USMLE First Aid Rapid Review - Classic Presentations

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Can you name the Classic Presentations of diseases?

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Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastomas, angiomatosis, pheochromocytoma
“Strawberry tongue” (Strep. pyogenes)
Painful blue fingers toes, hemolytic anemia
Cold intolerance
Infant with failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, neurodegeneration
Arachnodactyly, lens discoloration, aortic dissection, hyperflexible joints
Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis
Jaundice, RUQ pain, fever
Deep labored breathing / hyperventilation
Lucid interval after traumatic brain injury
Rash on palms and soles
Sudden swollen / painful big toe joint, tophi
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (hexosaminidase
Small, irregular red spots on buccal / inguinal mucosa with blue-white centers
“Waxy” casts with very low urine flow
Indurated, painful ulcerated genital lesion with exudates
Thyroid and parathyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma
Restrictive cardiomyopathy (juvenile form: cardiomegaly), exercise intolerance
Chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration
Painful, raised red lesions on palms and soles
Fibrous plaques in soft tissue of penis
Pupil accommodates but doesn’t react
Green-yellow rings around peripheral cornea
Hypercoagulability leading to migrating DVTs and vascultitis
Toe extension / fanning upon plantar scrape
Painful, pale, cold fingers / toes
Painless jaundice
Painful erythematous lesions on palms and soles
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, c-ANCA positive
Retinal hemorrhages with pale centers
Slow, progressive muscle weakness in boys
Bounding pulses, diastolic heart murmur, head bobbing
Vasculitis from exposure to endotoxin causing glomerular thrombosis
Dark purple skin / mouth nodules
Fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, diffuse rash
Child uses arms to stand up from squat
Hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia
Indurated, non-painful ulcerated genital lesion
Hamartamous GI polyps, hyperpigmentation of mouth / feet / hands
Muscoal bleeding and prolonged bleeding time
Calf pseudohypertrophy
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple areola
Positive anterior “drawer sign”
Adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, DIC
Red urine in the morning, fragile RBCs
Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails
Large rash with bull’s-eye appearance
Enlarged, hard left supraclavicular node
Swollen gums, mucous leeding, poor wound healing, spots on skin
Unilateral facial dropping invoving forhead
Short stature, ↑ incidence of tumors / leukemia, aplastic anemia
Pancreatic, pituitary, parathyroid tumors
Infant with microcephaly, rocker-bottom feet, clenched hands, and structural heart defect
Male child, recurrent infections, no mature B cells
Fever, night sweats, weight loss
Rapidly progressive leg weakness that ascends (following GI/upper respiratory infection)
Abdominal pain, ascites, hepatomegaly
Polyuria, acidosis, growth failure, electrolyte imbalances
Dysphagia (esophageal webs), glossitis, iron deficiency anemia
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, anti-basement membrane antibodies
Cutaneous / dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition
Palpable purpura, joint pain, abdominal pain (child)
Vascular birthmark (port-wine stain)
Neonate with arm paralysis following difficult birth
Multiple colon polyps, osteomas / soft tissue tumors, impacted / supernumerary teeth
Continuous “machinery” heart murmur
Chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps
Recurrent colds unusual eczema, high serum IgE
Resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, postural instability
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas
Smooth, flat, moist white lesions on genitals
Urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis in a male
Vomiting blood following esophagogastric lacerations
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas, bilateral acoustic neuromas
Streak ovaries, congenital heart disease, horseshoe kidney
Athlete with polycythemia
Dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, polyneuropathy
Elastic skin, hypermobility of joints
Red “currant jelly” sputum in alcoholic or diabetic patients
Café-au-lait spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty
Swollen, hard, painful finger joints
Pink complexion, dyspnea, hyperventilation
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Single palm crease
Nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech, bilateral intranuclear opthalmoplegia
“Strawberry tongue” (Staph. aureus)
No lactation postpartum, absent menstruation, cold intolerance
“Worst headache of my life”
Hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis
Skin hyperpigmentation
Gout, mental retardation, self-mutilating behavior in boy
Hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis, neurologic symptoms
Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis
Bone pain, bone enlargement, arthritis
Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperdocility
Achilles tendon xanthoma
Severe RLQ pain with rebound tenderness
Oscillating slow/fast breathing
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (sphingomyelinase)
Weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, adenopathy
Fever, chills, headache, myalgia following antibiotic treatment for syphilis
Severe jaundice in neonate
Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo)
“Strawberry tongue” (Vasculitis)
Chest pain, pericardial effusion / friction rub, persistent fever following MI
Ptosis, miosis, anhydrosis
Blue sclera
Fat, female, forty, and fertile
Conjugate lateral gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia
Facial muscle spasm upon tapping
Rash on palms and soles
Erytheroderma, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, atypical T cells
Dog or cat bite resulting in infection
Situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis
Back pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss
Child with fever develops red rash on face that spread to body
Keratin pearls in a skin biopsy
Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (vascular)
Bluish line on gingiva
Infant with hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, and hepatomegaly
Hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts
WBC casts in urine

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