Science / Biochemistry: Protein and Nucleotide Metabolism

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Can you name the Biochemistry: Protein and Nucleotide Metabolism?

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Aminotransferase put the amino group from alanine on alpha-ketoglutarate to form glutamate and ___________________.
What amino acid donates an amino group to PRPP?
A muscle cell that is fully charged with CP has a __________:1 ratio of CP:ATP
A genetic mutation in what enzyme can cause increased de novo synthesis of purines and hyperuricemia
Condition when uric acid crystals precipitate out of the blood
This type of base is assembled completely first then attached to a ribose
The methyl group needed for the conversion of dUMP to dTMP comes from...
This enzyme converts hypoxanthine to xanthine
The deficient enzyme in alkaptonuria breaks down tyrosine to form _____________.
This genetic disease is characterized by self-mutilating behavior
What is the product of the rate limiting step of the urea cycle
Aspartate, Arginine, Leucine, Lysine and Phenylalanine are which type of N-Terminal amino acids?
This amino acid has two amino groups and is thus the most efficient carrier of ammonia
This metabolite inhibites ribonucleotide reductase leading to the inability of cells to synthesize deoxyribonucleotides and therefore DNA.
HGPRT ___________________ causes an increase in the rate of purine synthesis. (Deficiency/Hyperactivity)
Most de novo nucleotide synthesis occurs where?
CTP Synthase aminates UTP with an amino group from where?
Homocystinuria results from a deficiency of this enzyme
Enzyme that converts thymidine to TMP
Treatment for Lesch-Nyhan Sydrome?
This enzyme converts Argininosuccinate to Arginine and Fumarate.
The glycine residue at the carboxyl end of ubiquitin attaches to what residue on the target protein?
Increased BUN usually indicates ________________ disease.
With what disease would a patient have high levels of valine, leucine and isoleucine in their blood?
This enzyme converts UTP to CTP
This enzyme phosphorylates CPS-II to change its allosteric properties making it more easily inhibited
This enzyme combines citrulline and aspartate to argininosuccinate
Pyrophosphates are the basis of this drug class which is used to treat osteoporosis.
The most effective treatment for SCID
This enzyme converts creatine to creatine phosphate.
This isoform of creatine kinase is found in smooth muscle and brain tissue and makes up only 1% of total CK.
A deficiency of this enzyme would be indicated by Argininosuccinic Acidemia
Converts orotate to OMP
This drug binds to glutamine and is then excreted from the body in order to reduce the ammonia in the body
Creatine phosphate 'buffers' ___________ during exercise so it doesn't significantly drop.
This molecule activtivates CPS-II
20% of SCID cases are due to this enzyme deficiency
This enzyme adds an ammonium ion to glutamate to make glutamine
Homocystein and methionine levels are increased in this disease that causes mental retardation and dislocation of the lens of the eye.
A very high protein diet or starvation would lead to __________________ (induction/repression) of urea cycle enzymes.
This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of bicarbonate and ammonia (from glutamine) to carbomoyl phosphate, releasing glutamate.
Transfer of an amino group from one amino acid to an amino acid carbon skeleton or alpha ketoacid.
This enzyme converts neucleotides to nucleosides
During periods of malnutrition, starvation, cachexia and after traumatic injury the nitrogen balance is _________________.
What is molecule is 'activated ribose'?
Enzyme that converts THF to N5, N10-methylene THF
A deposit of urate crystals in someone with gout
This enzyme combines ornithine and carbamoyl phosphate to make citrulline
Enzyme that transaminates alanine
This is the first enzyme to rise following a myocardial infarction and may only rise transiently and normalize in less thatn 3 days.
Deficiency of this enzyme would lead to increased levels of orotic acid
PRPP synthase is negatively regulated by ________________
This is a common cause of acquired hyperammonemia.
Coverts dihydroorotate to orotate with FAD
This disease causes increased levels of histidine in the blood and urine and causes mental retardation
What amino acids are purely ketogenic?
Cofactor of all aminotransferase reactions because amino group is first transferred to this molecule.
________________ cause poor myelination and mental retardation.
This type of base is sythesized piece by piece directly on the ribose
This molecule inhibits thymidine kinase
Lacking OMP decarboxylase or orotate phosphoribosyltransferase causes this rare metabolic condition. Patients often have aneamia, leukopenia and retarded development.
This small, basic protein tags proteins for degradation
Since humans can't store purines we must get rid of them in this form
Ezyme that transaminates aspartate
A genetic mutation leading to a deficiency in HGPRT leads to what condition?
Enzyme that converts dUMP to dMP
CPS-II is most sensitive to UTP during the end of which cell phase?
The commited step of de novo purine synthesis is conversion of PRPP to ____________________.
This enzyme converts dihydrofolate to tetrahydrofolate
What product builds up in ADA deficient SCID that inhibits deoxynucleotide synthesis
This enzyme can convert Adenosine to Inosine
Elimination of an amino group
This isoform of creatine kinase is in skeletal muscle and makes up 95% of the CK in the body.
Bicarbonate, aspartate and ammonia are used to make what?
This enzyme phosphorylates CPS-II to change its allosteric properties making it more easily activated
What type of reaction can create non-essential amino acids from essential amino acids or non-essential AAs from non-essential AAs.
Ribose-5-Phostphate is an intermediary in what pathway?
What are uric acid crystals interacting with in gouty arthritis?
This enzyme catalyzes the formation of IMP and GMP from Hypoxanthine and Guanine and PRPP
Phenylpyruvate and phenylacetate are _____________.
Converts OMP to UMP
The cofactor required for transamination reaction is a derivative of ______________.
This enzyme is deficient in albinism.
This enzyme removes an ammonium ion from glutamate to make alpha-ketoglutarate.
A deficiency of this enzyme would be indicated by Argininemia
What enzyme is deficient in alkaptonuria?
One type of this autosomal recessive disease stems from a deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase
This transaminase enzyme helps the urea cycle by being involved in the recycling of fumarate to aspartate.
________________ have a maple/cheesy smell.
Glycine, arginine and methionine are used to synthesize what?
Branched chain ketoacid dehydrogenase requires what cofactor?
What immune cell uses primarily the salvage pathway for nucleotide synthesis?
This enzyme catalyzes formation of AMP from adenine and PRPP
If the CK found in the heart is greater than ______ U/L then an MI is probable.
CPS-II is most sensitive to PRPP during what cell phase?
In PKU which amino acid becomes essential?
This isoform of CK is found in the heart and is important in diagnosing MIs.
What substrate is used to synthesize PRPP?
The most commonly inherited urea enzyme deficiency
This enzyme converts carbomoyl phosphate to carbomoyl aspartate
A polymer of this chemical creates a black-brown pigment that deposits in connective tissue and can be seen in standing urine in people with alkoptonuria.
What immune cell carries out de novo synthesis of nucleotides?
Ketogenic amino acids yield which compound(s)?
What amino acid is added to IMP to make AMP?
What type of amino acids are not principally oxidized in the liver?
Decreased BUN usually indicates ______________ disease.
What molecule is at the branch point of de novo purine synthesis?
Enzyme that converts deoyuridine to dUMP
A deficiency of this enzyme would be indicated by citrullinemia.
Creatine kinase is only made in muscle cells that are _________________.
Purine nucleosides are converted to free bases by what enzyme?
In a healthy person ketovaline is broken down into ______________>
What enzyme converts ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides
Segments rich in what amino acids are rapidly degraded? (acronym)
This enzyme converts Carbamoyl aspartate to Dihydroorotate
This amino acid is used in the production of melanin
Deficient enzyme in maple syrup urine disease
This enzyme converts Xanthine to Uric Acid
GMP, GDP, GTP, AMP, ADP and ATP all inhibit what enzyme?
What amino acid is added to IMP to make GMP?
Deamination reactions create this highly toxic chemical that must be removed from the body.
This molecule allosterically activates CPS-I
Creatine phosphate donates its phosphate group to ADP after _________________.
What is the base in IMP?
Alanine, glycine, methionine, serine, threonine and valine are which type of N-terminal residues?
This molecule inhibits CPS-II
This drug binds to glycine in the liver and is excreted in order to reduce ammonia in the body.
This enzyme found in the gut cleaves urea to get carbon dioxide and ammonia.
What enzyme synthesizes PRPP?
This enzyme converts 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate to 5-phosphoribosyl-1-amine
This enzyme is deficient in histidinemia
Deamination occurs primarily on this amino acid because it is the end produce of many transamination reactions.
Presence of creatine kinase in the blood can indicate ___________________.
Lysosomal proteases that degrade protein in the lysosomal pathway
Lysosomal degradation activity is ______________ during starvation? (Increased/Decreased)
During periods of growth, pregnancy and convalescence the nitrogen balance is _________________.
How is maple syrup urine disease treated?
Normal BUN:Creatinine level is ____________:1
In hereditary hyperammonemia the administration or citrulline and arginine is usually effective except in the case of _______________.
This single bifunctional enzyme has the properties of orotate phosphotranfserase and OMP decaboxylase
People with hyperammonemia are given ________________ so the body uses it for energy of protein

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