USMLE First Aid Rapid Review - Classic Presentations

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Can you name the Classic Presentations of diseases?

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Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Infant with failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, neurodegeneration
Resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, postural instability
Pancreatic, pituitary, parathyroid tumors
Retinal hemorrhages with pale centers
Hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia
Cold intolerance
Pink complexion, dyspnea, hyperventilation
WBC casts in urine
Cutaneous / dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition
Keratin pearls in a skin biopsy
Continuous “machinery” heart murmur
Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis
Gout, mental retardation, self-mutilating behavior in boy
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, anti-basement membrane antibodies
Athlete with polycythemia
Recurrent colds unusual eczema, high serum IgE
Arachnodactyly, lens discoloration, aortic dissection, hyperflexible joints
Situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis
Conjugate lateral gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia
Hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis
Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails
Weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, adenopathy
Vomiting blood following esophagogastric lacerations
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (hexosaminidase
Painful, pale, cold fingers / toes
Dysphagia (esophageal webs), glossitis, iron deficiency anemia
Erytheroderma, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, atypical T cells
Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo)
Positive anterior “drawer sign”
Rapidly progressive leg weakness that ascends (following GI/upper respiratory infection)
Polyuria, acidosis, growth failure, electrolyte imbalances
Dark purple skin / mouth nodules
Rash on palms and soles
Fibrous plaques in soft tissue of penis
Bluish line on gingiva
Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis
Severe RLQ pain with rebound tenderness
Palpable purpura, joint pain, abdominal pain (child)
Facial muscle spasm upon tapping
Thyroid and parathyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma
Severe jaundice in neonate
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Infant with hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, and hepatomegaly
Single palm crease
No lactation postpartum, absent menstruation, cold intolerance
Achilles tendon xanthoma
Green-yellow rings around peripheral cornea
Child with fever develops red rash on face that spread to body
“Worst headache of my life”
“Waxy” casts with very low urine flow
Blue sclera
Red urine in the morning, fragile RBCs
Café-au-lait spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty
Indurated, painful ulcerated genital lesion with exudates
Abdominal pain, ascites, hepatomegaly
Oscillating slow/fast breathing
Deep labored breathing / hyperventilation
Smooth, flat, moist white lesions on genitals
Slow, progressive muscle weakness in boys
Infant with microcephaly, rocker-bottom feet, clenched hands, and structural heart defect
Urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis in a male
“Strawberry tongue” (Vasculitis)
Hamartamous GI polyps, hyperpigmentation of mouth / feet / hands
Fever, chills, headache, myalgia following antibiotic treatment for syphilis
Dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, polyneuropathy
Painful blue fingers toes, hemolytic anemia
Short stature, ↑ incidence of tumors / leukemia, aplastic anemia
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, c-ANCA positive
Male child, recurrent infections, no mature B cells
Vascular birthmark (port-wine stain)
“Strawberry tongue” (Strep. pyogenes)
Back pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss
Jaundice, RUQ pain, fever
Skin hyperpigmentation
Red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple areola
Hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis, neurologic symptoms
Large rash with bull’s-eye appearance
Rash on palms and soles
Chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps
Indurated, non-painful ulcerated genital lesion
Calf pseudohypertrophy
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas
Vasculitis from exposure to endotoxin causing glomerular thrombosis
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Restrictive cardiomyopathy (juvenile form: cardiomegaly), exercise intolerance
Fever, night sweats, weight loss
Streak ovaries, congenital heart disease, horseshoe kidney
Small, irregular red spots on buccal / inguinal mucosa with blue-white centers
Toe extension / fanning upon plantar scrape
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (vascular)
Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea
Child uses arms to stand up from squat
Adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, DIC
Painless jaundice
Lucid interval after traumatic brain injury
“Strawberry tongue” (Staph. aureus)
Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperdocility
Swollen gums, mucous leeding, poor wound healing, spots on skin
Bone pain, bone enlargement, arthritis
Neonate with arm paralysis following difficult birth
Pupil accommodates but doesn’t react
Enlarged, hard left supraclavicular node
Multiple colon polyps, osteomas / soft tissue tumors, impacted / supernumerary teeth
Red “currant jelly” sputum in alcoholic or diabetic patients
Unilateral facial dropping invoving forhead
Renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastomas, angiomatosis, pheochromocytoma
Painful erythematous lesions on palms and soles
Elastic skin, hypermobility of joints
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas, bilateral acoustic neuromas
Fat, female, forty, and fertile
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (sphingomyelinase)
Bounding pulses, diastolic heart murmur, head bobbing
Dog or cat bite resulting in infection
Painful, raised red lesions on palms and soles
Hypercoagulability leading to migrating DVTs and vascultitis
Chest pain, pericardial effusion / friction rub, persistent fever following MI
Sudden swollen / painful big toe joint, tophi
Swollen, hard, painful finger joints
Hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts
Fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, diffuse rash
Chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration
Muscoal bleeding and prolonged bleeding time
Nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech, bilateral intranuclear opthalmoplegia
Ptosis, miosis, anhydrosis

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