USMLE First Aid Rapid Review - Classic Presentations

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Can you name the Classic Presentations of diseases?

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Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Calf pseudohypertrophy
Child with fever develops red rash on face that spread to body
Dark purple skin / mouth nodules
Red urine in the morning, fragile RBCs
Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis
“Strawberry tongue” (Vasculitis)
Pupil accommodates but doesn’t react
Positive anterior “drawer sign”
Hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia
Painful erythematous lesions on palms and soles
Dysphagia (esophageal webs), glossitis, iron deficiency anemia
Jaundice, RUQ pain, fever
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (hexosaminidase
Swollen, hard, painful finger joints
“Waxy” casts with very low urine flow
Chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration
Nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech, bilateral intranuclear opthalmoplegia
“Worst headache of my life”
Ptosis, miosis, anhydrosis
Indurated, non-painful ulcerated genital lesion
No lactation postpartum, absent menstruation, cold intolerance
Lucid interval after traumatic brain injury
Painful, raised red lesions on palms and soles
Blue sclera
Multiple colon polyps, osteomas / soft tissue tumors, impacted / supernumerary teeth
Fever, night sweats, weight loss
Indurated, painful ulcerated genital lesion with exudates
Red “currant jelly” sputum in alcoholic or diabetic patients
Thyroid and parathyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma
Athlete with polycythemia
Large rash with bull’s-eye appearance
Conjugate lateral gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia
Fat, female, forty, and fertile
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, c-ANCA positive
Red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple areola
Weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, adenopathy
Painless jaundice
Polyuria, acidosis, growth failure, electrolyte imbalances
Hamartamous GI polyps, hyperpigmentation of mouth / feet / hands
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas
“Strawberry tongue” (Strep. pyogenes)
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps
Urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis in a male
Unilateral facial dropping invoving forhead
Achilles tendon xanthoma
Male child, recurrent infections, no mature B cells
Green-yellow rings around peripheral cornea
Painful blue fingers toes, hemolytic anemia
Sudden swollen / painful big toe joint, tophi
Smooth, flat, moist white lesions on genitals
Small, irregular red spots on buccal / inguinal mucosa with blue-white centers
“Strawberry tongue” (Staph. aureus)
Facial muscle spasm upon tapping
Renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastomas, angiomatosis, pheochromocytoma
Oscillating slow/fast breathing
Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo)
Hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis, neurologic symptoms
Short stature, ↑ incidence of tumors / leukemia, aplastic anemia
Continuous “machinery” heart murmur
Rash on palms and soles
Rash on palms and soles
Hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis
Single palm crease
Vascular birthmark (port-wine stain)
Cold intolerance
Fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, diffuse rash
Palpable purpura, joint pain, abdominal pain (child)
Arachnodactyly, lens discoloration, aortic dissection, hyperflexible joints
Adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, DIC
Slow, progressive muscle weakness in boys
Hypercoagulability leading to migrating DVTs and vascultitis
Severe RLQ pain with rebound tenderness
Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails
Retinal hemorrhages with pale centers
Recurrent colds unusual eczema, high serum IgE
Pancreatic, pituitary, parathyroid tumors
Dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, polyneuropathy
Keratin pearls in a skin biopsy
Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperdocility
Muscoal bleeding and prolonged bleeding time
Fever, chills, headache, myalgia following antibiotic treatment for syphilis
Swollen gums, mucous leeding, poor wound healing, spots on skin
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (sphingomyelinase)
Streak ovaries, congenital heart disease, horseshoe kidney
Painful, pale, cold fingers / toes
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas, bilateral acoustic neuromas
Situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis
Hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts
Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis
Restrictive cardiomyopathy (juvenile form: cardiomegaly), exercise intolerance
Enlarged, hard left supraclavicular node
Infant with failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, neurodegeneration
Fibrous plaques in soft tissue of penis
Cutaneous / dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition
Bluish line on gingiva
Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea
Infant with hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, and hepatomegaly
WBC casts in urine
Erytheroderma, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, atypical T cells
Vasculitis from exposure to endotoxin causing glomerular thrombosis
Abdominal pain, ascites, hepatomegaly
Bounding pulses, diastolic heart murmur, head bobbing
Skin hyperpigmentation
Bone pain, bone enlargement, arthritis
Child uses arms to stand up from squat
Gout, mental retardation, self-mutilating behavior in boy
Vomiting blood following esophagogastric lacerations
Neonate with arm paralysis following difficult birth
Deep labored breathing / hyperventilation
Dog or cat bite resulting in infection
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, anti-basement membrane antibodies
Toe extension / fanning upon plantar scrape
Infant with microcephaly, rocker-bottom feet, clenched hands, and structural heart defect
Back pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss
Pink complexion, dyspnea, hyperventilation
Elastic skin, hypermobility of joints
Resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, postural instability
Rapidly progressive leg weakness that ascends (following GI/upper respiratory infection)
Chest pain, pericardial effusion / friction rub, persistent fever following MI
Severe jaundice in neonate
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (vascular)
Café-au-lait spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty

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