USMLE First Aid Rapid Review - Classic Presentations

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Can you name the Classic Presentations of diseases?

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Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis
Gout, mental retardation, self-mutilating behavior in boy
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (hexosaminidase
Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo)
Pancreatic, pituitary, parathyroid tumors
Retinal hemorrhages with pale centers
Neonate with arm paralysis following difficult birth
Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails
Arachnodactyly, lens discoloration, aortic dissection, hyperflexible joints
Infant with hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, and hepatomegaly
Achilles tendon xanthoma
Renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastomas, angiomatosis, pheochromocytoma
Pupil accommodates but doesn’t react
Enlarged, hard left supraclavicular node
Muscoal bleeding and prolonged bleeding time
Unilateral facial dropping invoving forhead
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, c-ANCA positive
Smooth, flat, moist white lesions on genitals
Oscillating slow/fast breathing
Bone pain, bone enlargement, arthritis
Elastic skin, hypermobility of joints
Red urine in the morning, fragile RBCs
Keratin pearls in a skin biopsy
Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperdocility
Dysphagia (esophageal webs), glossitis, iron deficiency anemia
Cold intolerance
Dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, polyneuropathy
Infant with failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, neurodegeneration
Child with fever develops red rash on face that spread to body
Rash on palms and soles
Erytheroderma, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, atypical T cells
Indurated, non-painful ulcerated genital lesion
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (sphingomyelinase)
Abdominal pain, ascites, hepatomegaly
Large rash with bull’s-eye appearance
Painless jaundice
WBC casts in urine
Bounding pulses, diastolic heart murmur, head bobbing
Fever, night sweats, weight loss
Streak ovaries, congenital heart disease, horseshoe kidney
Painful erythematous lesions on palms and soles
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Painful, pale, cold fingers / toes
Swollen, hard, painful finger joints
Severe RLQ pain with rebound tenderness
Dark purple skin / mouth nodules
Small, irregular red spots on buccal / inguinal mucosa with blue-white centers
Lucid interval after traumatic brain injury
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (vascular)
Red “currant jelly” sputum in alcoholic or diabetic patients
Vasculitis from exposure to endotoxin causing glomerular thrombosis
Positive anterior “drawer sign”
Facial muscle spasm upon tapping
Painful blue fingers toes, hemolytic anemia
Rash on palms and soles
Nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech, bilateral intranuclear opthalmoplegia
Hamartamous GI polyps, hyperpigmentation of mouth / feet / hands
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas
Rapidly progressive leg weakness that ascends (following GI/upper respiratory infection)
Dog or cat bite resulting in infection
Resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, postural instability
Cutaneous / dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition
Polyuria, acidosis, growth failure, electrolyte imbalances
Weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, adenopathy
Vomiting blood following esophagogastric lacerations
Deep labored breathing / hyperventilation
Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis
Vascular birthmark (port-wine stain)
Toe extension / fanning upon plantar scrape
No lactation postpartum, absent menstruation, cold intolerance
Athlete with polycythemia
Calf pseudohypertrophy
Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea
Back pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss
Single palm crease
Continuous “machinery” heart murmur
Child uses arms to stand up from squat
Severe jaundice in neonate
Hypercoagulability leading to migrating DVTs and vascultitis
Fibrous plaques in soft tissue of penis
Male child, recurrent infections, no mature B cells
Indurated, painful ulcerated genital lesion with exudates
Bluish line on gingiva
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis
Fever, chills, headache, myalgia following antibiotic treatment for syphilis
Swollen gums, mucous leeding, poor wound healing, spots on skin
Thyroid and parathyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma
Conjugate lateral gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia
“Strawberry tongue” (Strep. pyogenes)
Fat, female, forty, and fertile
“Waxy” casts with very low urine flow
Café-au-lait spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty
Jaundice, RUQ pain, fever
Chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps
Restrictive cardiomyopathy (juvenile form: cardiomegaly), exercise intolerance
Ptosis, miosis, anhydrosis
Hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis, neurologic symptoms
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas, bilateral acoustic neuromas
Red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple areola
Sudden swollen / painful big toe joint, tophi
Infant with microcephaly, rocker-bottom feet, clenched hands, and structural heart defect
Slow, progressive muscle weakness in boys
Adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, DIC
Blue sclera
Recurrent colds unusual eczema, high serum IgE
Green-yellow rings around peripheral cornea
Palpable purpura, joint pain, abdominal pain (child)
Pink complexion, dyspnea, hyperventilation
“Strawberry tongue” (Staph. aureus)
“Strawberry tongue” (Vasculitis)
Hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts
Chest pain, pericardial effusion / friction rub, persistent fever following MI
Urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis in a male
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, anti-basement membrane antibodies
Fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, diffuse rash
“Worst headache of my life”
Multiple colon polyps, osteomas / soft tissue tumors, impacted / supernumerary teeth
Short stature, ↑ incidence of tumors / leukemia, aplastic anemia
Hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia
Skin hyperpigmentation
Situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis
Painful, raised red lesions on palms and soles
Chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration

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