USMLE First Aid Rapid Review - Classic Presentations

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Can you name the Classic Presentations of diseases?

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Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Keratin pearls in a skin biopsy
Adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, DIC
Continuous “machinery” heart murmur
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, anti-basement membrane antibodies
Skin hyperpigmentation
Achilles tendon xanthoma
Nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech, bilateral intranuclear opthalmoplegia
Indurated, non-painful ulcerated genital lesion
Dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, polyneuropathy
Vascular birthmark (port-wine stain)
Toe extension / fanning upon plantar scrape
Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis
Blue sclera
Jaundice, RUQ pain, fever
Green-yellow rings around peripheral cornea
Smooth, flat, moist white lesions on genitals
Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo)
Polyuria, acidosis, growth failure, electrolyte imbalances
Red urine in the morning, fragile RBCs
Fever, night sweats, weight loss
Fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, diffuse rash
Streak ovaries, congenital heart disease, horseshoe kidney
Renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastomas, angiomatosis, pheochromocytoma
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas, bilateral acoustic neuromas
Pink complexion, dyspnea, hyperventilation
Infant with failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, neurodegeneration
Dysphagia (esophageal webs), glossitis, iron deficiency anemia
Red “currant jelly” sputum in alcoholic or diabetic patients
Cold intolerance
Painful blue fingers toes, hemolytic anemia
Male child, recurrent infections, no mature B cells
Conjugate lateral gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia
Retinal hemorrhages with pale centers
Athlete with polycythemia
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (vascular)
No lactation postpartum, absent menstruation, cold intolerance
Gout, mental retardation, self-mutilating behavior in boy
“Waxy” casts with very low urine flow
Short stature, ↑ incidence of tumors / leukemia, aplastic anemia
Painful, raised red lesions on palms and soles
Fever, chills, headache, myalgia following antibiotic treatment for syphilis
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Restrictive cardiomyopathy (juvenile form: cardiomegaly), exercise intolerance
Urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis in a male
Hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia
Erytheroderma, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, atypical T cells
Cutaneous / dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition
Back pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss
Hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts
Child uses arms to stand up from squat
WBC casts in urine
Unilateral facial dropping invoving forhead
Vasculitis from exposure to endotoxin causing glomerular thrombosis
Chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration
Enlarged, hard left supraclavicular node
Child with fever develops red rash on face that spread to body
Fat, female, forty, and fertile
Rash on palms and soles
“Strawberry tongue” (Strep. pyogenes)
Palpable purpura, joint pain, abdominal pain (child)
Severe RLQ pain with rebound tenderness
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (sphingomyelinase)
Pupil accommodates but doesn’t react
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (hexosaminidase
Neonate with arm paralysis following difficult birth
Indurated, painful ulcerated genital lesion with exudates
Bone pain, bone enlargement, arthritis
Slow, progressive muscle weakness in boys
Rash on palms and soles
Dark purple skin / mouth nodules
Red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple areola
Hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis, neurologic symptoms
Thyroid and parathyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma
Lucid interval after traumatic brain injury
Pancreatic, pituitary, parathyroid tumors
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas
Muscoal bleeding and prolonged bleeding time
Positive anterior “drawer sign”
Swollen gums, mucous leeding, poor wound healing, spots on skin
Chest pain, pericardial effusion / friction rub, persistent fever following MI
Ptosis, miosis, anhydrosis
Swollen, hard, painful finger joints
Bluish line on gingiva
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, adenopathy
Large rash with bull’s-eye appearance
Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails
Dog or cat bite resulting in infection
Vomiting blood following esophagogastric lacerations
Rapidly progressive leg weakness that ascends (following GI/upper respiratory infection)
“Strawberry tongue” (Staph. aureus)
Severe jaundice in neonate
Painful erythematous lesions on palms and soles
Hamartamous GI polyps, hyperpigmentation of mouth / feet / hands
Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea
Bounding pulses, diastolic heart murmur, head bobbing
Situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis
Small, irregular red spots on buccal / inguinal mucosa with blue-white centers
Painful, pale, cold fingers / toes
Arachnodactyly, lens discoloration, aortic dissection, hyperflexible joints
Chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps
Oscillating slow/fast breathing
Resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, postural instability
Hypercoagulability leading to migrating DVTs and vascultitis
Infant with microcephaly, rocker-bottom feet, clenched hands, and structural heart defect
“Strawberry tongue” (Vasculitis)
Sudden swollen / painful big toe joint, tophi
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, c-ANCA positive
Multiple colon polyps, osteomas / soft tissue tumors, impacted / supernumerary teeth
Abdominal pain, ascites, hepatomegaly
Fibrous plaques in soft tissue of penis
Café-au-lait spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty
Elastic skin, hypermobility of joints
Hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis
Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperdocility
Infant with hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, and hepatomegaly
Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis
“Worst headache of my life”
Painless jaundice
Facial muscle spasm upon tapping
Calf pseudohypertrophy
Deep labored breathing / hyperventilation
Single palm crease
Recurrent colds unusual eczema, high serum IgE

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