USMLE First Aid Rapid Review - Classic Presentations

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Can you name the Classic Presentations of diseases?

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Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Keratin pearls in a skin biopsy
Athlete with polycythemia
Retinal hemorrhages with pale centers
“Strawberry tongue” (Staph. aureus)
Fat, female, forty, and fertile
Painful, raised red lesions on palms and soles
Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea
Fever, chills, headache, myalgia following antibiotic treatment for syphilis
Fever, night sweats, weight loss
Green-yellow rings around peripheral cornea
Severe RLQ pain with rebound tenderness
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (vascular)
Palpable purpura, joint pain, abdominal pain (child)
Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas, bilateral acoustic neuromas
Abdominal pain, ascites, hepatomegaly
Thyroid and parathyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma
Pupil accommodates but doesn’t react
Chest pain, pericardial effusion / friction rub, persistent fever following MI
Lucid interval after traumatic brain injury
Painful, pale, cold fingers / toes
“Waxy” casts with very low urine flow
Hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts
Smooth, flat, moist white lesions on genitals
Chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration
Neonate with arm paralysis following difficult birth
“Strawberry tongue” (Strep. pyogenes)
Swollen gums, mucous leeding, poor wound healing, spots on skin
Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo)
Indurated, painful ulcerated genital lesion with exudates
Dark purple skin / mouth nodules
Painful blue fingers toes, hemolytic anemia
Hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis, neurologic symptoms
Infant with failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, neurodegeneration
Child uses arms to stand up from squat
Streak ovaries, congenital heart disease, horseshoe kidney
Arachnodactyly, lens discoloration, aortic dissection, hyperflexible joints
Polyuria, acidosis, growth failure, electrolyte imbalances
Back pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss
Rapidly progressive leg weakness that ascends (following GI/upper respiratory infection)
Muscoal bleeding and prolonged bleeding time
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Painful erythematous lesions on palms and soles
Red urine in the morning, fragile RBCs
Short stature, ↑ incidence of tumors / leukemia, aplastic anemia
Pancreatic, pituitary, parathyroid tumors
Calf pseudohypertrophy
Adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, DIC
Rash on palms and soles
Vascular birthmark (port-wine stain)
Hamartamous GI polyps, hyperpigmentation of mouth / feet / hands
Red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple areola
Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis
Pink complexion, dyspnea, hyperventilation
Dysphagia (esophageal webs), glossitis, iron deficiency anemia
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (sphingomyelinase)
Elastic skin, hypermobility of joints
“Worst headache of my life”
Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails
Child with fever develops red rash on face that spread to body
Achilles tendon xanthoma
WBC casts in urine
Slow, progressive muscle weakness in boys
No lactation postpartum, absent menstruation, cold intolerance
Male child, recurrent infections, no mature B cells
Cutaneous / dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition
“Strawberry tongue” (Vasculitis)
Skin hyperpigmentation
Large rash with bull’s-eye appearance
Bluish line on gingiva
Dog or cat bite resulting in infection
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (hexosaminidase
Multiple colon polyps, osteomas / soft tissue tumors, impacted / supernumerary teeth
Painless jaundice
Swollen, hard, painful finger joints
Resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, postural instability
Chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps
Unilateral facial dropping invoving forhead
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas
Gout, mental retardation, self-mutilating behavior in boy
Urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis in a male
Infant with hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, and hepatomegaly
Bone pain, bone enlargement, arthritis
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech, bilateral intranuclear opthalmoplegia
Restrictive cardiomyopathy (juvenile form: cardiomegaly), exercise intolerance
Café-au-lait spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty
Deep labored breathing / hyperventilation
Conjugate lateral gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia
Vomiting blood following esophagogastric lacerations
Fibrous plaques in soft tissue of penis
Red “currant jelly” sputum in alcoholic or diabetic patients
Blue sclera
Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperdocility
Renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastomas, angiomatosis, pheochromocytoma
Indurated, non-painful ulcerated genital lesion
Severe jaundice in neonate
Situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis
Continuous “machinery” heart murmur
Hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, anti-basement membrane antibodies
Cold intolerance
Enlarged, hard left supraclavicular node
Jaundice, RUQ pain, fever
Ptosis, miosis, anhydrosis
Rash on palms and soles
Single palm crease
Vasculitis from exposure to endotoxin causing glomerular thrombosis
Positive anterior “drawer sign”
Dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, polyneuropathy
Hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis
Hypercoagulability leading to migrating DVTs and vascultitis
Oscillating slow/fast breathing
Bounding pulses, diastolic heart murmur, head bobbing
Sudden swollen / painful big toe joint, tophi
Infant with microcephaly, rocker-bottom feet, clenched hands, and structural heart defect
Erytheroderma, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, atypical T cells
Recurrent colds unusual eczema, high serum IgE
Small, irregular red spots on buccal / inguinal mucosa with blue-white centers
Facial muscle spasm upon tapping
Fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, diffuse rash
Toe extension / fanning upon plantar scrape
Weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, adenopathy
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, c-ANCA positive

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