USMLE First Aid Rapid Review - Classic Presentations

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Can you name the Classic Presentations of diseases?

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Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Erytheroderma, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, atypical T cells
Red urine in the morning, fragile RBCs
Sudden swollen / painful big toe joint, tophi
Hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis, neurologic symptoms
Hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts
Resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, postural instability
Fever, chills, headache, myalgia following antibiotic treatment for syphilis
Chest pain, pericardial effusion / friction rub, persistent fever following MI
Athlete with polycythemia
No lactation postpartum, absent menstruation, cold intolerance
Child with fever develops red rash on face that spread to body
Back pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (hexosaminidase
Rash on palms and soles
Vascular birthmark (port-wine stain)
Multiple colon polyps, osteomas / soft tissue tumors, impacted / supernumerary teeth
Vomiting blood following esophagogastric lacerations
Retinal hemorrhages with pale centers
Oscillating slow/fast breathing
Rapidly progressive leg weakness that ascends (following GI/upper respiratory infection)
Smooth, flat, moist white lesions on genitals
Hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis
Infant with failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, neurodegeneration
Child uses arms to stand up from squat
Adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, DIC
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, anti-basement membrane antibodies
Red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple areola
Dark purple skin / mouth nodules
Streak ovaries, congenital heart disease, horseshoe kidney
Cutaneous / dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition
Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis
Hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia
Cold intolerance
Severe jaundice in neonate
Bounding pulses, diastolic heart murmur, head bobbing
Lucid interval after traumatic brain injury
Elastic skin, hypermobility of joints
Fat, female, forty, and fertile
Recurrent colds unusual eczema, high serum IgE
Painful erythematous lesions on palms and soles
Infant with hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, and hepatomegaly
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Slow, progressive muscle weakness in boys
Hamartamous GI polyps, hyperpigmentation of mouth / feet / hands
Ptosis, miosis, anhydrosis
Painful, pale, cold fingers / toes
Short stature, ↑ incidence of tumors / leukemia, aplastic anemia
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (sphingomyelinase)
Keratin pearls in a skin biopsy
Conjugate lateral gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia
Indurated, non-painful ulcerated genital lesion
Muscoal bleeding and prolonged bleeding time
Severe RLQ pain with rebound tenderness
Café-au-lait spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty
Renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastomas, angiomatosis, pheochromocytoma
Pupil accommodates but doesn’t react
Pink complexion, dyspnea, hyperventilation
Enlarged, hard left supraclavicular node
Dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, polyneuropathy
Palpable purpura, joint pain, abdominal pain (child)
Neonate with arm paralysis following difficult birth
Polyuria, acidosis, growth failure, electrolyte imbalances
Gout, mental retardation, self-mutilating behavior in boy
Weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, adenopathy
Continuous “machinery” heart murmur
Swollen gums, mucous leeding, poor wound healing, spots on skin
“Strawberry tongue” (Staph. aureus)
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, c-ANCA positive
Jaundice, RUQ pain, fever
Calf pseudohypertrophy
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas, bilateral acoustic neuromas
Urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis in a male
Red “currant jelly” sputum in alcoholic or diabetic patients
Single palm crease
Arachnodactyly, lens discoloration, aortic dissection, hyperflexible joints
Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperdocility
WBC casts in urine
Bone pain, bone enlargement, arthritis
Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis
Rash on palms and soles
Infant with microcephaly, rocker-bottom feet, clenched hands, and structural heart defect
Toe extension / fanning upon plantar scrape
Small, irregular red spots on buccal / inguinal mucosa with blue-white centers
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo)
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas
“Worst headache of my life”
Painless jaundice
“Strawberry tongue” (Vasculitis)
Skin hyperpigmentation
Dog or cat bite resulting in infection
Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (vascular)
Painful, raised red lesions on palms and soles
Indurated, painful ulcerated genital lesion with exudates
Achilles tendon xanthoma
Fever, night sweats, weight loss
Deep labored breathing / hyperventilation
Painful blue fingers toes, hemolytic anemia
Pancreatic, pituitary, parathyroid tumors
Fibrous plaques in soft tissue of penis
“Strawberry tongue” (Strep. pyogenes)
Chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration
Facial muscle spasm upon tapping
Hypercoagulability leading to migrating DVTs and vascultitis
Blue sclera
Swollen, hard, painful finger joints
Unilateral facial dropping invoving forhead
Positive anterior “drawer sign”
Green-yellow rings around peripheral cornea
Bluish line on gingiva
Thyroid and parathyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma
“Waxy” casts with very low urine flow
Situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis
Abdominal pain, ascites, hepatomegaly
Male child, recurrent infections, no mature B cells
Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea
Restrictive cardiomyopathy (juvenile form: cardiomegaly), exercise intolerance
Large rash with bull’s-eye appearance
Fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, diffuse rash
Dysphagia (esophageal webs), glossitis, iron deficiency anemia
Nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech, bilateral intranuclear opthalmoplegia
Vasculitis from exposure to endotoxin causing glomerular thrombosis
Chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps

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