Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health

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DescriptionResearcherDate
The Original Psychopathy Checklist1980
People with intellectual deficits (IDs) are more likely to become victims or witness crime.1989
There is reduced activation in the amygdala during emotional memories in psychopaths.2001
Decreased startle response found in psychopaths.2000
Psychopathy highly comorbid. When comorbid with schizophrenia there are increases in violence.2002
299 offenders. 80% reoffending in psychopaths compared to 40%. For violent crimes = 38%:2.7%2000
Psychopaths struggle to recognise fear, but can recognise other emotions.2003
299 offenders in a 3 year follow up - 65% psychopath reoffending compared to 25% non-psychopath.1995
ASDP and anxiety/mood disorders result in increases in violence.2000
231 offenders in a 3 year follow up study. 80% of psychopaths had reoffended compared to 25% of non-psychopaths.1988
Offenders with low IQ and high psychopathy were 4x more likely to have received a sexual conviction than other offenders.2008
16.6% of detainees are diagnosed with ADHD.2002
Genes account for 49% of the variance in psychopathy.2007
34% of adult male suspects awaiting interview have an IQ of less than 70.1993
Conduct Disorder (CD) is a percursor for future offending but these behaviours were unrelated to school performance.1993
DescriptionResearcherDate
Recidivism in offenders with low IQ us higher.
31 persistent male offenders (13-17 years old) with 4+ offences that would've warranted custodial sentence in adults. Most prominent diagnosis = CD, ADHD and drug abuse.2005
Approximately 1% of the population are psychopaths.
Early abuse is likely to result in CD, rather than the effective flattening found in psychopathy.2006
Psychopathy has been linked with increases in reactive and instrumental aggression, which is linked to the amygdala, hypothalamus and peri-aqueductal gray.2002
35 male offenders convicted of homicide. 14 psychopaths, 21 non-psychopaths. 15 year follow up, 11 of the psychopaths had reconvicted compared to 6 of the non-psychopaths. No sig. 2005
Prevalence of IDs in 12,000 prisoners - systematic review of 10 studies from different countries. Prevalence rates of IDs = 0.5-1.5%. 3% of those who committed suicide in prison ha2003
129 male young offenders, age at 1st conviction was significantly lower in those with ADHD. Delinquency prior 14 was higher in those with ADHD.2004
Impairments in aversive conditioning found in psychopaths. They don't learn quickly from consequences.2002
Very high comorbidity between ADHD and psychopathy, however this may only be in forensic samples, not the community.2001
Meta-analysis of 20 studies found strong relationship between ADHD and delinquent behaviour.2002
Twin study on psychopathy. 353 male twins - moderate heritability.2003
Antisocial process screening device (APSD) - checklist with a total score of 40. Over 30 = psychopathic.2001
ADHD and 'critical incidents' in Scottish prisoners - verbal and physical aggression were higher in those with ADHD symptoms.2009
Genetic factors are important in the association between psychopathic personality and antisocial behaviour.2010

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