USMLE First Aid Rapid Review - Classic Presentations

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Can you name the Classic Presentations of diseases?

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Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, DIC
Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails
“Strawberry tongue” (Strep. pyogenes)
Vomiting blood following esophagogastric lacerations
Palpable purpura, joint pain, abdominal pain (child)
Enlarged, hard left supraclavicular node
Thyroid and parathyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma
Chest pain, pericardial effusion / friction rub, persistent fever following MI
Smooth, flat, moist white lesions on genitals
Rash on palms and soles
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (vascular)
Indurated, painful ulcerated genital lesion with exudates
Café-au-lait spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty
Rash on palms and soles
Weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, adenopathy
Child with fever develops red rash on face that spread to body
Elastic skin, hypermobility of joints
Calf pseudohypertrophy
Painful erythematous lesions on palms and soles
Dark purple skin / mouth nodules
Rapidly progressive leg weakness that ascends (following GI/upper respiratory infection)
Dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, polyneuropathy
Fibrous plaques in soft tissue of penis
Swollen, hard, painful finger joints
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas
Athlete with polycythemia
Polyuria, acidosis, growth failure, electrolyte imbalances
Erytheroderma, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, atypical T cells
Back pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss
Situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis
Positive anterior “drawer sign”
Swollen gums, mucous leeding, poor wound healing, spots on skin
Fever, chills, headache, myalgia following antibiotic treatment for syphilis
Red “currant jelly” sputum in alcoholic or diabetic patients
Skin hyperpigmentation
Retinal hemorrhages with pale centers
Fever, night sweats, weight loss
Ptosis, miosis, anhydrosis
Painful blue fingers toes, hemolytic anemia
Streak ovaries, congenital heart disease, horseshoe kidney
Hamartamous GI polyps, hyperpigmentation of mouth / feet / hands
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Unilateral facial dropping invoving forhead
Neonate with arm paralysis following difficult birth
Fat, female, forty, and fertile
“Strawberry tongue” (Vasculitis)
Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo)
Multiple colon polyps, osteomas / soft tissue tumors, impacted / supernumerary teeth
Vascular birthmark (port-wine stain)
Continuous “machinery” heart murmur
Small, irregular red spots on buccal / inguinal mucosa with blue-white centers
Fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, diffuse rash
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, anti-basement membrane antibodies
Dog or cat bite resulting in infection
Nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech, bilateral intranuclear opthalmoplegia
Jaundice, RUQ pain, fever
Facial muscle spasm upon tapping
Infant with microcephaly, rocker-bottom feet, clenched hands, and structural heart defect
Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis
Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperdocility
Severe jaundice in neonate
Gout, mental retardation, self-mutilating behavior in boy
WBC casts in urine
Red urine in the morning, fragile RBCs
Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis
Keratin pearls in a skin biopsy
Blue sclera
Vasculitis from exposure to endotoxin causing glomerular thrombosis
Chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration
Achilles tendon xanthoma
Conjugate lateral gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia
Hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis
No lactation postpartum, absent menstruation, cold intolerance
Pancreatic, pituitary, parathyroid tumors
Male child, recurrent infections, no mature B cells
Red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple areola
Chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps
“Waxy” casts with very low urine flow
Oscillating slow/fast breathing
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (hexosaminidase
Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea
Indurated, non-painful ulcerated genital lesion
Muscoal bleeding and prolonged bleeding time
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis, neurologic symptoms
Pink complexion, dyspnea, hyperventilation
Recurrent colds unusual eczema, high serum IgE
Arachnodactyly, lens discoloration, aortic dissection, hyperflexible joints
Painful, raised red lesions on palms and soles
Restrictive cardiomyopathy (juvenile form: cardiomegaly), exercise intolerance
Painless jaundice
Dysphagia (esophageal webs), glossitis, iron deficiency anemia
Green-yellow rings around peripheral cornea
Short stature, ↑ incidence of tumors / leukemia, aplastic anemia
Hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia
Severe RLQ pain with rebound tenderness
Painful, pale, cold fingers / toes
Infant with hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, and hepatomegaly
Urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis in a male
Abdominal pain, ascites, hepatomegaly
Lucid interval after traumatic brain injury
Bluish line on gingiva
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas, bilateral acoustic neuromas
“Strawberry tongue” (Staph. aureus)
Child uses arms to stand up from squat
Single palm crease
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, c-ANCA positive
Sudden swollen / painful big toe joint, tophi
Bounding pulses, diastolic heart murmur, head bobbing
Resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, postural instability
Cutaneous / dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition
Hypercoagulability leading to migrating DVTs and vascultitis
“Worst headache of my life”
Toe extension / fanning upon plantar scrape
Pupil accommodates but doesn’t react
Large rash with bull’s-eye appearance
Bone pain, bone enlargement, arthritis
Hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts
Cold intolerance
Infant with failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, neurodegeneration
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (sphingomyelinase)
Deep labored breathing / hyperventilation
Slow, progressive muscle weakness in boys
Renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastomas, angiomatosis, pheochromocytoma

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