USMLE First Aid Rapid Review - Classic Presentations

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Can you name the Classic Presentations of diseases?

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Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Erytheroderma, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, atypical T cells
Streak ovaries, congenital heart disease, horseshoe kidney
Continuous “machinery” heart murmur
Vomiting blood following esophagogastric lacerations
Rash on palms and soles
Arachnodactyly, lens discoloration, aortic dissection, hyperflexible joints
Dog or cat bite resulting in infection
Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails
Bounding pulses, diastolic heart murmur, head bobbing
WBC casts in urine
Green-yellow rings around peripheral cornea
Indurated, non-painful ulcerated genital lesion
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, c-ANCA positive
Fever, night sweats, weight loss
“Waxy” casts with very low urine flow
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (sphingomyelinase)
Retinal hemorrhages with pale centers
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (hexosaminidase
Deep labored breathing / hyperventilation
Oscillating slow/fast breathing
Back pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss
Red urine in the morning, fragile RBCs
Cold intolerance
Facial muscle spasm upon tapping
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (vascular)
Hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis, neurologic symptoms
Infant with failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, neurodegeneration
Skin hyperpigmentation
Fibrous plaques in soft tissue of penis
Dysphagia (esophageal webs), glossitis, iron deficiency anemia
Muscoal bleeding and prolonged bleeding time
Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperdocility
Pancreatic, pituitary, parathyroid tumors
Thyroid and parathyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma
Cutaneous / dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition
Jaundice, RUQ pain, fever
Hamartamous GI polyps, hyperpigmentation of mouth / feet / hands
Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis
Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo)
Chest pain, pericardial effusion / friction rub, persistent fever following MI
Indurated, painful ulcerated genital lesion with exudates
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Painful, raised red lesions on palms and soles
Hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis
Fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, diffuse rash
Red “currant jelly” sputum in alcoholic or diabetic patients
Chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps
Swollen gums, mucous leeding, poor wound healing, spots on skin
Polyuria, acidosis, growth failure, electrolyte imbalances
Severe RLQ pain with rebound tenderness
“Strawberry tongue” (Staph. aureus)
Bluish line on gingiva
Swollen, hard, painful finger joints
Rapidly progressive leg weakness that ascends (following GI/upper respiratory infection)
Adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, DIC
Vascular birthmark (port-wine stain)
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, anti-basement membrane antibodies
Conjugate lateral gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia
Hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts
Fever, chills, headache, myalgia following antibiotic treatment for syphilis
Vasculitis from exposure to endotoxin causing glomerular thrombosis
Infant with microcephaly, rocker-bottom feet, clenched hands, and structural heart defect
Abdominal pain, ascites, hepatomegaly
Fat, female, forty, and fertile
Elastic skin, hypermobility of joints
Multiple colon polyps, osteomas / soft tissue tumors, impacted / supernumerary teeth
Sudden swollen / painful big toe joint, tophi
Hypercoagulability leading to migrating DVTs and vascultitis
Painful, pale, cold fingers / toes
Infant with hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, and hepatomegaly
Severe jaundice in neonate
Child uses arms to stand up from squat
Single palm crease
Painless jaundice
Rash on palms and soles
“Strawberry tongue” (Strep. pyogenes)
Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis
Nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech, bilateral intranuclear opthalmoplegia
Dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, polyneuropathy
Situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis
Athlete with polycythemia
Keratin pearls in a skin biopsy
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Dark purple skin / mouth nodules
Blue sclera
Hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia
Restrictive cardiomyopathy (juvenile form: cardiomegaly), exercise intolerance
No lactation postpartum, absent menstruation, cold intolerance
Gout, mental retardation, self-mutilating behavior in boy
Positive anterior “drawer sign”
Smooth, flat, moist white lesions on genitals
Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea
Urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis in a male
Achilles tendon xanthoma
Slow, progressive muscle weakness in boys
Weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, adenopathy
Pupil accommodates but doesn’t react
Bone pain, bone enlargement, arthritis
“Worst headache of my life”
Unilateral facial dropping invoving forhead
Small, irregular red spots on buccal / inguinal mucosa with blue-white centers
Neonate with arm paralysis following difficult birth
Toe extension / fanning upon plantar scrape
Red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple areola
Chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration
Recurrent colds unusual eczema, high serum IgE
Short stature, ↑ incidence of tumors / leukemia, aplastic anemia
Calf pseudohypertrophy
Renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastomas, angiomatosis, pheochromocytoma
Painful erythematous lesions on palms and soles
Resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, postural instability
Ptosis, miosis, anhydrosis
Painful blue fingers toes, hemolytic anemia
Large rash with bull’s-eye appearance
“Strawberry tongue” (Vasculitis)
Enlarged, hard left supraclavicular node
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas, bilateral acoustic neuromas
Lucid interval after traumatic brain injury
Café-au-lait spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty
Child with fever develops red rash on face that spread to body
Male child, recurrent infections, no mature B cells
Pink complexion, dyspnea, hyperventilation
Palpable purpura, joint pain, abdominal pain (child)

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