USMLE First Aid Rapid Review - Classic Presentations

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Can you name the Classic Presentations of diseases?

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Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Achilles tendon xanthoma
Sudden swollen / painful big toe joint, tophi
Palpable purpura, joint pain, abdominal pain (child)
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (hexosaminidase
Polyuria, acidosis, growth failure, electrolyte imbalances
Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, c-ANCA positive
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (vascular)
Bluish line on gingiva
Red “currant jelly” sputum in alcoholic or diabetic patients
Vomiting blood following esophagogastric lacerations
Hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts
Bone pain, bone enlargement, arthritis
Chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps
Streak ovaries, congenital heart disease, horseshoe kidney
Painful blue fingers toes, hemolytic anemia
Neonate with arm paralysis following difficult birth
Oscillating slow/fast breathing
Gout, mental retardation, self-mutilating behavior in boy
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas
Pancreatic, pituitary, parathyroid tumors
Arachnodactyly, lens discoloration, aortic dissection, hyperflexible joints
Muscoal bleeding and prolonged bleeding time
“Strawberry tongue” (Staph. aureus)
Toe extension / fanning upon plantar scrape
“Worst headache of my life”
Lucid interval after traumatic brain injury
Urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis in a male
Hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis
Painless jaundice
Erytheroderma, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, atypical T cells
Green-yellow rings around peripheral cornea
Situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis
Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails
Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo)
Keratin pearls in a skin biopsy
Hamartamous GI polyps, hyperpigmentation of mouth / feet / hands
Pink complexion, dyspnea, hyperventilation
Fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, diffuse rash
Painful, pale, cold fingers / toes
Hypercoagulability leading to migrating DVTs and vascultitis
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Rash on palms and soles
Unilateral facial dropping invoving forhead
Male child, recurrent infections, no mature B cells
Child uses arms to stand up from squat
Thyroid and parathyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma
Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea
Rash on palms and soles
Dark purple skin / mouth nodules
Ptosis, miosis, anhydrosis
Large rash with bull’s-eye appearance
Café-au-lait spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty
Restrictive cardiomyopathy (juvenile form: cardiomegaly), exercise intolerance
Adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, DIC
Infant with failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, neurodegeneration
Retinal hemorrhages with pale centers
Vasculitis from exposure to endotoxin causing glomerular thrombosis
Recurrent colds unusual eczema, high serum IgE
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, anti-basement membrane antibodies
Multiple colon polyps, osteomas / soft tissue tumors, impacted / supernumerary teeth
Fever, night sweats, weight loss
Calf pseudohypertrophy
Dog or cat bite resulting in infection
Enlarged, hard left supraclavicular node
Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperdocility
Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis
Single palm crease
Deep labored breathing / hyperventilation
“Strawberry tongue” (Vasculitis)
Infant with hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, and hepatomegaly
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (sphingomyelinase)
Continuous “machinery” heart murmur
Short stature, ↑ incidence of tumors / leukemia, aplastic anemia
Cutaneous / dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition
“Waxy” casts with very low urine flow
Hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis, neurologic symptoms
WBC casts in urine
“Strawberry tongue” (Strep. pyogenes)
Bounding pulses, diastolic heart murmur, head bobbing
Conjugate lateral gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia
Dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, polyneuropathy
Indurated, painful ulcerated genital lesion with exudates
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration
Fever, chills, headache, myalgia following antibiotic treatment for syphilis
Facial muscle spasm upon tapping
Small, irregular red spots on buccal / inguinal mucosa with blue-white centers
Infant with microcephaly, rocker-bottom feet, clenched hands, and structural heart defect
Abdominal pain, ascites, hepatomegaly
Pupil accommodates but doesn’t react
Positive anterior “drawer sign”
Blue sclera
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas, bilateral acoustic neuromas
Fibrous plaques in soft tissue of penis
Fat, female, forty, and fertile
Back pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss
Dysphagia (esophageal webs), glossitis, iron deficiency anemia
Painful, raised red lesions on palms and soles
Swollen gums, mucous leeding, poor wound healing, spots on skin
Chest pain, pericardial effusion / friction rub, persistent fever following MI
Slow, progressive muscle weakness in boys
Elastic skin, hypermobility of joints
Red urine in the morning, fragile RBCs
No lactation postpartum, absent menstruation, cold intolerance
Red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple areola
Renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastomas, angiomatosis, pheochromocytoma
Painful erythematous lesions on palms and soles
Vascular birthmark (port-wine stain)
Child with fever develops red rash on face that spread to body
Nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech, bilateral intranuclear opthalmoplegia
Indurated, non-painful ulcerated genital lesion
Athlete with polycythemia
Smooth, flat, moist white lesions on genitals
Cold intolerance
Skin hyperpigmentation
Severe RLQ pain with rebound tenderness
Weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, adenopathy
Jaundice, RUQ pain, fever
Resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, postural instability
Swollen, hard, painful finger joints
Severe jaundice in neonate
Hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia
Rapidly progressive leg weakness that ascends (following GI/upper respiratory infection)

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