Biochemistry: Protein and Nucleotide Metabolism

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Can you name the Biochemistry: Protein and Nucleotide Metabolism?

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ClueAnswer
Transfer of an amino group from one amino acid to an amino acid carbon skeleton or alpha ketoacid.
Creatine kinase is only made in muscle cells that are _________________.
This enzyme combines ornithine and carbamoyl phosphate to make citrulline
This enzyme converts Argininosuccinate to Arginine and Fumarate.
Ezyme that transaminates aspartate
The cofactor required for transamination reaction is a derivative of ______________.
This enzyme converts hypoxanthine to xanthine
Pyrophosphates are the basis of this drug class which is used to treat osteoporosis.
This type of base is assembled completely first then attached to a ribose
Coverts dihydroorotate to orotate with FAD
Presence of creatine kinase in the blood can indicate ___________________.
The most effective treatment for SCID
With what disease would a patient have high levels of valine, leucine and isoleucine in their blood?
What amino acid donates an amino group to PRPP?
Ribose-5-Phostphate is an intermediary in what pathway?
Enzyme that converts THF to N5, N10-methylene THF
What molecule is at the branch point of de novo purine synthesis?
In PKU which amino acid becomes essential?
Deamination occurs primarily on this amino acid because it is the end produce of many transamination reactions.
GMP, GDP, GTP, AMP, ADP and ATP all inhibit what enzyme?
Normal BUN:Creatinine level is ____________:1
This enzyme converts carbomoyl phosphate to carbomoyl aspartate
This is the first enzyme to rise following a myocardial infarction and may only rise transiently and normalize in less thatn 3 days.
This amino acid is used in the production of melanin
In hereditary hyperammonemia the administration or citrulline and arginine is usually effective except in the case of _______________.
This enzyme removes an ammonium ion from glutamate to make alpha-ketoglutarate.
Condition when uric acid crystals precipitate out of the blood
A very high protein diet or starvation would lead to __________________ (induction/repression) of urea cycle enzymes.
Glycine, arginine and methionine are used to synthesize what?
Lysosomal degradation activity is ______________ during starvation? (Increased/Decreased)
This molecule inhibits thymidine kinase
A genetic mutation leading to a deficiency in HGPRT leads to what condition?
This is a common cause of acquired hyperammonemia.
A deficiency of this enzyme would be indicated by Argininemia
This enzyme is deficient in albinism.
This genetic disease is characterized by self-mutilating behavior
This drug binds to glycine in the liver and is excreted in order to reduce ammonia in the body.
This molecule allosterically activates CPS-I
Ketogenic amino acids yield which compound(s)?
This enzyme converts creatine to creatine phosphate.
One type of this autosomal recessive disease stems from a deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase
20% of SCID cases are due to this enzyme deficiency
Creatine phosphate 'buffers' ___________ during exercise so it doesn't significantly drop.
This single bifunctional enzyme has the properties of orotate phosphotranfserase and OMP decaboxylase
This enzyme phosphorylates CPS-II to change its allosteric properties making it more easily inhibited
A deposit of urate crystals in someone with gout
This molecule activtivates CPS-II
ClueAnswer
Treatment for Lesch-Nyhan Sydrome?
A genetic mutation in what enzyme can cause increased de novo synthesis of purines and hyperuricemia
Elimination of an amino group
What amino acid is added to IMP to make AMP?
CPS-II is most sensitive to PRPP during what cell phase?
This enzyme converts UTP to CTP
What is molecule is 'activated ribose'?
What enzyme is deficient in alkaptonuria?
Enzyme that converts dUMP to dMP
HGPRT ___________________ causes an increase in the rate of purine synthesis. (Deficiency/Hyperactivity)
What amino acid is added to IMP to make GMP?
If the CK found in the heart is greater than ______ U/L then an MI is probable.
Converts OMP to UMP
This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of bicarbonate and ammonia (from glutamine) to carbomoyl phosphate, releasing glutamate.
Bicarbonate, aspartate and ammonia are used to make what?
In a healthy person ketovaline is broken down into ______________>
This isoform of creatine kinase is found in smooth muscle and brain tissue and makes up only 1% of total CK.
CPS-II is most sensitive to UTP during the end of which cell phase?
A deficiency of this enzyme would be indicated by Argininosuccinic Acidemia
This type of base is sythesized piece by piece directly on the ribose
What enzyme synthesizes PRPP?
The deficient enzyme in alkaptonuria breaks down tyrosine to form _____________.
CTP Synthase aminates UTP with an amino group from where?
What immune cell uses primarily the salvage pathway for nucleotide synthesis?
What enzyme converts ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides
What are uric acid crystals interacting with in gouty arthritis?
PRPP synthase is negatively regulated by ________________
This enzyme catalyzes formation of AMP from adenine and PRPP
Decreased BUN usually indicates ______________ disease.
This enzyme catalyzes the formation of IMP and GMP from Hypoxanthine and Guanine and PRPP
________________ have a maple/cheesy smell.
Segments rich in what amino acids are rapidly degraded? (acronym)
This small, basic protein tags proteins for degradation
This enzyme can convert Adenosine to Inosine
Branched chain ketoacid dehydrogenase requires what cofactor?
This drug binds to glutamine and is then excreted from the body in order to reduce the ammonia in the body
Aminotransferase put the amino group from alanine on alpha-ketoglutarate to form glutamate and ___________________.
Cofactor of all aminotransferase reactions because amino group is first transferred to this molecule.
Homocystein and methionine levels are increased in this disease that causes mental retardation and dislocation of the lens of the eye.
This enzyme converts neucleotides to nucleosides
Lysosomal proteases that degrade protein in the lysosomal pathway
The commited step of de novo purine synthesis is conversion of PRPP to ____________________.
What type of amino acids are not principally oxidized in the liver?
The glycine residue at the carboxyl end of ubiquitin attaches to what residue on the target protein?
This amino acid has two amino groups and is thus the most efficient carrier of ammonia
Enzyme that converts deoyuridine to dUMP
Phenylpyruvate and phenylacetate are _____________.
ClueAnswer
This isoform of CK is found in the heart and is important in diagnosing MIs.
Alanine, glycine, methionine, serine, threonine and valine are which type of N-terminal residues?
The most commonly inherited urea enzyme deficiency
This transaminase enzyme helps the urea cycle by being involved in the recycling of fumarate to aspartate.
People with hyperammonemia are given ________________ so the body uses it for energy of protein
Increased BUN usually indicates ________________ disease.
During periods of growth, pregnancy and convalescence the nitrogen balance is _________________.
The methyl group needed for the conversion of dUMP to dTMP comes from...
This enzyme converts Carbamoyl aspartate to Dihydroorotate
A muscle cell that is fully charged with CP has a __________:1 ratio of CP:ATP
What substrate is used to synthesize PRPP?
This enzyme converts dihydrofolate to tetrahydrofolate
This enzyme converts 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate to 5-phosphoribosyl-1-amine
This enzyme phosphorylates CPS-II to change its allosteric properties making it more easily activated
What amino acids are purely ketogenic?
How is maple syrup urine disease treated?
This disease causes increased levels of histidine in the blood and urine and causes mental retardation
This enzyme combines citrulline and aspartate to argininosuccinate
This enzyme adds an ammonium ion to glutamate to make glutamine
Enzyme that converts thymidine to TMP
A polymer of this chemical creates a black-brown pigment that deposits in connective tissue and can be seen in standing urine in people with alkoptonuria.
Deamination reactions create this highly toxic chemical that must be removed from the body.
During periods of malnutrition, starvation, cachexia and after traumatic injury the nitrogen balance is _________________.
This metabolite inhibites ribonucleotide reductase leading to the inability of cells to synthesize deoxyribonucleotides and therefore DNA.
Aspartate, Arginine, Leucine, Lysine and Phenylalanine are which type of N-Terminal amino acids?
What type of reaction can create non-essential amino acids from essential amino acids or non-essential AAs from non-essential AAs.
What is the base in IMP?
This enzyme converts Xanthine to Uric Acid
Homocystinuria results from a deficiency of this enzyme
Deficient enzyme in maple syrup urine disease
A deficiency of this enzyme would be indicated by citrullinemia.
Since humans can't store purines we must get rid of them in this form
Enzyme that transaminates alanine
This molecule inhibits CPS-II
This enzyme is deficient in histidinemia
Deficiency of this enzyme would lead to increased levels of orotic acid
What product builds up in ADA deficient SCID that inhibits deoxynucleotide synthesis
________________ cause poor myelination and mental retardation.
This enzyme found in the gut cleaves urea to get carbon dioxide and ammonia.
This isoform of creatine kinase is in skeletal muscle and makes up 95% of the CK in the body.
What is the product of the rate limiting step of the urea cycle
Converts orotate to OMP
Lacking OMP decarboxylase or orotate phosphoribosyltransferase causes this rare metabolic condition. Patients often have aneamia, leukopenia and retarded development.
Purine nucleosides are converted to free bases by what enzyme?
What immune cell carries out de novo synthesis of nucleotides?
Creatine phosphate donates its phosphate group to ADP after _________________.
Most de novo nucleotide synthesis occurs where?

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