USMLE First Aid Rapid Review - Classic Presentations

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Can you name the Classic Presentations of diseases?

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Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas
Cutaneous / dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition
Rapidly progressive leg weakness that ascends (following GI/upper respiratory infection)
Dark purple skin / mouth nodules
Vomiting blood following esophagogastric lacerations
Lucid interval after traumatic brain injury
“Waxy” casts with very low urine flow
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, c-ANCA positive
Chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration
Keratin pearls in a skin biopsy
Conjugate lateral gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia
Café-au-lait spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty
Toe extension / fanning upon plantar scrape
Short stature, ↑ incidence of tumors / leukemia, aplastic anemia
Pupil accommodates but doesn’t react
Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis
Ptosis, miosis, anhydrosis
Smooth, flat, moist white lesions on genitals
Rash on palms and soles
Multiple colon polyps, osteomas / soft tissue tumors, impacted / supernumerary teeth
Recurrent colds unusual eczema, high serum IgE
Hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis
Hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts
Gout, mental retardation, self-mutilating behavior in boy
Back pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss
Facial muscle spasm upon tapping
Vascular birthmark (port-wine stain)
Painful, pale, cold fingers / toes
Severe jaundice in neonate
Dysphagia (esophageal webs), glossitis, iron deficiency anemia
Bluish line on gingiva
Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperdocility
Skin hyperpigmentation
Indurated, painful ulcerated genital lesion with exudates
Calf pseudohypertrophy
Red urine in the morning, fragile RBCs
Blue sclera
Adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, DIC
Swollen gums, mucous leeding, poor wound healing, spots on skin
Hypercoagulability leading to migrating DVTs and vascultitis
Fibrous plaques in soft tissue of penis
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Red “currant jelly” sputum in alcoholic or diabetic patients
Child uses arms to stand up from squat
Fever, night sweats, weight loss
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (hexosaminidase
Sudden swollen / painful big toe joint, tophi
Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea
Restrictive cardiomyopathy (juvenile form: cardiomegaly), exercise intolerance
Indurated, non-painful ulcerated genital lesion
“Strawberry tongue” (Vasculitis)
Urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis in a male
Slow, progressive muscle weakness in boys
Enlarged, hard left supraclavicular node
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas, bilateral acoustic neuromas
Hamartamous GI polyps, hyperpigmentation of mouth / feet / hands
Severe RLQ pain with rebound tenderness
Small, irregular red spots on buccal / inguinal mucosa with blue-white centers
Bounding pulses, diastolic heart murmur, head bobbing
Dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, polyneuropathy
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (vascular)
Continuous “machinery” heart murmur
Infant with microcephaly, rocker-bottom feet, clenched hands, and structural heart defect
Athlete with polycythemia
Achilles tendon xanthoma
Bone pain, bone enlargement, arthritis
Situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (sphingomyelinase)
Vasculitis from exposure to endotoxin causing glomerular thrombosis
Fever, chills, headache, myalgia following antibiotic treatment for syphilis
Elastic skin, hypermobility of joints
Weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, adenopathy
Fat, female, forty, and fertile
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, anti-basement membrane antibodies
“Worst headache of my life”
Cold intolerance
Swollen, hard, painful finger joints
Oscillating slow/fast breathing
Jaundice, RUQ pain, fever
Pancreatic, pituitary, parathyroid tumors
Hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia
Chest pain, pericardial effusion / friction rub, persistent fever following MI
Hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis, neurologic symptoms
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Rash on palms and soles
Resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, postural instability
Polyuria, acidosis, growth failure, electrolyte imbalances
Renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastomas, angiomatosis, pheochromocytoma
Pink complexion, dyspnea, hyperventilation
Abdominal pain, ascites, hepatomegaly
Unilateral facial dropping invoving forhead
Infant with hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, and hepatomegaly
Child with fever develops red rash on face that spread to body
Erytheroderma, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, atypical T cells
Painful blue fingers toes, hemolytic anemia
No lactation postpartum, absent menstruation, cold intolerance
Painful, raised red lesions on palms and soles
Positive anterior “drawer sign”
Palpable purpura, joint pain, abdominal pain (child)
Painless jaundice
Red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple areola
Arachnodactyly, lens discoloration, aortic dissection, hyperflexible joints
Large rash with bull’s-eye appearance
“Strawberry tongue” (Staph. aureus)
Chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps
Dog or cat bite resulting in infection
Single palm crease
Muscoal bleeding and prolonged bleeding time
Neonate with arm paralysis following difficult birth
Deep labored breathing / hyperventilation
Infant with failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, neurodegeneration
Thyroid and parathyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma
WBC casts in urine
Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo)
Painful erythematous lesions on palms and soles
Nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech, bilateral intranuclear opthalmoplegia
Fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, diffuse rash
Streak ovaries, congenital heart disease, horseshoe kidney
Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails
Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis
Retinal hemorrhages with pale centers
Green-yellow rings around peripheral cornea
“Strawberry tongue” (Strep. pyogenes)
Male child, recurrent infections, no mature B cells

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