USMLE First Aid Rapid Review - Classic Presentations

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Can you name the Classic Presentations of diseases?

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Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple areola
Indurated, non-painful ulcerated genital lesion
Blue sclera
Bluish line on gingiva
Slow, progressive muscle weakness in boys
Painful blue fingers toes, hemolytic anemia
Large rash with bull’s-eye appearance
Unilateral facial dropping invoving forhead
Sudden swollen / painful big toe joint, tophi
Green-yellow rings around peripheral cornea
Hamartamous GI polyps, hyperpigmentation of mouth / feet / hands
“Strawberry tongue” (Vasculitis)
Facial muscle spasm upon tapping
Adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, DIC
Achilles tendon xanthoma
Child with fever develops red rash on face that spread to body
Lucid interval after traumatic brain injury
Painful erythematous lesions on palms and soles
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, c-ANCA positive
Infant with hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, and hepatomegaly
Arachnodactyly, lens discoloration, aortic dissection, hyperflexible joints
Ptosis, miosis, anhydrosis
Abdominal pain, ascites, hepatomegaly
“Strawberry tongue” (Staph. aureus)
Multiple colon polyps, osteomas / soft tissue tumors, impacted / supernumerary teeth
No lactation postpartum, absent menstruation, cold intolerance
Painless jaundice
Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis
Erytheroderma, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, atypical T cells
Hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis
Polyuria, acidosis, growth failure, electrolyte imbalances
Pink complexion, dyspnea, hyperventilation
Vasculitis from exposure to endotoxin causing glomerular thrombosis
Swollen, hard, painful finger joints
Red urine in the morning, fragile RBCs
Cold intolerance
Back pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss
Dysphagia (esophageal webs), glossitis, iron deficiency anemia
Vascular birthmark (port-wine stain)
Renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastomas, angiomatosis, pheochromocytoma
Athlete with polycythemia
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
WBC casts in urine
Hypercoagulability leading to migrating DVTs and vascultitis
Rash on palms and soles
Fever, night sweats, weight loss
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas, bilateral acoustic neuromas
Smooth, flat, moist white lesions on genitals
Chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration
Painful, pale, cold fingers / toes
Hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis, neurologic symptoms
Thyroid and parathyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma
Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails
Chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (vascular)
Calf pseudohypertrophy
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (sphingomyelinase)
Toe extension / fanning upon plantar scrape
Deep labored breathing / hyperventilation
Hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (hexosaminidase
Fat, female, forty, and fertile
Indurated, painful ulcerated genital lesion with exudates
Dog or cat bite resulting in infection
Infant with microcephaly, rocker-bottom feet, clenched hands, and structural heart defect
Swollen gums, mucous leeding, poor wound healing, spots on skin
Enlarged, hard left supraclavicular node
“Waxy” casts with very low urine flow
Chest pain, pericardial effusion / friction rub, persistent fever following MI
Infant with failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, neurodegeneration
Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis
Bone pain, bone enlargement, arthritis
Muscoal bleeding and prolonged bleeding time
Cutaneous / dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition
Palpable purpura, joint pain, abdominal pain (child)
Resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, postural instability
Elastic skin, hypermobility of joints
Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperdocility
Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea
Hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia
Dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, polyneuropathy
Pupil accommodates but doesn’t react
Fever, chills, headache, myalgia following antibiotic treatment for syphilis
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Rapidly progressive leg weakness that ascends (following GI/upper respiratory infection)
Small, irregular red spots on buccal / inguinal mucosa with blue-white centers
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, anti-basement membrane antibodies
Vomiting blood following esophagogastric lacerations
Situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis
Conjugate lateral gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia
Pancreatic, pituitary, parathyroid tumors
Rash on palms and soles
Severe jaundice in neonate
Oscillating slow/fast breathing
Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo)
“Strawberry tongue” (Strep. pyogenes)
Restrictive cardiomyopathy (juvenile form: cardiomegaly), exercise intolerance
Skin hyperpigmentation
Urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis in a male
Gout, mental retardation, self-mutilating behavior in boy
Café-au-lait spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty
Retinal hemorrhages with pale centers
Bounding pulses, diastolic heart murmur, head bobbing
Nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech, bilateral intranuclear opthalmoplegia
Short stature, ↑ incidence of tumors / leukemia, aplastic anemia
Severe RLQ pain with rebound tenderness
Red “currant jelly” sputum in alcoholic or diabetic patients
Weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, adenopathy
Recurrent colds unusual eczema, high serum IgE
Dark purple skin / mouth nodules
“Worst headache of my life”
Child uses arms to stand up from squat
Fibrous plaques in soft tissue of penis
Fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, diffuse rash
Positive anterior “drawer sign”
Continuous “machinery” heart murmur
Painful, raised red lesions on palms and soles
Jaundice, RUQ pain, fever
Streak ovaries, congenital heart disease, horseshoe kidney
Neonate with arm paralysis following difficult birth
Male child, recurrent infections, no mature B cells
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas
Keratin pearls in a skin biopsy
Single palm crease

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