Biochemistry: Protein and Nucleotide Metabolism

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Can you name the Biochemistry: Protein and Nucleotide Metabolism?

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ClueAnswer
During periods of malnutrition, starvation, cachexia and after traumatic injury the nitrogen balance is _________________.
Enzyme that converts deoyuridine to dUMP
The deficient enzyme in alkaptonuria breaks down tyrosine to form _____________.
Deficiency of this enzyme would lead to increased levels of orotic acid
Pyrophosphates are the basis of this drug class which is used to treat osteoporosis.
What is the base in IMP?
Branched chain ketoacid dehydrogenase requires what cofactor?
Presence of creatine kinase in the blood can indicate ___________________.
Ezyme that transaminates aspartate
This enzyme converts creatine to creatine phosphate.
The cofactor required for transamination reaction is a derivative of ______________.
This amino acid is used in the production of melanin
Deamination occurs primarily on this amino acid because it is the end produce of many transamination reactions.
This enzyme converts hypoxanthine to xanthine
A deposit of urate crystals in someone with gout
People with hyperammonemia are given ________________ so the body uses it for energy of protein
Enzyme that converts dUMP to dMP
CTP Synthase aminates UTP with an amino group from where?
During periods of growth, pregnancy and convalescence the nitrogen balance is _________________.
This enzyme converts Argininosuccinate to Arginine and Fumarate.
PRPP synthase is negatively regulated by ________________
GMP, GDP, GTP, AMP, ADP and ATP all inhibit what enzyme?
20% of SCID cases are due to this enzyme deficiency
Condition when uric acid crystals precipitate out of the blood
What type of reaction can create non-essential amino acids from essential amino acids or non-essential AAs from non-essential AAs.
What enzyme is deficient in alkaptonuria?
This disease causes increased levels of histidine in the blood and urine and causes mental retardation
Purine nucleosides are converted to free bases by what enzyme?
Lysosomal degradation activity is ______________ during starvation? (Increased/Decreased)
Cofactor of all aminotransferase reactions because amino group is first transferred to this molecule.
Treatment for Lesch-Nyhan Sydrome?
A genetic mutation in what enzyme can cause increased de novo synthesis of purines and hyperuricemia
What amino acids are purely ketogenic?
Ketogenic amino acids yield which compound(s)?
This enzyme found in the gut cleaves urea to get carbon dioxide and ammonia.
CPS-II is most sensitive to UTP during the end of which cell phase?
Alanine, glycine, methionine, serine, threonine and valine are which type of N-terminal residues?
In PKU which amino acid becomes essential?
What product builds up in ADA deficient SCID that inhibits deoxynucleotide synthesis
Most de novo nucleotide synthesis occurs where?
Aminotransferase put the amino group from alanine on alpha-ketoglutarate to form glutamate and ___________________.
This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of bicarbonate and ammonia (from glutamine) to carbomoyl phosphate, releasing glutamate.
The commited step of de novo purine synthesis is conversion of PRPP to ____________________.
In hereditary hyperammonemia the administration or citrulline and arginine is usually effective except in the case of _______________.
This enzyme converts neucleotides to nucleosides
One type of this autosomal recessive disease stems from a deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase
What is molecule is 'activated ribose'?
ClueAnswer
This enzyme combines ornithine and carbamoyl phosphate to make citrulline
This enzyme adds an ammonium ion to glutamate to make glutamine
This single bifunctional enzyme has the properties of orotate phosphotranfserase and OMP decaboxylase
This enzyme phosphorylates CPS-II to change its allosteric properties making it more easily inhibited
This type of base is sythesized piece by piece directly on the ribose
The most effective treatment for SCID
This enzyme can convert Adenosine to Inosine
A deficiency of this enzyme would be indicated by Argininemia
Enzyme that converts THF to N5, N10-methylene THF
Glycine, arginine and methionine are used to synthesize what?
Enzyme that transaminates alanine
The most commonly inherited urea enzyme deficiency
HGPRT ___________________ causes an increase in the rate of purine synthesis. (Deficiency/Hyperactivity)
This enzyme converts dihydrofolate to tetrahydrofolate
________________ have a maple/cheesy smell.
How is maple syrup urine disease treated?
This isoform of CK is found in the heart and is important in diagnosing MIs.
Creatine phosphate donates its phosphate group to ADP after _________________.
What amino acid is added to IMP to make AMP?
This enzyme combines citrulline and aspartate to argininosuccinate
Bicarbonate, aspartate and ammonia are used to make what?
What immune cell carries out de novo synthesis of nucleotides?
CPS-II is most sensitive to PRPP during what cell phase?
This molecule inhibits thymidine kinase
This enzyme is deficient in histidinemia
This molecule activtivates CPS-II
Homocystein and methionine levels are increased in this disease that causes mental retardation and dislocation of the lens of the eye.
This is the first enzyme to rise following a myocardial infarction and may only rise transiently and normalize in less thatn 3 days.
This amino acid has two amino groups and is thus the most efficient carrier of ammonia
A deficiency of this enzyme would be indicated by citrullinemia.
With what disease would a patient have high levels of valine, leucine and isoleucine in their blood?
Enzyme that converts thymidine to TMP
This enzyme converts Xanthine to Uric Acid
What amino acid donates an amino group to PRPP?
Creatine kinase is only made in muscle cells that are _________________.
Converts OMP to UMP
This enzyme is deficient in albinism.
This enzyme catalyzes the formation of IMP and GMP from Hypoxanthine and Guanine and PRPP
This enzyme converts 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate to 5-phosphoribosyl-1-amine
Deficient enzyme in maple syrup urine disease
A muscle cell that is fully charged with CP has a __________:1 ratio of CP:ATP
The methyl group needed for the conversion of dUMP to dTMP comes from...
This metabolite inhibites ribonucleotide reductase leading to the inability of cells to synthesize deoxyribonucleotides and therefore DNA.
What enzyme synthesizes PRPP?
What type of amino acids are not principally oxidized in the liver?
Decreased BUN usually indicates ______________ disease.
This enzyme converts carbomoyl phosphate to carbomoyl aspartate
ClueAnswer
Increased BUN usually indicates ________________ disease.
What amino acid is added to IMP to make GMP?
Aspartate, Arginine, Leucine, Lysine and Phenylalanine are which type of N-Terminal amino acids?
Coverts dihydroorotate to orotate with FAD
This transaminase enzyme helps the urea cycle by being involved in the recycling of fumarate to aspartate.
________________ cause poor myelination and mental retardation.
A genetic mutation leading to a deficiency in HGPRT leads to what condition?
This is a common cause of acquired hyperammonemia.
What molecule is at the branch point of de novo purine synthesis?
This enzyme catalyzes formation of AMP from adenine and PRPP
What is the product of the rate limiting step of the urea cycle
This isoform of creatine kinase is in skeletal muscle and makes up 95% of the CK in the body.
A deficiency of this enzyme would be indicated by Argininosuccinic Acidemia
This genetic disease is characterized by self-mutilating behavior
Segments rich in what amino acids are rapidly degraded? (acronym)
This type of base is assembled completely first then attached to a ribose
A very high protein diet or starvation would lead to __________________ (induction/repression) of urea cycle enzymes.
What immune cell uses primarily the salvage pathway for nucleotide synthesis?
What substrate is used to synthesize PRPP?
What are uric acid crystals interacting with in gouty arthritis?
Phenylpyruvate and phenylacetate are _____________.
Creatine phosphate 'buffers' ___________ during exercise so it doesn't significantly drop.
Deamination reactions create this highly toxic chemical that must be removed from the body.
What enzyme converts ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides
This molecule allosterically activates CPS-I
This enzyme converts UTP to CTP
Normal BUN:Creatinine level is ____________:1
A polymer of this chemical creates a black-brown pigment that deposits in connective tissue and can be seen in standing urine in people with alkoptonuria.
In a healthy person ketovaline is broken down into ______________>
Since humans can't store purines we must get rid of them in this form
Ribose-5-Phostphate is an intermediary in what pathway?
This drug binds to glutamine and is then excreted from the body in order to reduce the ammonia in the body
This enzyme removes an ammonium ion from glutamate to make alpha-ketoglutarate.
This enzyme converts Carbamoyl aspartate to Dihydroorotate
This isoform of creatine kinase is found in smooth muscle and brain tissue and makes up only 1% of total CK.
Lacking OMP decarboxylase or orotate phosphoribosyltransferase causes this rare metabolic condition. Patients often have aneamia, leukopenia and retarded development.
If the CK found in the heart is greater than ______ U/L then an MI is probable.
The glycine residue at the carboxyl end of ubiquitin attaches to what residue on the target protein?
Lysosomal proteases that degrade protein in the lysosomal pathway
This drug binds to glycine in the liver and is excreted in order to reduce ammonia in the body.
Elimination of an amino group
This molecule inhibits CPS-II
Transfer of an amino group from one amino acid to an amino acid carbon skeleton or alpha ketoacid.
Converts orotate to OMP
This small, basic protein tags proteins for degradation
Homocystinuria results from a deficiency of this enzyme
This enzyme phosphorylates CPS-II to change its allosteric properties making it more easily activated

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