USMLE First Aid Rapid Review - Classic Presentations

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Can you name the Classic Presentations of diseases?

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Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Pink complexion, dyspnea, hyperventilation
Bone pain, bone enlargement, arthritis
WBC casts in urine
Fat, female, forty, and fertile
Swollen gums, mucous leeding, poor wound healing, spots on skin
Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo)
Child with fever develops red rash on face that spread to body
Painful blue fingers toes, hemolytic anemia
Situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis
Facial muscle spasm upon tapping
Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis
Jaundice, RUQ pain, fever
Hamartamous GI polyps, hyperpigmentation of mouth / feet / hands
Fever, chills, headache, myalgia following antibiotic treatment for syphilis
Positive anterior “drawer sign”
Painful erythematous lesions on palms and soles
Painless jaundice
Pupil accommodates but doesn’t react
Vomiting blood following esophagogastric lacerations
Enlarged, hard left supraclavicular node
Nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech, bilateral intranuclear opthalmoplegia
Vasculitis from exposure to endotoxin causing glomerular thrombosis
Weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, adenopathy
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, c-ANCA positive
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (hexosaminidase
Red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple areola
Rash on palms and soles
“Strawberry tongue” (Strep. pyogenes)
Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperdocility
Sudden swollen / painful big toe joint, tophi
Large rash with bull’s-eye appearance
Achilles tendon xanthoma
Unilateral facial dropping invoving forhead
Chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps
Multiple colon polyps, osteomas / soft tissue tumors, impacted / supernumerary teeth
Painful, raised red lesions on palms and soles
Urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis in a male
Neonate with arm paralysis following difficult birth
Painful, pale, cold fingers / toes
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, anti-basement membrane antibodies
Smooth, flat, moist white lesions on genitals
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Abdominal pain, ascites, hepatomegaly
Fibrous plaques in soft tissue of penis
Green-yellow rings around peripheral cornea
Blue sclera
Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas, bilateral acoustic neuromas
Fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, diffuse rash
Gout, mental retardation, self-mutilating behavior in boy
Toe extension / fanning upon plantar scrape
Resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, postural instability
Dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, polyneuropathy
Vascular birthmark (port-wine stain)
Chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration
Bluish line on gingiva
Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis
Arachnodactyly, lens discoloration, aortic dissection, hyperflexible joints
Infant with microcephaly, rocker-bottom feet, clenched hands, and structural heart defect
Streak ovaries, congenital heart disease, horseshoe kidney
Cutaneous / dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition
Restrictive cardiomyopathy (juvenile form: cardiomegaly), exercise intolerance
Retinal hemorrhages with pale centers
Back pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss
Red “currant jelly” sputum in alcoholic or diabetic patients
Red urine in the morning, fragile RBCs
Short stature, ↑ incidence of tumors / leukemia, aplastic anemia
Polyuria, acidosis, growth failure, electrolyte imbalances
Hypercoagulability leading to migrating DVTs and vascultitis
Recurrent colds unusual eczema, high serum IgE
Athlete with polycythemia
Muscoal bleeding and prolonged bleeding time
Adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, DIC
“Strawberry tongue” (Vasculitis)
Palpable purpura, joint pain, abdominal pain (child)
No lactation postpartum, absent menstruation, cold intolerance
Conjugate lateral gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia
Keratin pearls in a skin biopsy
Pancreatic, pituitary, parathyroid tumors
Rash on palms and soles
Small, irregular red spots on buccal / inguinal mucosa with blue-white centers
Fever, night sweats, weight loss
Slow, progressive muscle weakness in boys
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Erytheroderma, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, atypical T cells
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (vascular)
Single palm crease
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (sphingomyelinase)
Thyroid and parathyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma
Infant with hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, and hepatomegaly
Oscillating slow/fast breathing
Renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastomas, angiomatosis, pheochromocytoma
Dog or cat bite resulting in infection
Male child, recurrent infections, no mature B cells
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas
Indurated, painful ulcerated genital lesion with exudates
Continuous “machinery” heart murmur
“Waxy” casts with very low urine flow
Dark purple skin / mouth nodules
Chest pain, pericardial effusion / friction rub, persistent fever following MI
Rapidly progressive leg weakness that ascends (following GI/upper respiratory infection)
Child uses arms to stand up from squat
Cold intolerance
Infant with failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, neurodegeneration
Calf pseudohypertrophy
Indurated, non-painful ulcerated genital lesion
Lucid interval after traumatic brain injury
Skin hyperpigmentation
Bounding pulses, diastolic heart murmur, head bobbing
Hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis
Hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia
Swollen, hard, painful finger joints
“Worst headache of my life”
Dysphagia (esophageal webs), glossitis, iron deficiency anemia
Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails
Deep labored breathing / hyperventilation
Severe jaundice in neonate
Ptosis, miosis, anhydrosis
Hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts
Hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis, neurologic symptoms
Elastic skin, hypermobility of joints
Café-au-lait spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty
“Strawberry tongue” (Staph. aureus)
Severe RLQ pain with rebound tenderness

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