Science / USMLE First Aid Rapid Review - Classic Presentations

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Can you name the Classic Presentations of diseases?

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Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Back pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss
Hamartamous GI polyps, hyperpigmentation of mouth / feet / hands
Bounding pulses, diastolic heart murmur, head bobbing
Hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis, neurologic symptoms
Dark purple skin / mouth nodules
Small, irregular red spots on buccal / inguinal mucosa with blue-white centers
Infant with microcephaly, rocker-bottom feet, clenched hands, and structural heart defect
Hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia
Adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, DIC
Multiple colon polyps, osteomas / soft tissue tumors, impacted / supernumerary teeth
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (vascular)
Vascular birthmark (port-wine stain)
Rash on palms and soles
Fever, night sweats, weight loss
No lactation postpartum, absent menstruation, cold intolerance
Oscillating slow/fast breathing
Cutaneous / dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition
Situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis
Pink complexion, dyspnea, hyperventilation
Recurrent colds unusual eczema, high serum IgE
Fat, female, forty, and fertile
Severe jaundice in neonate
Muscoal bleeding and prolonged bleeding time
Bone pain, bone enlargement, arthritis
Deep labored breathing / hyperventilation
Restrictive cardiomyopathy (juvenile form: cardiomegaly), exercise intolerance
Fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, diffuse rash
Lucid interval after traumatic brain injury
Pupil accommodates but doesn’t react
Painful blue fingers toes, hemolytic anemia
Arachnodactyly, lens discoloration, aortic dissection, hyperflexible joints
Indurated, non-painful ulcerated genital lesion
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas, bilateral acoustic neuromas
Child with fever develops red rash on face that spread to body
Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails
Abdominal pain, ascites, hepatomegaly
Café-au-lait spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty
Renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastomas, angiomatosis, pheochromocytoma
Weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, adenopathy
Hypercoagulability leading to migrating DVTs and vascultitis
Red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple areola
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Painful, raised red lesions on palms and soles
Skin hyperpigmentation
Calf pseudohypertrophy
Swollen gums, mucous leeding, poor wound healing, spots on skin
Fever, chills, headache, myalgia following antibiotic treatment for syphilis
Enlarged, hard left supraclavicular node
Short stature, ↑ incidence of tumors / leukemia, aplastic anemia
Thyroid and parathyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma
Erytheroderma, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, atypical T cells
Blue sclera
“Strawberry tongue” (Staph. aureus)
Unilateral facial dropping invoving forhead
Bluish line on gingiva
Large rash with bull’s-eye appearance
Dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, polyneuropathy
Gout, mental retardation, self-mutilating behavior in boy
Painless jaundice
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas
Infant with hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, and hepatomegaly
Positive anterior “drawer sign”
Dog or cat bite resulting in infection
Toe extension / fanning upon plantar scrape
Conjugate lateral gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (hexosaminidase
Smooth, flat, moist white lesions on genitals
Palpable purpura, joint pain, abdominal pain (child)
Red “currant jelly” sputum in alcoholic or diabetic patients
Child uses arms to stand up from squat
Dysphagia (esophageal webs), glossitis, iron deficiency anemia
Infant with failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, neurodegeneration
“Worst headache of my life”
“Waxy” casts with very low urine flow
Chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps
Single palm crease
Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo)
Streak ovaries, congenital heart disease, horseshoe kidney
Swollen, hard, painful finger joints
Rash on palms and soles
Green-yellow rings around peripheral cornea
“Strawberry tongue” (Strep. pyogenes)
Ptosis, miosis, anhydrosis
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Indurated, painful ulcerated genital lesion with exudates
Vomiting blood following esophagogastric lacerations
Elastic skin, hypermobility of joints
Painful, pale, cold fingers / toes
Severe RLQ pain with rebound tenderness
Painful erythematous lesions on palms and soles
Red urine in the morning, fragile RBCs
Resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, postural instability
Male child, recurrent infections, no mature B cells
Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis
Continuous “machinery” heart murmur
Hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis
Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea
WBC casts in urine
Fibrous plaques in soft tissue of penis
Sudden swollen / painful big toe joint, tophi
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, anti-basement membrane antibodies
Athlete with polycythemia
“Strawberry tongue” (Vasculitis)
Hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts
Urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis in a male
Chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration
Cold intolerance
Keratin pearls in a skin biopsy
Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis
Jaundice, RUQ pain, fever
Rapidly progressive leg weakness that ascends (following GI/upper respiratory infection)
Achilles tendon xanthoma
Vasculitis from exposure to endotoxin causing glomerular thrombosis
Facial muscle spasm upon tapping
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, c-ANCA positive
Retinal hemorrhages with pale centers
Nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech, bilateral intranuclear opthalmoplegia
Neonate with arm paralysis following difficult birth
Slow, progressive muscle weakness in boys
Polyuria, acidosis, growth failure, electrolyte imbalances
Chest pain, pericardial effusion / friction rub, persistent fever following MI
Pancreatic, pituitary, parathyroid tumors
Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperdocility
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (sphingomyelinase)

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