USMLE First Aid Rapid Review - Classic Presentations

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Can you name the Classic Presentations of diseases?

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Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
“Strawberry tongue” (Staph. aureus)
Dysphagia (esophageal webs), glossitis, iron deficiency anemia
Blue sclera
Cold intolerance
Bone pain, bone enlargement, arthritis
Short stature, ↑ incidence of tumors / leukemia, aplastic anemia
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas
Infant with hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, and hepatomegaly
Renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastomas, angiomatosis, pheochromocytoma
WBC casts in urine
Red urine in the morning, fragile RBCs
Bounding pulses, diastolic heart murmur, head bobbing
Thyroid and parathyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma
Ptosis, miosis, anhydrosis
Hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis
Hypercoagulability leading to migrating DVTs and vascultitis
Painful erythematous lesions on palms and soles
Retinal hemorrhages with pale centers
Gout, mental retardation, self-mutilating behavior in boy
Streak ovaries, congenital heart disease, horseshoe kidney
Severe jaundice in neonate
Deep labored breathing / hyperventilation
Abdominal pain, ascites, hepatomegaly
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas, bilateral acoustic neuromas
Hamartamous GI polyps, hyperpigmentation of mouth / feet / hands
Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperdocility
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, anti-basement membrane antibodies
Jaundice, RUQ pain, fever
Polyuria, acidosis, growth failure, electrolyte imbalances
Child uses arms to stand up from squat
Swollen gums, mucous leeding, poor wound healing, spots on skin
Enlarged, hard left supraclavicular node
Painful, raised red lesions on palms and soles
Lucid interval after traumatic brain injury
Rash on palms and soles
“Worst headache of my life”
Severe RLQ pain with rebound tenderness
Chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps
Café-au-lait spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty
Toe extension / fanning upon plantar scrape
Small, irregular red spots on buccal / inguinal mucosa with blue-white centers
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Pupil accommodates but doesn’t react
Male child, recurrent infections, no mature B cells
“Strawberry tongue” (Vasculitis)
Vascular birthmark (port-wine stain)
Painful blue fingers toes, hemolytic anemia
Swollen, hard, painful finger joints
Rapidly progressive leg weakness that ascends (following GI/upper respiratory infection)
Hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts
Infant with microcephaly, rocker-bottom feet, clenched hands, and structural heart defect
Athlete with polycythemia
Unilateral facial dropping invoving forhead
Conjugate lateral gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia
Arachnodactyly, lens discoloration, aortic dissection, hyperflexible joints
Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo)
Sudden swollen / painful big toe joint, tophi
Hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis, neurologic symptoms
Chest pain, pericardial effusion / friction rub, persistent fever following MI
Dog or cat bite resulting in infection
Cutaneous / dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition
Slow, progressive muscle weakness in boys
Indurated, non-painful ulcerated genital lesion
Positive anterior “drawer sign”
Keratin pearls in a skin biopsy
Dark purple skin / mouth nodules
Skin hyperpigmentation
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (sphingomyelinase)
Adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, DIC
Fever, night sweats, weight loss
Recurrent colds unusual eczema, high serum IgE
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (vascular)
Facial muscle spasm upon tapping
Neonate with arm paralysis following difficult birth
Calf pseudohypertrophy
Fibrous plaques in soft tissue of penis
Continuous “machinery” heart murmur
Dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, polyneuropathy
Single palm crease
Infant with failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, neurodegeneration
Red “currant jelly” sputum in alcoholic or diabetic patients
Fat, female, forty, and fertile
Achilles tendon xanthoma
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Painful, pale, cold fingers / toes
Elastic skin, hypermobility of joints
Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails
Chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration
Green-yellow rings around peripheral cornea
Weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, adenopathy
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (hexosaminidase
Muscoal bleeding and prolonged bleeding time
No lactation postpartum, absent menstruation, cold intolerance
Child with fever develops red rash on face that spread to body
Fever, chills, headache, myalgia following antibiotic treatment for syphilis
Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea
Multiple colon polyps, osteomas / soft tissue tumors, impacted / supernumerary teeth
Erytheroderma, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, atypical T cells
“Waxy” casts with very low urine flow
Restrictive cardiomyopathy (juvenile form: cardiomegaly), exercise intolerance
Pink complexion, dyspnea, hyperventilation
Vasculitis from exposure to endotoxin causing glomerular thrombosis
Fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, diffuse rash
Back pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss
Vomiting blood following esophagogastric lacerations
Large rash with bull’s-eye appearance
Rash on palms and soles
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, c-ANCA positive
Nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech, bilateral intranuclear opthalmoplegia
Resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, postural instability
Indurated, painful ulcerated genital lesion with exudates
Painless jaundice
Pancreatic, pituitary, parathyroid tumors
Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis
Red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple areola
Oscillating slow/fast breathing
“Strawberry tongue” (Strep. pyogenes)
Smooth, flat, moist white lesions on genitals
Bluish line on gingiva
Situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis
Palpable purpura, joint pain, abdominal pain (child)
Urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis in a male
Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis
Hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia

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