes (identical or not) it is considered.
Length of peptide in antigen binding cleft in MHC-I molecule
Subunit(s) of MHC-I that anchors into the membrane
Coreceptor on Helper T Cells that recognizes MHC-II molecule
Term that describes the strength of binding between a single paratope and epitope
Proteins associated with TCR that transduce activation signal into cell
IL-2, IFN gamma and TNF beta are released by which T Cell subset?
Recognizes MHC/Ag complex
Cytokines are considered ______________ because several different types of cytokines can exert the same effect.
IL-4, IL-5, IL-6 and IL-13 are released by which T Cell subset?
Receptors on NK Cells that recognize stress proteins on cells
This creates a non-specific antigen response by many T-Cells at once causing systemic release of cytokines.
Coreceptor on cytotoxic T Cells that recognizes MHC-I molecule
This cytokine is released by many cell types and acts in attracting other cells
The main site of secretion of this cytokine is from CD4+ cells and it causes proliferation/differentiation of T-Cells, B-Cells and/or NK cells
Which disease is caused by a selective defect in T-Cell immunity which prevents it from responding to candida albicans infections and is often assiociated with endocrine dysfunctio
The main site of secretion of this cytokine is from monocytes and macrophages, it is a necessary signal in the costimulatory response for activating naive CD4+ cells.
Phagocytic cell with a lifespan of about 4 days
There are ______ CDRs on the V-region of the TCR
Abnormal red blood cell
CDR is an acronym for...
TCR Terminal that is variable
First immunoglobulin released during secondary immune response
Which disease is caused by a retrovirus that infects and reduces the amount of CD4+ cells to levels below 200 per cubic mm?
Any substance that can bind with an antibody and elicit an immune response
Which disease is characterized by a lack of a functioning thymus, parathyroid gland and congenital heart defects?
Non-specific bacterial features that are capable of being recognized by PRRs
Cytokines are considered ______________ because they can affect different cell types in different ways
Chemical that breaks disulfide bonds
Proteins that create channel for peptide fragments to move into ER
Chaperone protein that stabilized alpha subunits in ER membrane before association with Beta 2 microglobulin
First immunoglobulin released during primary immune response
Features of endosome that break down proteins
Receptor on NK cells that binds to MHC I molecules
Subunit(s) of MHC-II molecule that anchors into the membrane
Class switch induced by IL-5
Thymic cell with both CD4 and CD8 coreceptors is called...
Protein that loads antigen fragments onto MHC-II in endosome
Which T-Cell subset activates macrophages and CTLs and recruits neutrophils, macrophages and lymphocytes?
Which disease is characterized by a loss of CD43 (which controls cytoskeletal movement) and is often associated with thrombocytopenia?
Product released by macrophages that causes fever and is chemotactic
DefinitionsTerms
Hallmark of inflammation 'tumor'
MHC-I are found on...
Interleukin-1, Interleukin-6 and Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha are all
This cytokine is secreted only by T-Cells and B-Cells and can directly kill tumor cells, activate monocytes/macrophages and promotes expression of adhesion molecules
Receptor on naive CD4+ cells that binds to B7 molecule on activated macrophages
Main thymic cells involved in negative selection
What protein on the CD8 cell will bind to a receptor on the target cell to induce apoptosis of the target cell?
Division of the adaptive immune system that is specialized to deal with extracellular threats
Receptors on phagocytic cells capable of recognizing non-specific features on bacterial cells
If an antigen has only one epitope it is considered...
This cytokine is released from T-Cells and NK Cells and induces and antiviral state, activates NKCs and promotes class switching to IgG2,3
If a NK Cell binds to MICA or MICB and binds to MHC-I the target cell will __________. (Live or Die)
Process that takes place in the thymic cortex to confirm that lymphocytes can interact with MHC-I/MHC-II molecules
Adhesion molecules on circulating leukocytes
Hallmark of inflammation 'dolor'
Acute phase of inflammation lasts ___________ hours
Small molecule that can bind with antibody but does not elicit an immune response
Transition of a cell through epithelial cells into tissue
This cytokine is secreted by many cell types and can directly kill tumor cells, activate monocytes/macrophages and promotes expression of adhesion molecules
Product released by macrophages that is chemotactic for neutrophils
Length of peptides in antigen binding clefts on MHC-II molecules
Chaperone protein that brings MHC-II molecule to endosome from ER
Proteins synthesized by many cell types in response to viral infection
This cytokine is secreted in the thymic cortex by epitelial cells and from stromal cells of the bone marrow and it causes T-Cell and B-Cell proliferation during development
Enzyme needed to convert hydrogen peroxide into products of oxidative burst
What product, released from CD8 cells, forms holes in the target cell's membrane
NADPH oxidase is needed to make this
Which disease is characterized by a lack of cell-mediated and humoral immunity, opportunistic infections and either a mutation in the IL-2 receptor or mutations in ADA and/or PNP
Enzyme needed in oxidative burst that is non-functional in patients with Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD)
Enzyme in cytosol that processes proteins into 8-10 amino acid polypeptides
Which MHC class displays all cellular proteins
An epitope that comes from the tertiary structure of an protein is considered
Two molecules that are needed for the co stimulatory signal in CD4+ Cell activation
Process of using only one light chain allele and one heavy chain allele for recombination
Antigen dependent point mutations in the hypervariable region of the light and heavy chain in an attempt to increase affinity of antibody to antigen.
Disease characterized by defective lysosome/phagosome fusion
Primary phagocytic cell in tissues
TCR Terminal that is constant
Exogenous antigen processing takes place in the...
Endogenous antigen processing takes place in the...
Important chemical for light chain rearrangement in B-Cells when heavy chain is on cell surface
'Island' macrophages, giant cells, T-Cells and B-Cells around an inflammatory agent that can't be destroyed
In CD8 cell activation which cytokine will act in place of B7/IL-1 to serve as the second signal?
Class switch induced by IL-4
MHC-II are found on...
DefinitionsTerms
The establishment of proliferating microbes on the skin of mucous membranes
Stress related molecules
Proteins synthesized by many cells that interfere with viral replication and activate natural killer cells
Final products of oxidative burst
Product released from mast cells that increases permeability of blood vessels
Portion of human genome that contains MHC genes
In the presence of IL-12, IFN gamma or TGF Beta a naive CD4+ cell will differentiate into what subset?
Treatment for chronic granulomatous disease includes
Which T Cell subset activates B-Cells, eosinophils and mast cells?
Subunit of NADPH oxidase that is mutated in the X-linked recessive form of chronic granulomatous disease
Th-1 and Th-2 are considered...
The step in emigration of naive T-cells into secondary lymphoid tissue in which there is further interaction between adhesion molecules causing circulating cells to stop
Small soluble protein that delivers signals
This subset of chemokines attract neutrophils and includes IL-8
Decreased numbers of phagocytic cells
Cytokine that causes fever and induction of adhesion proteins and acute phase proteins
If a NK Cell binds to MICA or MICB and does NOT bind to MHC-I the target cell will __________. (Live or Die)
Conserved region of MHC-I molecule
Product released by macrophages that activates natural killer cells
Conserved regions of MHC-II molcules
Light chain of the TCR
Heavy Chain of the TCR
Molecule that marks proteins for degradation after translation
Variable regions of MHC-I molecule
Any substance that can bind with an antibody
Associated part of MHC-I molecule that increases stability of the complex
What enzyme released by CD8 cells enters target cells through pores induced by perforin and cause apoptosis of the target
The step in emigration of naive T-cells into secondary lymphoid tissue in which P-selectin and E-selectin on the endothelial cells bind to L-selectin on circulating lymphocytes
Division of the adaptive immune system specialized to deal with intracellular threats
Enzyme needed to convert superoxide into hydrogen peroxide
Protein that is defective in Leukocytes adhesion deficiency
This subset of chemokines attracts monocytes and T-Cells
Hallmark of inflammation 'rubor'
Autosomal recessive disorder in which phagocytic cells are fully functional but are missing the protein needed to stick to the vessel wall and migrate to the site of infection
An epitope that comes from the primary structure of a protein is called
Adhesion molecules on endothelial cells
Term that describes the strength of interaction of all paratopes and epitopes
Process that takes place at thymic corticomedullary border that kills off lymphocytes that have strong interaction with self proteins
When a structure has one antigen binding site it is
MHC class with three alpha subunits
If a CD4+ cell only binds to Ag/MHC-II complex in the absence of a costimulatory response the cell become...
Primary phagocytic cell in the blood
In the presence of IL-4 and IL-10 a naive CD4+ cell will differentiate into what subset?
Class of MHC that CD8 cells recognize
These cytokines are released by all cells and induces an 'antiviral state' and activates NKCs

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