Science / USMLE First Aid Rapid Review - Classic Presentations

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Can you name the Classic Presentations of diseases?

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Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Indurated, painful ulcerated genital lesion with exudates
Arachnodactyly, lens discoloration, aortic dissection, hyperflexible joints
Rash on palms and soles
Red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple areola
Painless jaundice
Chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps
Lucid interval after traumatic brain injury
Café-au-lait spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty
Sudden swollen / painful big toe joint, tophi
“Strawberry tongue” (Strep. pyogenes)
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, c-ANCA positive
Child uses arms to stand up from squat
Large rash with bull’s-eye appearance
Polyuria, acidosis, growth failure, electrolyte imbalances
Bounding pulses, diastolic heart murmur, head bobbing
Smooth, flat, moist white lesions on genitals
Child with fever develops red rash on face that spread to body
Severe jaundice in neonate
Oscillating slow/fast breathing
Vascular birthmark (port-wine stain)
Jaundice, RUQ pain, fever
Infant with failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, neurodegeneration
Hypercoagulability leading to migrating DVTs and vascultitis
Conjugate lateral gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia
Severe RLQ pain with rebound tenderness
Neonate with arm paralysis following difficult birth
Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo)
Athlete with polycythemia
Infant with hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, and hepatomegaly
Hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis
Muscoal bleeding and prolonged bleeding time
“Worst headache of my life”
Vasculitis from exposure to endotoxin causing glomerular thrombosis
Dog or cat bite resulting in infection
Fat, female, forty, and fertile
Infant with microcephaly, rocker-bottom feet, clenched hands, and structural heart defect
Rash on palms and soles
Adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, DIC
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (sphingomyelinase)
Fever, night sweats, weight loss
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas, bilateral acoustic neuromas
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Green-yellow rings around peripheral cornea
Male child, recurrent infections, no mature B cells
Recurrent colds unusual eczema, high serum IgE
Hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis, neurologic symptoms
Rapidly progressive leg weakness that ascends (following GI/upper respiratory infection)
Achilles tendon xanthoma
Vomiting blood following esophagogastric lacerations
Elastic skin, hypermobility of joints
“Strawberry tongue” (Vasculitis)
Dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, polyneuropathy
Fever, chills, headache, myalgia following antibiotic treatment for syphilis
Situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis
Short stature, ↑ incidence of tumors / leukemia, aplastic anemia
Painful, pale, cold fingers / toes
Cutaneous / dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition
Blue sclera
Bluish line on gingiva
Streak ovaries, congenital heart disease, horseshoe kidney
Hamartamous GI polyps, hyperpigmentation of mouth / feet / hands
Restrictive cardiomyopathy (juvenile form: cardiomegaly), exercise intolerance
Enlarged, hard left supraclavicular node
Urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis in a male
WBC casts in urine
Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperdocility
Dark purple skin / mouth nodules
Hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia
Bone pain, bone enlargement, arthritis
Indurated, non-painful ulcerated genital lesion
Pink complexion, dyspnea, hyperventilation
Painful erythematous lesions on palms and soles
Red urine in the morning, fragile RBCs
Unilateral facial dropping invoving forhead
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (hexosaminidase
Cold intolerance
Swollen, hard, painful finger joints
Nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech, bilateral intranuclear opthalmoplegia
Deep labored breathing / hyperventilation
Swollen gums, mucous leeding, poor wound healing, spots on skin
Pancreatic, pituitary, parathyroid tumors
Positive anterior “drawer sign”
Skin hyperpigmentation
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (vascular)
Hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts
Painful blue fingers toes, hemolytic anemia
Painful, raised red lesions on palms and soles
Weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, adenopathy
Ptosis, miosis, anhydrosis
Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis
Back pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss
Calf pseudohypertrophy
Palpable purpura, joint pain, abdominal pain (child)
Continuous “machinery” heart murmur
Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea
Keratin pearls in a skin biopsy
Multiple colon polyps, osteomas / soft tissue tumors, impacted / supernumerary teeth
“Waxy” casts with very low urine flow
Retinal hemorrhages with pale centers
Pupil accommodates but doesn’t react
Toe extension / fanning upon plantar scrape
Abdominal pain, ascites, hepatomegaly
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, anti-basement membrane antibodies
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas
Dysphagia (esophageal webs), glossitis, iron deficiency anemia
Slow, progressive muscle weakness in boys
Facial muscle spasm upon tapping
Small, irregular red spots on buccal / inguinal mucosa with blue-white centers
Fibrous plaques in soft tissue of penis
No lactation postpartum, absent menstruation, cold intolerance
Chest pain, pericardial effusion / friction rub, persistent fever following MI
Red “currant jelly” sputum in alcoholic or diabetic patients
Fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, diffuse rash
Thyroid and parathyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma
Gout, mental retardation, self-mutilating behavior in boy
Chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration
“Strawberry tongue” (Staph. aureus)
Renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastomas, angiomatosis, pheochromocytoma
Erytheroderma, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, atypical T cells
Resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, postural instability
Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis
Single palm crease

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