Microbiology/Immunology Terms

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Can you name the Microbiology/Immunology Terms?

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DefinitionsTerms
Stress related molecules
Primary phagocytic cell in the blood
MHC-II are found on...
In the presence of IL-12, IFN gamma or TGF Beta a naive CD4+ cell will differentiate into what subset?
This cytokine is released by many cell types and acts in attracting other cells
Subunit of NADPH oxidase that is mutated in the X-linked recessive form of chronic granulomatous disease
Product released by macrophages that is chemotactic for neutrophils
MHC-I are found on...
Conserved regions of MHC-II molcules
First immunoglobulin released during primary immune response
Which disease is characterized by a loss of CD43 (which controls cytoskeletal movement) and is often associated with thrombocytopenia?
Heavy Chain of the TCR
An epitope that comes from the primary structure of a protein is called
Which T-Cell subset activates macrophages and CTLs and recruits neutrophils, macrophages and lymphocytes?
Primary phagocytic cell in tissues
The main site of secretion of this cytokine is from monocytes and macrophages, it is a necessary signal in the costimulatory response for activating naive CD4+ cells.
This subset of chemokines attracts monocytes and T-Cells
In the presence of IL-4 and IL-10 a naive CD4+ cell will differentiate into what subset?
Variable regions of MHC-II molecule
If a NK Cell binds to MICA or MICB and binds to MHC-I the target cell will __________. (Live or Die)
Acute phase of inflammation lasts ___________ hours
Small soluble protein that delivers signals
Which MHC class displays all cellular proteins
Interleukin-1, Interleukin-6 and Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha are all
If an antigen has two or more epitopes (identical or not) it is considered.
CDR is an acronym for...
When a structure has one antigen binding site it is
Product released by macrophages that causes fever and is chemotactic
Exogenous antigen processing takes place in the...
If a CD4+ cell only binds to Ag/MHC-II complex in the absence of a costimulatory response the cell become...
'Island' macrophages, giant cells, T-Cells and B-Cells around an inflammatory agent that can't be destroyed
Conserved region of MHC-I molecule
Associated part of MHC-I molecule that increases stability of the complex
An epitope that comes from the tertiary structure of an protein is considered
Endogenous antigen processing takes place in the...
Main thymic cells involved in negative selection
Proteins synthesized by many cell types in response to viral infection
IL-4, IL-5, IL-6 and IL-13 are released by which T Cell subset?
Portion of human genome that contains MHC genes
Variable regions of MHC-I molecule
Cytokines are considered ______________ because they can affect different cell types in different ways
Abnormal red blood cell
Any substance that can bind with an antibody and elicit an immune response
Features of endosome that break down proteins
This cytokine is secreted by many cell types and can directly kill tumor cells, activate monocytes/macrophages and promotes expression of adhesion molecules
DefinitionsTerms
Division of the adaptive immune system that is specialized to deal with extracellular threats
Phagocytic cell with a lifespan of about 4 days
Subunit(s) of MHC-II molecule that anchors into the membrane
Chemical that breaks disulfide bonds
Th-1 and Th-2 are considered...
Class switch induced by IL-5
NADPH oxidase is needed to make this
Which T Cell subset activates B-Cells, eosinophils and mast cells?
Proteins associated with TCR that transduce activation signal into cell
Hallmark of inflammation 'calor'
Transition of a cell through epithelial cells into tissue
First immunoglobulin released during secondary immune response
Which disease is characterized by a lack of a functioning thymus, parathyroid gland and congenital heart defects?
Term that describes the strength of binding between a single paratope and epitope
Receptors on phagocytic cells capable of recognizing non-specific features on bacterial cells
Class of MHC that CD8 cells recognize
Non-specific bacterial features that are capable of being recognized by PRRs
What enzyme released by CD8 cells enters target cells through pores induced by perforin and cause apoptosis of the target
If an antigen has only one epitope it is considered...
Molecule that marks proteins for degradation after translation
Small molecule that can bind with antibody but does not elicit an immune response
Chaperone protein that stabilized alpha subunits in ER membrane before association with Beta 2 microglobulin
Process that takes place in the thymic cortex to confirm that lymphocytes can interact with MHC-I/MHC-II molecules
Process of using only one light chain allele and one heavy chain allele for recombination
Cytokines are considered ______________ because several different types of cytokines can exert the same effect.
Coreceptor on cytotoxic T Cells that recognizes MHC-I molecule
What product, released from CD8 cells, forms holes in the target cell's membrane
This cytokine is released from T-Cells and NK Cells and induces and antiviral state, activates NKCs and promotes class switching to IgG2,3
Important chemical for light chain rearrangement in B-Cells when heavy chain is on cell surface
What protein on the CD8 cell will bind to a receptor on the target cell to induce apoptosis of the target cell?
Coreceptor on Helper T Cells that recognizes MHC-II molecule
Enzyme needed to convert hydrogen peroxide into products of oxidative burst
Proteins synthesized by many cells that interfere with viral replication and activate natural killer cells
These cytokines are released by all cells and induces an 'antiviral state' and activates NKCs
Receptors on NK Cells that recognize stress proteins on cells
Length of peptides in antigen binding clefts on MHC-II molecules
MHC class with three alpha subunits
Cytokine that causes fever and induction of adhesion proteins and acute phase proteins
This cytokine is secreted only by T-Cells and B-Cells and can directly kill tumor cells, activate monocytes/macrophages and promotes expression of adhesion molecules
Proteins that create channel for peptide fragments to move into ER
Hallmark of inflammation 'dolor'
TCR Terminal that is variable
Subunit(s) of MHC-I that anchors into the membrane
Receptor on NK cells that binds to MHC I molecules
The step in emigration of naive T-cells into secondary lymphoid tissue in which P-selectin and E-selectin on the endothelial cells bind to L-selectin on circulating lymphocytes
DefinitionsTerms
This creates a non-specific antigen response by many T-Cells at once causing systemic release of cytokines.
Thymic cell with both CD4 and CD8 coreceptors is called...
Product released by macrophages that activates natural killer cells
Protein that loads antigen fragments onto MHC-II in endosome
The establishment of proliferating microbes on the skin of mucous membranes
IL-2, IFN gamma and TNF beta are released by which T Cell subset?
Antigen dependent point mutations in the hypervariable region of the light and heavy chain in an attempt to increase affinity of antibody to antigen.
Product released from mast cells that increases permeability of blood vessels
TCR Terminal that is constant
In CD8 cell activation which cytokine will act in place of B7/IL-1 to serve as the second signal?
The main site of secretion of this cytokine is from CD4+ cells and it causes proliferation/differentiation of T-Cells, B-Cells and/or NK cells
Hallmark of inflammation 'rubor'
Chaperone protein that brings MHC-II molecule to endosome from ER
Receptor on naive CD4+ cells that binds to B7 molecule on activated macrophages
Class switch induced by IL-4
Length of peptide in antigen binding cleft in MHC-I molecule
Adhesion molecules on circulating leukocytes
Division of the adaptive immune system specialized to deal with intracellular threats
This subset of chemokines attract neutrophils and includes IL-8
Recognizes MHC/Ag complex
Term that describes the strength of interaction of all paratopes and epitopes
Which disease is caused by a retrovirus that infects and reduces the amount of CD4+ cells to levels below 200 per cubic mm?
Adhesion molecules on endothelial cells
Enzyme needed to convert superoxide into hydrogen peroxide
Decreased numbers of phagocytic cells
Disease characterized by defective lysosome/phagosome fusion
Process that takes place at thymic corticomedullary border that kills off lymphocytes that have strong interaction with self proteins
Enzyme in cytosol that processes proteins into 8-10 amino acid polypeptides
Any substance that can bind with an antibody
Light chain of the TCR
Enzyme needed in oxidative burst that is non-functional in patients with Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD)
Final products of oxidative burst
Two molecules that are needed for the co stimulatory signal in CD4+ Cell activation
Class switch induced by gamme interferon and transforming growth factor beta
There are ______ CDRs on the V-region of the TCR
Which disease is characterized by a lack of cell-mediated and humoral immunity, opportunistic infections and either a mutation in the IL-2 receptor or mutations in ADA and/or PNP
This cytokine is secreted in the thymic cortex by epitelial cells and from stromal cells of the bone marrow and it causes T-Cell and B-Cell proliferation during development
Protein that is defective in Leukocytes adhesion deficiency
Autosomal recessive disorder in which phagocytic cells are fully functional but are missing the protein needed to stick to the vessel wall and migrate to the site of infection
The main site of secretion of this cytokine is CD4+ cells and it causes B-Cell proliferation and promotes class switching
Treatment for chronic granulomatous disease includes
Which disease is caused by a selective defect in T-Cell immunity which prevents it from responding to candida albicans infections and is often assiociated with endocrine dysfunctio
The step in emigration of naive T-cells into secondary lymphoid tissue in which there is further interaction between adhesion molecules causing circulating cells to stop
If a NK Cell binds to MICA or MICB and does NOT bind to MHC-I the target cell will __________. (Live or Die)
Hallmark of inflammation 'tumor'

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