USMLE First Aid Rapid Review - Classic Presentations

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Can you name the Classic Presentations of diseases?

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Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Dog or cat bite resulting in infection
Abdominal pain, ascites, hepatomegaly
Hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia
Skin hyperpigmentation
Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperdocility
Hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis, neurologic symptoms
Adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, DIC
Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails
Oscillating slow/fast breathing
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas
Fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, diffuse rash
Fat, female, forty, and fertile
Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis
Enlarged, hard left supraclavicular node
Infant with failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, neurodegeneration
Pancreatic, pituitary, parathyroid tumors
Bounding pulses, diastolic heart murmur, head bobbing
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas, bilateral acoustic neuromas
Palpable purpura, joint pain, abdominal pain (child)
Lucid interval after traumatic brain injury
Toe extension / fanning upon plantar scrape
Unilateral facial dropping invoving forhead
Rash on palms and soles
Fever, chills, headache, myalgia following antibiotic treatment for syphilis
Cutaneous / dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition
Vascular birthmark (port-wine stain)
Male child, recurrent infections, no mature B cells
Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo)
Bluish line on gingiva
“Strawberry tongue” (Staph. aureus)
Vomiting blood following esophagogastric lacerations
Ptosis, miosis, anhydrosis
Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea
Deep labored breathing / hyperventilation
Situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis
Arachnodactyly, lens discoloration, aortic dissection, hyperflexible joints
“Waxy” casts with very low urine flow
Bone pain, bone enlargement, arthritis
Resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, postural instability
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, c-ANCA positive
Thyroid and parathyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Polyuria, acidosis, growth failure, electrolyte imbalances
Renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastomas, angiomatosis, pheochromocytoma
Urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis in a male
Dark purple skin / mouth nodules
Hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts
Athlete with polycythemia
Facial muscle spasm upon tapping
“Strawberry tongue” (Vasculitis)
Swollen gums, mucous leeding, poor wound healing, spots on skin
Small, irregular red spots on buccal / inguinal mucosa with blue-white centers
Painless jaundice
Hamartamous GI polyps, hyperpigmentation of mouth / feet / hands
Swollen, hard, painful finger joints
Red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple areola
Pupil accommodates but doesn’t react
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, anti-basement membrane antibodies
Green-yellow rings around peripheral cornea
Vasculitis from exposure to endotoxin causing glomerular thrombosis
“Worst headache of my life”
Smooth, flat, moist white lesions on genitals
Sudden swollen / painful big toe joint, tophi
Red urine in the morning, fragile RBCs
Short stature, ↑ incidence of tumors / leukemia, aplastic anemia
Indurated, painful ulcerated genital lesion with exudates
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (vascular)
Erytheroderma, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, atypical T cells
Child with fever develops red rash on face that spread to body
Fibrous plaques in soft tissue of penis
No lactation postpartum, absent menstruation, cold intolerance
Blue sclera
Red “currant jelly” sputum in alcoholic or diabetic patients
Painful, pale, cold fingers / toes
Positive anterior “drawer sign”
Muscoal bleeding and prolonged bleeding time
Single palm crease
Keratin pearls in a skin biopsy
Infant with hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, and hepatomegaly
Retinal hemorrhages with pale centers
Jaundice, RUQ pain, fever
Rash on palms and soles
Indurated, non-painful ulcerated genital lesion
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
“Strawberry tongue” (Strep. pyogenes)
Pink complexion, dyspnea, hyperventilation
Gout, mental retardation, self-mutilating behavior in boy
Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis
WBC casts in urine
Painful blue fingers toes, hemolytic anemia
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (sphingomyelinase)
Continuous “machinery” heart murmur
Chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration
Painful, raised red lesions on palms and soles
Conjugate lateral gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia
Severe jaundice in neonate
Cold intolerance
Hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis
Multiple colon polyps, osteomas / soft tissue tumors, impacted / supernumerary teeth
Streak ovaries, congenital heart disease, horseshoe kidney
Chest pain, pericardial effusion / friction rub, persistent fever following MI
Severe RLQ pain with rebound tenderness
Slow, progressive muscle weakness in boys
Elastic skin, hypermobility of joints
Recurrent colds unusual eczema, high serum IgE
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (hexosaminidase
Weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, adenopathy
Café-au-lait spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty
Infant with microcephaly, rocker-bottom feet, clenched hands, and structural heart defect
Back pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss
Child uses arms to stand up from squat
Painful erythematous lesions on palms and soles
Large rash with bull’s-eye appearance
Nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech, bilateral intranuclear opthalmoplegia
Calf pseudohypertrophy
Restrictive cardiomyopathy (juvenile form: cardiomegaly), exercise intolerance
Fever, night sweats, weight loss
Rapidly progressive leg weakness that ascends (following GI/upper respiratory infection)
Chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps
Dysphagia (esophageal webs), glossitis, iron deficiency anemia
Neonate with arm paralysis following difficult birth
Hypercoagulability leading to migrating DVTs and vascultitis
Achilles tendon xanthoma
Dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, polyneuropathy

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