USMLE First Aid Rapid Review - Classic Presentations

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Can you name the Classic Presentations of diseases?

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Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
“Worst headache of my life”
Slow, progressive muscle weakness in boys
Nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech, bilateral intranuclear opthalmoplegia
Infant with failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, neurodegeneration
Hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis
Pancreatic, pituitary, parathyroid tumors
Fibrous plaques in soft tissue of penis
Painless jaundice
Situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis
Dysphagia (esophageal webs), glossitis, iron deficiency anemia
Short stature, ↑ incidence of tumors / leukemia, aplastic anemia
Red urine in the morning, fragile RBCs
No lactation postpartum, absent menstruation, cold intolerance
Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (hexosaminidase
Smooth, flat, moist white lesions on genitals
Infant with microcephaly, rocker-bottom feet, clenched hands, and structural heart defect
Café-au-lait spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty
Bone pain, bone enlargement, arthritis
Restrictive cardiomyopathy (juvenile form: cardiomegaly), exercise intolerance
Indurated, painful ulcerated genital lesion with exudates
Streak ovaries, congenital heart disease, horseshoe kidney
Vomiting blood following esophagogastric lacerations
Painful, raised red lesions on palms and soles
Fever, chills, headache, myalgia following antibiotic treatment for syphilis
Red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple areola
Green-yellow rings around peripheral cornea
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, anti-basement membrane antibodies
Deep labored breathing / hyperventilation
Continuous “machinery” heart murmur
Child uses arms to stand up from squat
Resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, postural instability
Fever, night sweats, weight loss
Palpable purpura, joint pain, abdominal pain (child)
Large rash with bull’s-eye appearance
Rapidly progressive leg weakness that ascends (following GI/upper respiratory infection)
Hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts
Blue sclera
Cutaneous / dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition
Bluish line on gingiva
Infant with hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, and hepatomegaly
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Gout, mental retardation, self-mutilating behavior in boy
“Strawberry tongue” (Vasculitis)
Skin hyperpigmentation
Neonate with arm paralysis following difficult birth
Vascular birthmark (port-wine stain)
Renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastomas, angiomatosis, pheochromocytoma
Adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, DIC
Erytheroderma, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, atypical T cells
Hypercoagulability leading to migrating DVTs and vascultitis
Retinal hemorrhages with pale centers
Severe RLQ pain with rebound tenderness
Bounding pulses, diastolic heart murmur, head bobbing
Dark purple skin / mouth nodules
Pink complexion, dyspnea, hyperventilation
Thyroid and parathyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma
Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis
Fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, diffuse rash
Single palm crease
Toe extension / fanning upon plantar scrape
Chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration
“Strawberry tongue” (Staph. aureus)
Jaundice, RUQ pain, fever
Fat, female, forty, and fertile
Elastic skin, hypermobility of joints
Abdominal pain, ascites, hepatomegaly
Calf pseudohypertrophy
Keratin pearls in a skin biopsy
Indurated, non-painful ulcerated genital lesion
Chest pain, pericardial effusion / friction rub, persistent fever following MI
Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperdocility
Athlete with polycythemia
Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis
Unilateral facial dropping invoving forhead
Hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis, neurologic symptoms
Child with fever develops red rash on face that spread to body
Lucid interval after traumatic brain injury
Ptosis, miosis, anhydrosis
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas, bilateral acoustic neuromas
Achilles tendon xanthoma
Muscoal bleeding and prolonged bleeding time
Dog or cat bite resulting in infection
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Vasculitis from exposure to endotoxin causing glomerular thrombosis
Painful erythematous lesions on palms and soles
Polyuria, acidosis, growth failure, electrolyte imbalances
Swollen gums, mucous leeding, poor wound healing, spots on skin
Positive anterior “drawer sign”
Multiple colon polyps, osteomas / soft tissue tumors, impacted / supernumerary teeth
Dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, polyneuropathy
Enlarged, hard left supraclavicular node
“Strawberry tongue” (Strep. pyogenes)
Oscillating slow/fast breathing
Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails
Rash on palms and soles
Facial muscle spasm upon tapping
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, c-ANCA positive
Conjugate lateral gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia
“Waxy” casts with very low urine flow
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (sphingomyelinase)
WBC casts in urine
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (vascular)
Painful, pale, cold fingers / toes
Hamartamous GI polyps, hyperpigmentation of mouth / feet / hands
Weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, adenopathy
Chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps
Red “currant jelly” sputum in alcoholic or diabetic patients
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas
Rash on palms and soles
Urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis in a male
Recurrent colds unusual eczema, high serum IgE
Arachnodactyly, lens discoloration, aortic dissection, hyperflexible joints
Small, irregular red spots on buccal / inguinal mucosa with blue-white centers
Hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia
Sudden swollen / painful big toe joint, tophi
Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo)
Cold intolerance
Pupil accommodates but doesn’t react
Male child, recurrent infections, no mature B cells
Severe jaundice in neonate
Painful blue fingers toes, hemolytic anemia
Swollen, hard, painful finger joints
Back pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss

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