Biochemistry: Protein and Nucleotide Metabolism

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Can you name the Biochemistry: Protein and Nucleotide Metabolism?

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Elimination of an amino group
This small, basic protein tags proteins for degradation
Enzyme that converts thymidine to TMP
A genetic mutation in what enzyme can cause increased de novo synthesis of purines and hyperuricemia
This enzyme converts Xanthine to Uric Acid
A muscle cell that is fully charged with CP has a __________:1 ratio of CP:ATP
Homocystein and methionine levels are increased in this disease that causes mental retardation and dislocation of the lens of the eye.
Purine nucleosides are converted to free bases by what enzyme?
A deficiency of this enzyme would be indicated by Argininemia
GMP, GDP, GTP, AMP, ADP and ATP all inhibit what enzyme?
This molecule inhibits thymidine kinase
Enzyme that converts dUMP to dMP
Branched chain ketoacid dehydrogenase requires what cofactor?
In a healthy person ketovaline is broken down into ______________>
Pyrophosphates are the basis of this drug class which is used to treat osteoporosis.
This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of bicarbonate and ammonia (from glutamine) to carbomoyl phosphate, releasing glutamate.
What amino acids are purely ketogenic?
Deamination reactions create this highly toxic chemical that must be removed from the body.
This enzyme removes an ammonium ion from glutamate to make alpha-ketoglutarate.
This enzyme phosphorylates CPS-II to change its allosteric properties making it more easily activated
Lacking OMP decarboxylase or orotate phosphoribosyltransferase causes this rare metabolic condition. Patients often have aneamia, leukopenia and retarded development.
This isoform of creatine kinase is in skeletal muscle and makes up 95% of the CK in the body.
This is the first enzyme to rise following a myocardial infarction and may only rise transiently and normalize in less thatn 3 days.
Segments rich in what amino acids are rapidly degraded? (acronym)
The most effective treatment for SCID
________________ cause poor myelination and mental retardation.
Normal BUN:Creatinine level is ____________:1
Ribose-5-Phostphate is an intermediary in what pathway?
Deficient enzyme in maple syrup urine disease
A deposit of urate crystals in someone with gout
Ketogenic amino acids yield which compound(s)?
Enzyme that converts deoyuridine to dUMP
This drug binds to glycine in the liver and is excreted in order to reduce ammonia in the body.
This molecule activtivates CPS-II
This enzyme converts Argininosuccinate to Arginine and Fumarate.
This enzyme converts carbomoyl phosphate to carbomoyl aspartate
Creatine kinase is only made in muscle cells that are _________________.
If the CK found in the heart is greater than ______ U/L then an MI is probable.
This enzyme converts neucleotides to nucleosides
During periods of malnutrition, starvation, cachexia and after traumatic injury the nitrogen balance is _________________.
During periods of growth, pregnancy and convalescence the nitrogen balance is _________________.
The commited step of de novo purine synthesis is conversion of PRPP to ____________________.
This isoform of CK is found in the heart and is important in diagnosing MIs.
This isoform of creatine kinase is found in smooth muscle and brain tissue and makes up only 1% of total CK.
With what disease would a patient have high levels of valine, leucine and isoleucine in their blood?
This enzyme converts dihydrofolate to tetrahydrofolate
This enzyme found in the gut cleaves urea to get carbon dioxide and ammonia.
Converts OMP to UMP
This enzyme catalyzes formation of AMP from adenine and PRPP
This enzyme phosphorylates CPS-II to change its allosteric properties making it more easily inhibited
HGPRT ___________________ causes an increase in the rate of purine synthesis. (Deficiency/Hyperactivity)
A very high protein diet or starvation would lead to __________________ (induction/repression) of urea cycle enzymes.
Ezyme that transaminates aspartate
Lysosomal proteases that degrade protein in the lysosomal pathway
Homocystinuria results from a deficiency of this enzyme
This enzyme converts Carbamoyl aspartate to Dihydroorotate
The glycine residue at the carboxyl end of ubiquitin attaches to what residue on the target protein?
CTP Synthase aminates UTP with an amino group from where?
This enzyme catalyzes the formation of IMP and GMP from Hypoxanthine and Guanine and PRPP
What amino acid is added to IMP to make AMP?
Cofactor of all aminotransferase reactions because amino group is first transferred to this molecule.
What enzyme converts ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides
Converts orotate to OMP
Creatine phosphate donates its phosphate group to ADP after _________________.
What enzyme is deficient in alkaptonuria?
This enzyme can convert Adenosine to Inosine
A genetic mutation leading to a deficiency in HGPRT leads to what condition?
This enzyme combines ornithine and carbamoyl phosphate to make citrulline
People with hyperammonemia are given ________________ so the body uses it for energy of protein
This genetic disease is characterized by self-mutilating behavior
This molecule inhibits CPS-II
How is maple syrup urine disease treated?
What is the base in IMP?
What substrate is used to synthesize PRPP?
What is molecule is 'activated ribose'?
In PKU which amino acid becomes essential?
One type of this autosomal recessive disease stems from a deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase
What molecule is at the branch point of de novo purine synthesis?
The deficient enzyme in alkaptonuria breaks down tyrosine to form _____________.
What type of amino acids are not principally oxidized in the liver?
________________ have a maple/cheesy smell.
What is the product of the rate limiting step of the urea cycle
This type of base is assembled completely first then attached to a ribose
This enzyme converts UTP to CTP
Aspartate, Arginine, Leucine, Lysine and Phenylalanine are which type of N-Terminal amino acids?
This enzyme adds an ammonium ion to glutamate to make glutamine
Enzyme that converts THF to N5, N10-methylene THF
A deficiency of this enzyme would be indicated by citrullinemia.
Phenylpyruvate and phenylacetate are _____________.
A polymer of this chemical creates a black-brown pigment that deposits in connective tissue and can be seen in standing urine in people with alkoptonuria.
What type of reaction can create non-essential amino acids from essential amino acids or non-essential AAs from non-essential AAs.
What immune cell uses primarily the salvage pathway for nucleotide synthesis?
PRPP synthase is negatively regulated by ________________
What are uric acid crystals interacting with in gouty arthritis?
This type of base is sythesized piece by piece directly on the ribose
Enzyme that transaminates alanine
This enzyme is deficient in albinism.
This single bifunctional enzyme has the properties of orotate phosphotranfserase and OMP decaboxylase
A deficiency of this enzyme would be indicated by Argininosuccinic Acidemia
What enzyme synthesizes PRPP?
This amino acid is used in the production of melanin
Most de novo nucleotide synthesis occurs where?
Alanine, glycine, methionine, serine, threonine and valine are which type of N-terminal residues?
The most commonly inherited urea enzyme deficiency
Lysosomal degradation activity is ______________ during starvation? (Increased/Decreased)
This transaminase enzyme helps the urea cycle by being involved in the recycling of fumarate to aspartate.
Condition when uric acid crystals precipitate out of the blood
Glycine, arginine and methionine are used to synthesize what?
This molecule allosterically activates CPS-I
CPS-II is most sensitive to UTP during the end of which cell phase?
CPS-II is most sensitive to PRPP during what cell phase?
Bicarbonate, aspartate and ammonia are used to make what?
Increased BUN usually indicates ________________ disease.
This metabolite inhibites ribonucleotide reductase leading to the inability of cells to synthesize deoxyribonucleotides and therefore DNA.
This enzyme converts creatine to creatine phosphate.
Transfer of an amino group from one amino acid to an amino acid carbon skeleton or alpha ketoacid.
Deamination occurs primarily on this amino acid because it is the end produce of many transamination reactions.
What immune cell carries out de novo synthesis of nucleotides?
This disease causes increased levels of histidine in the blood and urine and causes mental retardation
Coverts dihydroorotate to orotate with FAD
Presence of creatine kinase in the blood can indicate ___________________.
What product builds up in ADA deficient SCID that inhibits deoxynucleotide synthesis
This amino acid has two amino groups and is thus the most efficient carrier of ammonia
This drug binds to glutamine and is then excreted from the body in order to reduce the ammonia in the body
The cofactor required for transamination reaction is a derivative of ______________.
This enzyme is deficient in histidinemia
Since humans can't store purines we must get rid of them in this form
This enzyme combines citrulline and aspartate to argininosuccinate
Deficiency of this enzyme would lead to increased levels of orotic acid
This enzyme converts 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate to 5-phosphoribosyl-1-amine
This enzyme converts hypoxanthine to xanthine
In hereditary hyperammonemia the administration or citrulline and arginine is usually effective except in the case of _______________.
20% of SCID cases are due to this enzyme deficiency
Decreased BUN usually indicates ______________ disease.
What amino acid donates an amino group to PRPP?
Treatment for Lesch-Nyhan Sydrome?
Aminotransferase put the amino group from alanine on alpha-ketoglutarate to form glutamate and ___________________.
This is a common cause of acquired hyperammonemia.
Creatine phosphate 'buffers' ___________ during exercise so it doesn't significantly drop.
What amino acid is added to IMP to make GMP?
The methyl group needed for the conversion of dUMP to dTMP comes from...

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