USMLE First Aid Rapid Review - Classic Presentations

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Can you name the Classic Presentations of diseases?

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Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Rapidly progressive leg weakness that ascends (following GI/upper respiratory infection)
Neonate with arm paralysis following difficult birth
Dysphagia (esophageal webs), glossitis, iron deficiency anemia
Infant with microcephaly, rocker-bottom feet, clenched hands, and structural heart defect
Infant with hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, and hepatomegaly
Bounding pulses, diastolic heart murmur, head bobbing
Painful, raised red lesions on palms and soles
Nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech, bilateral intranuclear opthalmoplegia
Short stature, ↑ incidence of tumors / leukemia, aplastic anemia
Large rash with bull’s-eye appearance
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (hexosaminidase
Multiple colon polyps, osteomas / soft tissue tumors, impacted / supernumerary teeth
Child with fever develops red rash on face that spread to body
Hypercoagulability leading to migrating DVTs and vascultitis
Positive anterior “drawer sign”
Infant with failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, neurodegeneration
Restrictive cardiomyopathy (juvenile form: cardiomegaly), exercise intolerance
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, anti-basement membrane antibodies
Renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastomas, angiomatosis, pheochromocytoma
No lactation postpartum, absent menstruation, cold intolerance
Pupil accommodates but doesn’t react
Fat, female, forty, and fertile
Vomiting blood following esophagogastric lacerations
Sudden swollen / painful big toe joint, tophi
Athlete with polycythemia
Chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps
Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo)
WBC casts in urine
Dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, polyneuropathy
Bone pain, bone enlargement, arthritis
Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis
Streak ovaries, congenital heart disease, horseshoe kidney
Smooth, flat, moist white lesions on genitals
Situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis
Polyuria, acidosis, growth failure, electrolyte imbalances
Bluish line on gingiva
Gout, mental retardation, self-mutilating behavior in boy
Abdominal pain, ascites, hepatomegaly
Erytheroderma, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, atypical T cells
Fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, diffuse rash
Elastic skin, hypermobility of joints
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis in a male
Painful erythematous lesions on palms and soles
Conjugate lateral gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia
Child uses arms to stand up from squat
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, c-ANCA positive
Cutaneous / dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition
Indurated, non-painful ulcerated genital lesion
Thyroid and parathyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma
Ptosis, miosis, anhydrosis
Rash on palms and soles
“Worst headache of my life”
Achilles tendon xanthoma
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (sphingomyelinase)
Pink complexion, dyspnea, hyperventilation
Palpable purpura, joint pain, abdominal pain (child)
Enlarged, hard left supraclavicular node
Pancreatic, pituitary, parathyroid tumors
Continuous “machinery” heart murmur
Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperdocility
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (vascular)
Red urine in the morning, fragile RBCs
Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis
Weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, adenopathy
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas, bilateral acoustic neuromas
“Waxy” casts with very low urine flow
Painful, pale, cold fingers / toes
Indurated, painful ulcerated genital lesion with exudates
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas
Muscoal bleeding and prolonged bleeding time
Calf pseudohypertrophy
Chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration
Severe RLQ pain with rebound tenderness
Resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, postural instability
Toe extension / fanning upon plantar scrape
Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea
Oscillating slow/fast breathing
Fever, chills, headache, myalgia following antibiotic treatment for syphilis
Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails
Slow, progressive muscle weakness in boys
Adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, DIC
Vascular birthmark (port-wine stain)
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Hamartamous GI polyps, hyperpigmentation of mouth / feet / hands
Fever, night sweats, weight loss
Severe jaundice in neonate
Café-au-lait spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty
Swollen, hard, painful finger joints
Single palm crease
Vasculitis from exposure to endotoxin causing glomerular thrombosis
Back pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss
Deep labored breathing / hyperventilation
Hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis, neurologic symptoms
Chest pain, pericardial effusion / friction rub, persistent fever following MI
Skin hyperpigmentation
Unilateral facial dropping invoving forhead
Facial muscle spasm upon tapping
Painful blue fingers toes, hemolytic anemia
Fibrous plaques in soft tissue of penis
Jaundice, RUQ pain, fever
Red “currant jelly” sputum in alcoholic or diabetic patients
Dark purple skin / mouth nodules
Rash on palms and soles
Dog or cat bite resulting in infection
Cold intolerance
Hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis
Swollen gums, mucous leeding, poor wound healing, spots on skin
“Strawberry tongue” (Staph. aureus)
Red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple areola
Hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia
Blue sclera
Male child, recurrent infections, no mature B cells
Lucid interval after traumatic brain injury
Painless jaundice
Green-yellow rings around peripheral cornea
Hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts
Small, irregular red spots on buccal / inguinal mucosa with blue-white centers
“Strawberry tongue” (Strep. pyogenes)
Arachnodactyly, lens discoloration, aortic dissection, hyperflexible joints
Keratin pearls in a skin biopsy
Retinal hemorrhages with pale centers
“Strawberry tongue” (Vasculitis)
Recurrent colds unusual eczema, high serum IgE

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