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Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health
Can you name the Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health?
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Recidivism in offenders with low IQ us higher.
ASDP and anxiety/mood disorders result in increases in violence.
34% of adult male suspects awaiting interview have an IQ of less than 70.
Genes account for 49% of the variance in psychopathy.
Approximately 1% of the population are psychopaths.
Meta-analysis of 20 studies found strong relationship between ADHD and delinquent behaviour.
Twin study on psychopathy. 353 male twins - moderate heritability.
There is reduced activation in the amygdala during emotional memories in psychopaths.
Conduct Disorder (CD) is a percursor for future offending but these behaviours were unrelated to school performance.
ADHD and 'critical incidents' in Scottish prisoners - verbal and physical aggression were higher in those with ADHD symptoms.
16.6% of detainees are diagnosed with ADHD.
Decreased startle response found in psychopaths.
35 male offenders convicted of homicide. 14 psychopaths, 21 non-psychopaths. 15 year follow up, 11 of the psychopaths had reconvicted compared to 6 of the non-psychopaths. No sig.
299 offenders in a 3 year follow up - 65% psychopath reoffending compared to 25% non-psychopath.
Psychopathy highly comorbid. When comorbid with schizophrenia there are increases in violence.
Genetic factors are important in the association between psychopathic personality and antisocial behaviour.
Offenders with low IQ and high psychopathy were 4x more likely to have received a sexual conviction than other offenders.
31 persistent male offenders (13-17 years old) with 4+ offences that would've warranted custodial sentence in adults. Most prominent diagnosis = CD, ADHD and drug abuse.
231 offenders in a 3 year follow up study. 80% of psychopaths had reoffended compared to 25% of non-psychopaths.
Psychopaths struggle to recognise fear, but can recognise other emotions.
People with intellectual deficits (IDs) are more likely to become victims or witness crime.
The Original Psychopathy Checklist
129 male young offenders, age at 1st conviction was significantly lower in those with ADHD. Delinquency prior 14 was higher in those with ADHD.
Antisocial process screening device (APSD) - checklist with a total score of 40. Over 30 = psychopathic.
Very high comorbidity between ADHD and psychopathy, however this may only be in forensic samples, not the community.
Psychopathy has been linked with increases in reactive and instrumental aggression, which is linked to the amygdala, hypothalamus and peri-aqueductal gray.
299 offenders. 80% reoffending in psychopaths compared to 40%. For violent crimes = 38%:2.7%
Impairments in aversive conditioning found in psychopaths. They don't learn quickly from consequences.
Prevalence of IDs in 12,000 prisoners - systematic review of 10 studies from different countries. Prevalence rates of IDs = 0.5-1.5%. 3% of those who committed suicide in prison ha
Early abuse is likely to result in CD, rather than the effective flattening found in psychopathy.
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