USMLE First Aid Rapid Review - Classic Presentations

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Can you name the Classic Presentations of diseases?

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Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis, neurologic symptoms
Slow, progressive muscle weakness in boys
“Waxy” casts with very low urine flow
Urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis in a male
Sudden swollen / painful big toe joint, tophi
Pancreatic, pituitary, parathyroid tumors
Red urine in the morning, fragile RBCs
Vomiting blood following esophagogastric lacerations
Oscillating slow/fast breathing
Painless jaundice
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (vascular)
Bone pain, bone enlargement, arthritis
Situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis
Rapidly progressive leg weakness that ascends (following GI/upper respiratory infection)
Severe jaundice in neonate
Keratin pearls in a skin biopsy
Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis
Pupil accommodates but doesn’t react
Hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts
Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis
Chest pain, pericardial effusion / friction rub, persistent fever following MI
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, anti-basement membrane antibodies
Large rash with bull’s-eye appearance
Nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech, bilateral intranuclear opthalmoplegia
Elastic skin, hypermobility of joints
Jaundice, RUQ pain, fever
Red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple areola
Facial muscle spasm upon tapping
Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea
Male child, recurrent infections, no mature B cells
Toe extension / fanning upon plantar scrape
“Strawberry tongue” (Strep. pyogenes)
Painful, raised red lesions on palms and soles
Conjugate lateral gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia
Hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis
Achilles tendon xanthoma
Short stature, ↑ incidence of tumors / leukemia, aplastic anemia
Neonate with arm paralysis following difficult birth
Abdominal pain, ascites, hepatomegaly
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas, bilateral acoustic neuromas
Fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, diffuse rash
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration
Lucid interval after traumatic brain injury
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, c-ANCA positive
Hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia
Rash on palms and soles
Athlete with polycythemia
Blue sclera
Arachnodactyly, lens discoloration, aortic dissection, hyperflexible joints
Rash on palms and soles
Single palm crease
Positive anterior “drawer sign”
Unilateral facial dropping invoving forhead
Painful blue fingers toes, hemolytic anemia
Calf pseudohypertrophy
Café-au-lait spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty
WBC casts in urine
Painful, pale, cold fingers / toes
No lactation postpartum, absent menstruation, cold intolerance
Deep labored breathing / hyperventilation
Cold intolerance
“Strawberry tongue” (Vasculitis)
Continuous “machinery” heart murmur
Green-yellow rings around peripheral cornea
“Strawberry tongue” (Staph. aureus)
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas
Adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, DIC
Erytheroderma, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, atypical T cells
Resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, postural instability
Retinal hemorrhages with pale centers
Infant with failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, neurodegeneration
Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperdocility
Infant with microcephaly, rocker-bottom feet, clenched hands, and structural heart defect
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (sphingomyelinase)
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (hexosaminidase
Gout, mental retardation, self-mutilating behavior in boy
Pink complexion, dyspnea, hyperventilation
Child uses arms to stand up from squat
Weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, adenopathy
Dysphagia (esophageal webs), glossitis, iron deficiency anemia
Red “currant jelly” sputum in alcoholic or diabetic patients
“Worst headache of my life”
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, polyneuropathy
Ptosis, miosis, anhydrosis
Fibrous plaques in soft tissue of penis
Enlarged, hard left supraclavicular node
Indurated, painful ulcerated genital lesion with exudates
Cutaneous / dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition
Fever, night sweats, weight loss
Skin hyperpigmentation
Vasculitis from exposure to endotoxin causing glomerular thrombosis
Streak ovaries, congenital heart disease, horseshoe kidney
Recurrent colds unusual eczema, high serum IgE
Vascular birthmark (port-wine stain)
Swollen gums, mucous leeding, poor wound healing, spots on skin
Dog or cat bite resulting in infection
Bluish line on gingiva
Indurated, non-painful ulcerated genital lesion
Palpable purpura, joint pain, abdominal pain (child)
Fever, chills, headache, myalgia following antibiotic treatment for syphilis
Painful erythematous lesions on palms and soles
Infant with hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, and hepatomegaly
Hypercoagulability leading to migrating DVTs and vascultitis
Child with fever develops red rash on face that spread to body
Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails
Smooth, flat, moist white lesions on genitals
Muscoal bleeding and prolonged bleeding time
Renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastomas, angiomatosis, pheochromocytoma
Multiple colon polyps, osteomas / soft tissue tumors, impacted / supernumerary teeth
Bounding pulses, diastolic heart murmur, head bobbing
Back pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss
Polyuria, acidosis, growth failure, electrolyte imbalances
Hamartamous GI polyps, hyperpigmentation of mouth / feet / hands
Swollen, hard, painful finger joints
Fat, female, forty, and fertile
Chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps
Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo)
Restrictive cardiomyopathy (juvenile form: cardiomegaly), exercise intolerance
Dark purple skin / mouth nodules
Severe RLQ pain with rebound tenderness
Thyroid and parathyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma
Small, irregular red spots on buccal / inguinal mucosa with blue-white centers

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