USMLE First Aid Rapid Review - Classic Presentations

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Can you name the Classic Presentations of diseases?

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Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo)
Rash on palms and soles
Chest pain, pericardial effusion / friction rub, persistent fever following MI
Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea
Oscillating slow/fast breathing
Green-yellow rings around peripheral cornea
Bone pain, bone enlargement, arthritis
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, anti-basement membrane antibodies
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (hexosaminidase
Infant with failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, neurodegeneration
Erytheroderma, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, atypical T cells
Indurated, non-painful ulcerated genital lesion
“Strawberry tongue” (Vasculitis)
Facial muscle spasm upon tapping
Skin hyperpigmentation
Pink complexion, dyspnea, hyperventilation
Gout, mental retardation, self-mutilating behavior in boy
Rapidly progressive leg weakness that ascends (following GI/upper respiratory infection)
Pupil accommodates but doesn’t react
Nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech, bilateral intranuclear opthalmoplegia
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas, bilateral acoustic neuromas
Resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, postural instability
Continuous “machinery” heart murmur
Painful blue fingers toes, hemolytic anemia
Weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, adenopathy
Recurrent colds unusual eczema, high serum IgE
Cold intolerance
Keratin pearls in a skin biopsy
“Worst headache of my life”
Back pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss
Dysphagia (esophageal webs), glossitis, iron deficiency anemia
Thyroid and parathyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma
Chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps
Painless jaundice
Palpable purpura, joint pain, abdominal pain (child)
Infant with microcephaly, rocker-bottom feet, clenched hands, and structural heart defect
Hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis, neurologic symptoms
Situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis
Muscoal bleeding and prolonged bleeding time
Calf pseudohypertrophy
“Strawberry tongue” (Strep. pyogenes)
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis
Café-au-lait spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty
Red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple areola
Rash on palms and soles
Ptosis, miosis, anhydrosis
Urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis in a male
Achilles tendon xanthoma
Vascular birthmark (port-wine stain)
No lactation postpartum, absent menstruation, cold intolerance
Sudden swollen / painful big toe joint, tophi
Small, irregular red spots on buccal / inguinal mucosa with blue-white centers
Hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia
Arachnodactyly, lens discoloration, aortic dissection, hyperflexible joints
Positive anterior “drawer sign”
Lucid interval after traumatic brain injury
Red urine in the morning, fragile RBCs
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, c-ANCA positive
Jaundice, RUQ pain, fever
Indurated, painful ulcerated genital lesion with exudates
Polyuria, acidosis, growth failure, electrolyte imbalances
Neonate with arm paralysis following difficult birth
Chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration
Bluish line on gingiva
Fever, night sweats, weight loss
Infant with hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, and hepatomegaly
Abdominal pain, ascites, hepatomegaly
Toe extension / fanning upon plantar scrape
Hamartamous GI polyps, hyperpigmentation of mouth / feet / hands
Dark purple skin / mouth nodules
Adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, DIC
Smooth, flat, moist white lesions on genitals
Bounding pulses, diastolic heart murmur, head bobbing
Swollen, hard, painful finger joints
Blue sclera
Vomiting blood following esophagogastric lacerations
Pancreatic, pituitary, parathyroid tumors
Fever, chills, headache, myalgia following antibiotic treatment for syphilis
Dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, polyneuropathy
Severe RLQ pain with rebound tenderness
Deep labored breathing / hyperventilation
Hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Conjugate lateral gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia
Retinal hemorrhages with pale centers
Streak ovaries, congenital heart disease, horseshoe kidney
Fibrous plaques in soft tissue of penis
Hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis
WBC casts in urine
Child uses arms to stand up from squat
Red “currant jelly” sputum in alcoholic or diabetic patients
Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperdocility
Vasculitis from exposure to endotoxin causing glomerular thrombosis
Elastic skin, hypermobility of joints
Hypercoagulability leading to migrating DVTs and vascultitis
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas
Fat, female, forty, and fertile
Slow, progressive muscle weakness in boys
Large rash with bull’s-eye appearance
Child with fever develops red rash on face that spread to body
“Waxy” casts with very low urine flow
Cutaneous / dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition
Enlarged, hard left supraclavicular node
Fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, diffuse rash
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (vascular)
Painful, raised red lesions on palms and soles
Multiple colon polyps, osteomas / soft tissue tumors, impacted / supernumerary teeth
Male child, recurrent infections, no mature B cells
Unilateral facial dropping invoving forhead
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (sphingomyelinase)
Renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastomas, angiomatosis, pheochromocytoma
Severe jaundice in neonate
“Strawberry tongue” (Staph. aureus)
Single palm crease
Restrictive cardiomyopathy (juvenile form: cardiomegaly), exercise intolerance
Short stature, ↑ incidence of tumors / leukemia, aplastic anemia
Dog or cat bite resulting in infection
Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis
Painful erythematous lesions on palms and soles
Swollen gums, mucous leeding, poor wound healing, spots on skin
Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails
Painful, pale, cold fingers / toes
Athlete with polycythemia

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