Biochemistry: Protein and Nucleotide Metabolism

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Can you name the Biochemistry: Protein and Nucleotide Metabolism?

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What amino acid is added to IMP to make GMP?
Purine nucleosides are converted to free bases by what enzyme?
Cofactor of all aminotransferase reactions because amino group is first transferred to this molecule.
This enzyme phosphorylates CPS-II to change its allosteric properties making it more easily activated
This disease causes increased levels of histidine in the blood and urine and causes mental retardation
Converts orotate to OMP
This amino acid has two amino groups and is thus the most efficient carrier of ammonia
What type of amino acids are not principally oxidized in the liver?
Aminotransferase put the amino group from alanine on alpha-ketoglutarate to form glutamate and ___________________.
This isoform of CK is found in the heart and is important in diagnosing MIs.
This isoform of creatine kinase is in skeletal muscle and makes up 95% of the CK in the body.
This molecule inhibits thymidine kinase
During periods of malnutrition, starvation, cachexia and after traumatic injury the nitrogen balance is _________________.
Branched chain ketoacid dehydrogenase requires what cofactor?
What is molecule is 'activated ribose'?
CPS-II is most sensitive to PRPP during what cell phase?
This type of base is sythesized piece by piece directly on the ribose
This is a common cause of acquired hyperammonemia.
This amino acid is used in the production of melanin
This enzyme converts creatine to creatine phosphate.
Deamination occurs primarily on this amino acid because it is the end produce of many transamination reactions.
Enzyme that transaminates alanine
Glycine, arginine and methionine are used to synthesize what?
Segments rich in what amino acids are rapidly degraded? (acronym)
CTP Synthase aminates UTP with an amino group from where?
What product builds up in ADA deficient SCID that inhibits deoxynucleotide synthesis
Aspartate, Arginine, Leucine, Lysine and Phenylalanine are which type of N-Terminal amino acids?
GMP, GDP, GTP, AMP, ADP and ATP all inhibit what enzyme?
If the CK found in the heart is greater than ______ U/L then an MI is probable.
This genetic disease is characterized by self-mutilating behavior
Coverts dihydroorotate to orotate with FAD
HGPRT ___________________ causes an increase in the rate of purine synthesis. (Deficiency/Hyperactivity)
Presence of creatine kinase in the blood can indicate ___________________.
Creatine phosphate donates its phosphate group to ADP after _________________.
This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of bicarbonate and ammonia (from glutamine) to carbomoyl phosphate, releasing glutamate.
This small, basic protein tags proteins for degradation
The commited step of de novo purine synthesis is conversion of PRPP to ____________________.
Creatine kinase is only made in muscle cells that are _________________.
PRPP synthase is negatively regulated by ________________
This enzyme converts Xanthine to Uric Acid
People with hyperammonemia are given ________________ so the body uses it for energy of protein
This drug binds to glycine in the liver and is excreted in order to reduce ammonia in the body.
This type of base is assembled completely first then attached to a ribose
This enzyme converts UTP to CTP
What immune cell uses primarily the salvage pathway for nucleotide synthesis?
Decreased BUN usually indicates ______________ disease.
What immune cell carries out de novo synthesis of nucleotides?
A deficiency of this enzyme would be indicated by citrullinemia.
This enzyme adds an ammonium ion to glutamate to make glutamine
How is maple syrup urine disease treated?
Deficient enzyme in maple syrup urine disease
A deficiency of this enzyme would be indicated by Argininosuccinic Acidemia
This enzyme is deficient in histidinemia
Homocystein and methionine levels are increased in this disease that causes mental retardation and dislocation of the lens of the eye.
This transaminase enzyme helps the urea cycle by being involved in the recycling of fumarate to aspartate.
Elimination of an amino group
Enzyme that converts thymidine to TMP
A genetic mutation in what enzyme can cause increased de novo synthesis of purines and hyperuricemia
________________ cause poor myelination and mental retardation.
This molecule activtivates CPS-II
Treatment for Lesch-Nyhan Sydrome?
This enzyme catalyzes formation of AMP from adenine and PRPP
This isoform of creatine kinase is found in smooth muscle and brain tissue and makes up only 1% of total CK.
What molecule is at the branch point of de novo purine synthesis?
What are uric acid crystals interacting with in gouty arthritis?
Pyrophosphates are the basis of this drug class which is used to treat osteoporosis.
What is the product of the rate limiting step of the urea cycle
What amino acid is added to IMP to make AMP?
A deposit of urate crystals in someone with gout
What type of reaction can create non-essential amino acids from essential amino acids or non-essential AAs from non-essential AAs.
During periods of growth, pregnancy and convalescence the nitrogen balance is _________________.
Converts OMP to UMP
Normal BUN:Creatinine level is ____________:1
In a healthy person ketovaline is broken down into ______________>
Phenylpyruvate and phenylacetate are _____________.
Deficiency of this enzyme would lead to increased levels of orotic acid
Deamination reactions create this highly toxic chemical that must be removed from the body.
The glycine residue at the carboxyl end of ubiquitin attaches to what residue on the target protein?
What substrate is used to synthesize PRPP?
This enzyme combines ornithine and carbamoyl phosphate to make citrulline
This drug binds to glutamine and is then excreted from the body in order to reduce the ammonia in the body
This enzyme found in the gut cleaves urea to get carbon dioxide and ammonia.
What enzyme converts ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides
This enzyme combines citrulline and aspartate to argininosuccinate
With what disease would a patient have high levels of valine, leucine and isoleucine in their blood?
This enzyme converts Argininosuccinate to Arginine and Fumarate.
This molecule allosterically activates CPS-I
Lacking OMP decarboxylase or orotate phosphoribosyltransferase causes this rare metabolic condition. Patients often have aneamia, leukopenia and retarded development.
Transfer of an amino group from one amino acid to an amino acid carbon skeleton or alpha ketoacid.
What enzyme synthesizes PRPP?
Most de novo nucleotide synthesis occurs where?
This metabolite inhibites ribonucleotide reductase leading to the inability of cells to synthesize deoxyribonucleotides and therefore DNA.
What amino acids are purely ketogenic?
The methyl group needed for the conversion of dUMP to dTMP comes from...
This enzyme converts 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate to 5-phosphoribosyl-1-amine
A very high protein diet or starvation would lead to __________________ (induction/repression) of urea cycle enzymes.
Ribose-5-Phostphate is an intermediary in what pathway?
In PKU which amino acid becomes essential?
Creatine phosphate 'buffers' ___________ during exercise so it doesn't significantly drop.
Increased BUN usually indicates ________________ disease.
This enzyme phosphorylates CPS-II to change its allosteric properties making it more easily inhibited
This enzyme converts carbomoyl phosphate to carbomoyl aspartate
Lysosomal proteases that degrade protein in the lysosomal pathway
Condition when uric acid crystals precipitate out of the blood
This enzyme removes an ammonium ion from glutamate to make alpha-ketoglutarate.
This enzyme converts dihydrofolate to tetrahydrofolate
This single bifunctional enzyme has the properties of orotate phosphotranfserase and OMP decaboxylase
This enzyme can convert Adenosine to Inosine
This enzyme is deficient in albinism.
What is the base in IMP?
A genetic mutation leading to a deficiency in HGPRT leads to what condition?
Homocystinuria results from a deficiency of this enzyme
Enzyme that converts deoyuridine to dUMP
This enzyme converts neucleotides to nucleosides
20% of SCID cases are due to this enzyme deficiency
Lysosomal degradation activity is ______________ during starvation? (Increased/Decreased)
The deficient enzyme in alkaptonuria breaks down tyrosine to form _____________.
Enzyme that converts THF to N5, N10-methylene THF
Ezyme that transaminates aspartate
The cofactor required for transamination reaction is a derivative of ______________.
One type of this autosomal recessive disease stems from a deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase
Alanine, glycine, methionine, serine, threonine and valine are which type of N-terminal residues?
________________ have a maple/cheesy smell.
A polymer of this chemical creates a black-brown pigment that deposits in connective tissue and can be seen in standing urine in people with alkoptonuria.
This enzyme converts hypoxanthine to xanthine
Since humans can't store purines we must get rid of them in this form
This is the first enzyme to rise following a myocardial infarction and may only rise transiently and normalize in less thatn 3 days.
What enzyme is deficient in alkaptonuria?
A deficiency of this enzyme would be indicated by Argininemia
The most effective treatment for SCID
What amino acid donates an amino group to PRPP?
The most commonly inherited urea enzyme deficiency
Enzyme that converts dUMP to dMP
Bicarbonate, aspartate and ammonia are used to make what?
This enzyme converts Carbamoyl aspartate to Dihydroorotate
Ketogenic amino acids yield which compound(s)?
This molecule inhibits CPS-II
In hereditary hyperammonemia the administration or citrulline and arginine is usually effective except in the case of _______________.
This enzyme catalyzes the formation of IMP and GMP from Hypoxanthine and Guanine and PRPP
CPS-II is most sensitive to UTP during the end of which cell phase?
A muscle cell that is fully charged with CP has a __________:1 ratio of CP:ATP

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