USMLE First Aid Rapid Review - Classic Presentations

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Can you name the Classic Presentations of diseases?

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Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Infant with hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, and hepatomegaly
Male child, recurrent infections, no mature B cells
Short stature, ↑ incidence of tumors / leukemia, aplastic anemia
Rash on palms and soles
Continuous “machinery” heart murmur
Slow, progressive muscle weakness in boys
WBC casts in urine
Multiple colon polyps, osteomas / soft tissue tumors, impacted / supernumerary teeth
Bluish line on gingiva
Vasculitis from exposure to endotoxin causing glomerular thrombosis
Painful, raised red lesions on palms and soles
Adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, DIC
Achilles tendon xanthoma
Hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis
Erytheroderma, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, atypical T cells
Arachnodactyly, lens discoloration, aortic dissection, hyperflexible joints
Dysphagia (esophageal webs), glossitis, iron deficiency anemia
Fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, diffuse rash
Fat, female, forty, and fertile
Jaundice, RUQ pain, fever
Pancreatic, pituitary, parathyroid tumors
Rapidly progressive leg weakness that ascends (following GI/upper respiratory infection)
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (sphingomyelinase)
Child with fever develops red rash on face that spread to body
Back pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss
Hypercoagulability leading to migrating DVTs and vascultitis
Red urine in the morning, fragile RBCs
Smooth, flat, moist white lesions on genitals
Restrictive cardiomyopathy (juvenile form: cardiomegaly), exercise intolerance
Palpable purpura, joint pain, abdominal pain (child)
“Waxy” casts with very low urine flow
Large rash with bull’s-eye appearance
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, c-ANCA positive
Facial muscle spasm upon tapping
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (vascular)
Chest pain, pericardial effusion / friction rub, persistent fever following MI
Dark purple skin / mouth nodules
Painless jaundice
Single palm crease
Dog or cat bite resulting in infection
“Strawberry tongue” (Vasculitis)
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Abdominal pain, ascites, hepatomegaly
“Strawberry tongue” (Strep. pyogenes)
Fever, chills, headache, myalgia following antibiotic treatment for syphilis
Athlete with polycythemia
Sudden swollen / painful big toe joint, tophi
Chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration
Rash on palms and soles
Situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis
Gout, mental retardation, self-mutilating behavior in boy
Painful erythematous lesions on palms and soles
Green-yellow rings around peripheral cornea
Enlarged, hard left supraclavicular node
Swollen gums, mucous leeding, poor wound healing, spots on skin
“Strawberry tongue” (Staph. aureus)
Indurated, painful ulcerated genital lesion with exudates
Red “currant jelly” sputum in alcoholic or diabetic patients
Cutaneous / dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition
Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperdocility
Painful, pale, cold fingers / toes
Resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, postural instability
Deep labored breathing / hyperventilation
Muscoal bleeding and prolonged bleeding time
Infant with microcephaly, rocker-bottom feet, clenched hands, and structural heart defect
Café-au-lait spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty
Fever, night sweats, weight loss
Bounding pulses, diastolic heart murmur, head bobbing
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, anti-basement membrane antibodies
Positive anterior “drawer sign”
Retinal hemorrhages with pale centers
Unilateral facial dropping invoving forhead
Red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple areola
Vascular birthmark (port-wine stain)
Dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, polyneuropathy
Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis
Hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts
Keratin pearls in a skin biopsy
Small, irregular red spots on buccal / inguinal mucosa with blue-white centers
Severe RLQ pain with rebound tenderness
Hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (hexosaminidase
Neonate with arm paralysis following difficult birth
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Child uses arms to stand up from squat
Lucid interval after traumatic brain injury
Thyroid and parathyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma
Weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, adenopathy
Bone pain, bone enlargement, arthritis
Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails
“Worst headache of my life”
Severe jaundice in neonate
Cold intolerance
Hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis, neurologic symptoms
Conjugate lateral gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia
Elastic skin, hypermobility of joints
Oscillating slow/fast breathing
Toe extension / fanning upon plantar scrape
Skin hyperpigmentation
Polyuria, acidosis, growth failure, electrolyte imbalances
Vomiting blood following esophagogastric lacerations
Infant with failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, neurodegeneration
Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo)
Urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis in a male
Streak ovaries, congenital heart disease, horseshoe kidney
Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea
Nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech, bilateral intranuclear opthalmoplegia
Renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastomas, angiomatosis, pheochromocytoma
Ptosis, miosis, anhydrosis
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas, bilateral acoustic neuromas
Fibrous plaques in soft tissue of penis
Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis
Hamartamous GI polyps, hyperpigmentation of mouth / feet / hands
Indurated, non-painful ulcerated genital lesion
Chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps
Blue sclera
Painful blue fingers toes, hemolytic anemia
Pupil accommodates but doesn’t react
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas
Recurrent colds unusual eczema, high serum IgE
Pink complexion, dyspnea, hyperventilation
No lactation postpartum, absent menstruation, cold intolerance
Calf pseudohypertrophy
Swollen, hard, painful finger joints

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