USMLE First Aid Rapid Review - Classic Presentations

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Can you name the Classic Presentations of diseases?

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Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Painful erythematous lesions on palms and soles
Gout, mental retardation, self-mutilating behavior in boy
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas, bilateral acoustic neuromas
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (vascular)
Painful, pale, cold fingers / toes
Elastic skin, hypermobility of joints
Child with fever develops red rash on face that spread to body
Continuous “machinery” heart murmur
Indurated, painful ulcerated genital lesion with exudates
Dark purple skin / mouth nodules
Back pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss
Conjugate lateral gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia
Single palm crease
Rash on palms and soles
Urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis in a male
Oscillating slow/fast breathing
Positive anterior “drawer sign”
Erytheroderma, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, atypical T cells
Bone pain, bone enlargement, arthritis
Chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration
Hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia
Café-au-lait spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty
Neonate with arm paralysis following difficult birth
“Waxy” casts with very low urine flow
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (hexosaminidase
Situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis
Lucid interval after traumatic brain injury
Indurated, non-painful ulcerated genital lesion
Chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps
Severe jaundice in neonate
Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo)
Cutaneous / dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition
Slow, progressive muscle weakness in boys
Skin hyperpigmentation
Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea
Hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, anti-basement membrane antibodies
“Strawberry tongue” (Strep. pyogenes)
Thyroid and parathyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma
Cold intolerance
Vomiting blood following esophagogastric lacerations
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Painful blue fingers toes, hemolytic anemia
Smooth, flat, moist white lesions on genitals
Vasculitis from exposure to endotoxin causing glomerular thrombosis
Achilles tendon xanthoma
Large rash with bull’s-eye appearance
Pancreatic, pituitary, parathyroid tumors
Recurrent colds unusual eczema, high serum IgE
Dysphagia (esophageal webs), glossitis, iron deficiency anemia
Streak ovaries, congenital heart disease, horseshoe kidney
Blue sclera
Swollen gums, mucous leeding, poor wound healing, spots on skin
Ptosis, miosis, anhydrosis
Pink complexion, dyspnea, hyperventilation
Multiple colon polyps, osteomas / soft tissue tumors, impacted / supernumerary teeth
Toe extension / fanning upon plantar scrape
Infant with failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, neurodegeneration
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (sphingomyelinase)
Painful, raised red lesions on palms and soles
Infant with microcephaly, rocker-bottom feet, clenched hands, and structural heart defect
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas
Dog or cat bite resulting in infection
Muscoal bleeding and prolonged bleeding time
Hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts
WBC casts in urine
Resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, postural instability
“Strawberry tongue” (Staph. aureus)
Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis
Unilateral facial dropping invoving forhead
Facial muscle spasm upon tapping
Fever, chills, headache, myalgia following antibiotic treatment for syphilis
Sudden swollen / painful big toe joint, tophi
No lactation postpartum, absent menstruation, cold intolerance
Red urine in the morning, fragile RBCs
Painless jaundice
Bounding pulses, diastolic heart murmur, head bobbing
Chest pain, pericardial effusion / friction rub, persistent fever following MI
Short stature, ↑ incidence of tumors / leukemia, aplastic anemia
Keratin pearls in a skin biopsy
Fat, female, forty, and fertile
Rash on palms and soles
Dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, polyneuropathy
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Deep labored breathing / hyperventilation
Enlarged, hard left supraclavicular node
Nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech, bilateral intranuclear opthalmoplegia
Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperdocility
Severe RLQ pain with rebound tenderness
“Worst headache of my life”
Bluish line on gingiva
Athlete with polycythemia
Red “currant jelly” sputum in alcoholic or diabetic patients
Swollen, hard, painful finger joints
Weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, adenopathy
Renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastomas, angiomatosis, pheochromocytoma
Adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, DIC
Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails
Arachnodactyly, lens discoloration, aortic dissection, hyperflexible joints
Child uses arms to stand up from squat
“Strawberry tongue” (Vasculitis)
Small, irregular red spots on buccal / inguinal mucosa with blue-white centers
Male child, recurrent infections, no mature B cells
Green-yellow rings around peripheral cornea
Fever, night sweats, weight loss
Pupil accommodates but doesn’t react
Restrictive cardiomyopathy (juvenile form: cardiomegaly), exercise intolerance
Hypercoagulability leading to migrating DVTs and vascultitis
Fibrous plaques in soft tissue of penis
Rapidly progressive leg weakness that ascends (following GI/upper respiratory infection)
Palpable purpura, joint pain, abdominal pain (child)
Fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, diffuse rash
Calf pseudohypertrophy
Hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis, neurologic symptoms
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, c-ANCA positive
Red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple areola
Hamartamous GI polyps, hyperpigmentation of mouth / feet / hands
Retinal hemorrhages with pale centers
Jaundice, RUQ pain, fever
Vascular birthmark (port-wine stain)
Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis
Polyuria, acidosis, growth failure, electrolyte imbalances
Infant with hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, and hepatomegaly
Abdominal pain, ascites, hepatomegaly

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