USMLE First Aid Rapid Review - Classic Presentations

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Can you name the Classic Presentations of diseases?

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Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Keratin pearls in a skin biopsy
Pink complexion, dyspnea, hyperventilation
Blue sclera
Dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, polyneuropathy
Resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, postural instability
Swollen, hard, painful finger joints
WBC casts in urine
Painful erythematous lesions on palms and soles
Situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis
Dysphagia (esophageal webs), glossitis, iron deficiency anemia
Bone pain, bone enlargement, arthritis
Athlete with polycythemia
Green-yellow rings around peripheral cornea
Swollen gums, mucous leeding, poor wound healing, spots on skin
Bounding pulses, diastolic heart murmur, head bobbing
Renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastomas, angiomatosis, pheochromocytoma
Small, irregular red spots on buccal / inguinal mucosa with blue-white centers
“Strawberry tongue” (Strep. pyogenes)
Fever, chills, headache, myalgia following antibiotic treatment for syphilis
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas, bilateral acoustic neuromas
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (vascular)
Fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, diffuse rash
Lucid interval after traumatic brain injury
Hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis, neurologic symptoms
No lactation postpartum, absent menstruation, cold intolerance
Rash on palms and soles
“Worst headache of my life”
Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails
Dog or cat bite resulting in infection
Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo)
Cutaneous / dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition
Child with fever develops red rash on face that spread to body
Neonate with arm paralysis following difficult birth
Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis
Painful, pale, cold fingers / toes
Continuous “machinery” heart murmur
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas
Thyroid and parathyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma
Calf pseudohypertrophy
Gout, mental retardation, self-mutilating behavior in boy
Nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech, bilateral intranuclear opthalmoplegia
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Indurated, painful ulcerated genital lesion with exudates
Palpable purpura, joint pain, abdominal pain (child)
Bluish line on gingiva
“Strawberry tongue” (Vasculitis)
Pupil accommodates but doesn’t react
Infant with failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, neurodegeneration
Painless jaundice
Polyuria, acidosis, growth failure, electrolyte imbalances
Hypercoagulability leading to migrating DVTs and vascultitis
Fibrous plaques in soft tissue of penis
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (hexosaminidase
Café-au-lait spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty
Arachnodactyly, lens discoloration, aortic dissection, hyperflexible joints
Indurated, non-painful ulcerated genital lesion
Fat, female, forty, and fertile
Large rash with bull’s-eye appearance
Severe jaundice in neonate
“Strawberry tongue” (Staph. aureus)
Vasculitis from exposure to endotoxin causing glomerular thrombosis
Chest pain, pericardial effusion / friction rub, persistent fever following MI
Infant with hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, and hepatomegaly
Short stature, ↑ incidence of tumors / leukemia, aplastic anemia
Multiple colon polyps, osteomas / soft tissue tumors, impacted / supernumerary teeth
Fever, night sweats, weight loss
Rapidly progressive leg weakness that ascends (following GI/upper respiratory infection)
Chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps
Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis
Painful blue fingers toes, hemolytic anemia
Child uses arms to stand up from squat
Erytheroderma, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, atypical T cells
Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperdocility
Vomiting blood following esophagogastric lacerations
Infant with microcephaly, rocker-bottom feet, clenched hands, and structural heart defect
Oscillating slow/fast breathing
Single palm crease
Smooth, flat, moist white lesions on genitals
Retinal hemorrhages with pale centers
Hamartamous GI polyps, hyperpigmentation of mouth / feet / hands
Hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia
Skin hyperpigmentation
Muscoal bleeding and prolonged bleeding time
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Dark purple skin / mouth nodules
Hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts
Vascular birthmark (port-wine stain)
Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea
Unilateral facial dropping invoving forhead
Red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple areola
Restrictive cardiomyopathy (juvenile form: cardiomegaly), exercise intolerance
Painful, raised red lesions on palms and soles
Cold intolerance
Deep labored breathing / hyperventilation
Conjugate lateral gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia
Enlarged, hard left supraclavicular node
Male child, recurrent infections, no mature B cells
Hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis
Streak ovaries, congenital heart disease, horseshoe kidney
Back pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss
Jaundice, RUQ pain, fever
Rash on palms and soles
Slow, progressive muscle weakness in boys
Pancreatic, pituitary, parathyroid tumors
Positive anterior “drawer sign”
Severe RLQ pain with rebound tenderness
Ptosis, miosis, anhydrosis
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, c-ANCA positive
Red “currant jelly” sputum in alcoholic or diabetic patients
Facial muscle spasm upon tapping
Urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis in a male
“Waxy” casts with very low urine flow
Elastic skin, hypermobility of joints
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (sphingomyelinase)
Recurrent colds unusual eczema, high serum IgE
Toe extension / fanning upon plantar scrape
Weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, adenopathy
Abdominal pain, ascites, hepatomegaly
Adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, DIC
Chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration
Red urine in the morning, fragile RBCs
Achilles tendon xanthoma
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, anti-basement membrane antibodies
Sudden swollen / painful big toe joint, tophi

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