USMLE First Aid Rapid Review - Classic Presentations

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Can you name the Classic Presentations of diseases?

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Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Ptosis, miosis, anhydrosis
Child uses arms to stand up from squat
Rapidly progressive leg weakness that ascends (following GI/upper respiratory infection)
Calf pseudohypertrophy
Red urine in the morning, fragile RBCs
Infant with failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, neurodegeneration
Severe jaundice in neonate
Fever, chills, headache, myalgia following antibiotic treatment for syphilis
Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis
Fat, female, forty, and fertile
Nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech, bilateral intranuclear opthalmoplegia
Palpable purpura, joint pain, abdominal pain (child)
Polyuria, acidosis, growth failure, electrolyte imbalances
Arachnodactyly, lens discoloration, aortic dissection, hyperflexible joints
Adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, DIC
Muscoal bleeding and prolonged bleeding time
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, anti-basement membrane antibodies
Jaundice, RUQ pain, fever
Painful, pale, cold fingers / toes
Bone pain, bone enlargement, arthritis
Hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts
Hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia
Chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps
Back pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss
Dark purple skin / mouth nodules
“Strawberry tongue” (Vasculitis)
Rash on palms and soles
Enlarged, hard left supraclavicular node
Pink complexion, dyspnea, hyperventilation
Unilateral facial dropping invoving forhead
Facial muscle spasm upon tapping
Pancreatic, pituitary, parathyroid tumors
Fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, diffuse rash
Recurrent colds unusual eczema, high serum IgE
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (hexosaminidase
Continuous “machinery” heart murmur
Restrictive cardiomyopathy (juvenile form: cardiomegaly), exercise intolerance
Chest pain, pericardial effusion / friction rub, persistent fever following MI
Hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis, neurologic symptoms
No lactation postpartum, absent menstruation, cold intolerance
Vomiting blood following esophagogastric lacerations
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (sphingomyelinase)
Resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, postural instability
Bluish line on gingiva
Painful erythematous lesions on palms and soles
Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis
Elastic skin, hypermobility of joints
Red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple areola
Conjugate lateral gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia
Fibrous plaques in soft tissue of penis
Streak ovaries, congenital heart disease, horseshoe kidney
“Waxy” casts with very low urine flow
Pupil accommodates but doesn’t react
Urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis in a male
Gout, mental retardation, self-mutilating behavior in boy
Erytheroderma, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, atypical T cells
Child with fever develops red rash on face that spread to body
Abdominal pain, ascites, hepatomegaly
Vasculitis from exposure to endotoxin causing glomerular thrombosis
Weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, adenopathy
Cold intolerance
WBC casts in urine
“Worst headache of my life”
Chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration
Achilles tendon xanthoma
Multiple colon polyps, osteomas / soft tissue tumors, impacted / supernumerary teeth
Infant with hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, and hepatomegaly
Smooth, flat, moist white lesions on genitals
Small, irregular red spots on buccal / inguinal mucosa with blue-white centers
Renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastomas, angiomatosis, pheochromocytoma
Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea
Vascular birthmark (port-wine stain)
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas, bilateral acoustic neuromas
Bounding pulses, diastolic heart murmur, head bobbing
Situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis
Rash on palms and soles
Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperdocility
Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo)
Blue sclera
Swollen, hard, painful finger joints
Toe extension / fanning upon plantar scrape
Positive anterior “drawer sign”
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Green-yellow rings around peripheral cornea
Single palm crease
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas
Neonate with arm paralysis following difficult birth
Swollen gums, mucous leeding, poor wound healing, spots on skin
“Strawberry tongue” (Strep. pyogenes)
Infant with microcephaly, rocker-bottom feet, clenched hands, and structural heart defect
Painless jaundice
Painful, raised red lesions on palms and soles
Athlete with polycythemia
Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails
Retinal hemorrhages with pale centers
Hypercoagulability leading to migrating DVTs and vascultitis
Keratin pearls in a skin biopsy
Sudden swollen / painful big toe joint, tophi
Dysphagia (esophageal webs), glossitis, iron deficiency anemia
Skin hyperpigmentation
“Strawberry tongue” (Staph. aureus)
Dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, polyneuropathy
Deep labored breathing / hyperventilation
Fever, night sweats, weight loss
Indurated, painful ulcerated genital lesion with exudates
Indurated, non-painful ulcerated genital lesion
Large rash with bull’s-eye appearance
Lucid interval after traumatic brain injury
Hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis
Dog or cat bite resulting in infection
Café-au-lait spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty
Oscillating slow/fast breathing
Thyroid and parathyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma
Severe RLQ pain with rebound tenderness
Red “currant jelly” sputum in alcoholic or diabetic patients
Cutaneous / dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition
Male child, recurrent infections, no mature B cells
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (vascular)
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, c-ANCA positive
Short stature, ↑ incidence of tumors / leukemia, aplastic anemia
Painful blue fingers toes, hemolytic anemia
Hamartamous GI polyps, hyperpigmentation of mouth / feet / hands
Slow, progressive muscle weakness in boys

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