USMLE First Aid Rapid Review - Classic Presentations

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Can you name the Classic Presentations of diseases?

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Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Red urine in the morning, fragile RBCs
Hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis, neurologic symptoms
Jaundice, RUQ pain, fever
Smooth, flat, moist white lesions on genitals
Urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis in a male
Pink complexion, dyspnea, hyperventilation
Conjugate lateral gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia
Recurrent colds unusual eczema, high serum IgE
Keratin pearls in a skin biopsy
Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis
Child with fever develops red rash on face that spread to body
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (vascular)
No lactation postpartum, absent menstruation, cold intolerance
“Strawberry tongue” (Staph. aureus)
Muscoal bleeding and prolonged bleeding time
Deep labored breathing / hyperventilation
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, anti-basement membrane antibodies
Cutaneous / dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition
Restrictive cardiomyopathy (juvenile form: cardiomegaly), exercise intolerance
Dog or cat bite resulting in infection
Rash on palms and soles
Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo)
Lucid interval after traumatic brain injury
Single palm crease
Fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, diffuse rash
Fibrous plaques in soft tissue of penis
Dark purple skin / mouth nodules
Abdominal pain, ascites, hepatomegaly
Painless jaundice
Blue sclera
Renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastomas, angiomatosis, pheochromocytoma
Calf pseudohypertrophy
Erytheroderma, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, atypical T cells
Infant with failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, neurodegeneration
Oscillating slow/fast breathing
Pupil accommodates but doesn’t react
Infant with microcephaly, rocker-bottom feet, clenched hands, and structural heart defect
Indurated, non-painful ulcerated genital lesion
Severe jaundice in neonate
Polyuria, acidosis, growth failure, electrolyte imbalances
Swollen gums, mucous leeding, poor wound healing, spots on skin
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Arachnodactyly, lens discoloration, aortic dissection, hyperflexible joints
Achilles tendon xanthoma
Dysphagia (esophageal webs), glossitis, iron deficiency anemia
Elastic skin, hypermobility of joints
Gout, mental retardation, self-mutilating behavior in boy
Short stature, ↑ incidence of tumors / leukemia, aplastic anemia
Hypercoagulability leading to migrating DVTs and vascultitis
Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails
Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperdocility
Café-au-lait spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty
Large rash with bull’s-eye appearance
Weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, adenopathy
Painful, raised red lesions on palms and soles
Situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis
Child uses arms to stand up from squat
Slow, progressive muscle weakness in boys
Sudden swollen / painful big toe joint, tophi
“Strawberry tongue” (Vasculitis)
WBC casts in urine
Vasculitis from exposure to endotoxin causing glomerular thrombosis
Hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia
Pancreatic, pituitary, parathyroid tumors
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, c-ANCA positive
Infant with hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, and hepatomegaly
Red “currant jelly” sputum in alcoholic or diabetic patients
Bone pain, bone enlargement, arthritis
Back pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss
Chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration
Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea
Palpable purpura, joint pain, abdominal pain (child)
Rash on palms and soles
Chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps
Positive anterior “drawer sign”
Hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts
Cold intolerance
Fat, female, forty, and fertile
Streak ovaries, congenital heart disease, horseshoe kidney
Toe extension / fanning upon plantar scrape
Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis
Neonate with arm paralysis following difficult birth
Painful blue fingers toes, hemolytic anemia
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (hexosaminidase
Severe RLQ pain with rebound tenderness
Bounding pulses, diastolic heart murmur, head bobbing
“Waxy” casts with very low urine flow
Fever, night sweats, weight loss
Unilateral facial dropping invoving forhead
Adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, DIC
Athlete with polycythemia
Multiple colon polyps, osteomas / soft tissue tumors, impacted / supernumerary teeth
Ptosis, miosis, anhydrosis
Resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, postural instability
Retinal hemorrhages with pale centers
Nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech, bilateral intranuclear opthalmoplegia
Skin hyperpigmentation
Dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, polyneuropathy
Painful, pale, cold fingers / toes
Painful erythematous lesions on palms and soles
Vascular birthmark (port-wine stain)
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas
Continuous “machinery” heart murmur
Indurated, painful ulcerated genital lesion with exudates
“Strawberry tongue” (Strep. pyogenes)
Male child, recurrent infections, no mature B cells
Vomiting blood following esophagogastric lacerations
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas, bilateral acoustic neuromas
Green-yellow rings around peripheral cornea
Swollen, hard, painful finger joints
Facial muscle spasm upon tapping
Small, irregular red spots on buccal / inguinal mucosa with blue-white centers
Thyroid and parathyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma
Rapidly progressive leg weakness that ascends (following GI/upper respiratory infection)
“Worst headache of my life”
Fever, chills, headache, myalgia following antibiotic treatment for syphilis
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (sphingomyelinase)
Hamartamous GI polyps, hyperpigmentation of mouth / feet / hands
Hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis
Enlarged, hard left supraclavicular node
Chest pain, pericardial effusion / friction rub, persistent fever following MI
Bluish line on gingiva
Red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple areola

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