USMLE First Aid Rapid Review - Classic Presentations

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Can you name the Classic Presentations of diseases?

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Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Elastic skin, hypermobility of joints
“Worst headache of my life”
“Waxy” casts with very low urine flow
Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (vascular)
Skin hyperpigmentation
Indurated, non-painful ulcerated genital lesion
Conjugate lateral gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia
Enlarged, hard left supraclavicular node
Lucid interval after traumatic brain injury
Pancreatic, pituitary, parathyroid tumors
Sudden swollen / painful big toe joint, tophi
Severe RLQ pain with rebound tenderness
Fat, female, forty, and fertile
Streak ovaries, congenital heart disease, horseshoe kidney
“Strawberry tongue” (Strep. pyogenes)
Swollen gums, mucous leeding, poor wound healing, spots on skin
Single palm crease
Large rash with bull’s-eye appearance
Achilles tendon xanthoma
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, anti-basement membrane antibodies
Bone pain, bone enlargement, arthritis
Short stature, ↑ incidence of tumors / leukemia, aplastic anemia
Painful erythematous lesions on palms and soles
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas, bilateral acoustic neuromas
Restrictive cardiomyopathy (juvenile form: cardiomegaly), exercise intolerance
Gout, mental retardation, self-mutilating behavior in boy
Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea
Chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps
Dog or cat bite resulting in infection
Fever, night sweats, weight loss
Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails
Painful, raised red lesions on palms and soles
“Strawberry tongue” (Staph. aureus)
Polyuria, acidosis, growth failure, electrolyte imbalances
Resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, postural instability
Slow, progressive muscle weakness in boys
Dysphagia (esophageal webs), glossitis, iron deficiency anemia
Keratin pearls in a skin biopsy
Rapidly progressive leg weakness that ascends (following GI/upper respiratory infection)
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, c-ANCA positive
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas
“Strawberry tongue” (Vasculitis)
Green-yellow rings around peripheral cornea
Palpable purpura, joint pain, abdominal pain (child)
Calf pseudohypertrophy
Hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis
Red urine in the morning, fragile RBCs
Dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, polyneuropathy
Male child, recurrent infections, no mature B cells
Deep labored breathing / hyperventilation
Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo)
Urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis in a male
Cutaneous / dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition
Dark purple skin / mouth nodules
Nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech, bilateral intranuclear opthalmoplegia
Jaundice, RUQ pain, fever
Café-au-lait spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty
Hamartamous GI polyps, hyperpigmentation of mouth / feet / hands
Multiple colon polyps, osteomas / soft tissue tumors, impacted / supernumerary teeth
Adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, DIC
Infant with hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, and hepatomegaly
Continuous “machinery” heart murmur
Ptosis, miosis, anhydrosis
Painful, pale, cold fingers / toes
Infant with microcephaly, rocker-bottom feet, clenched hands, and structural heart defect
Vasculitis from exposure to endotoxin causing glomerular thrombosis
Weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, adenopathy
Child with fever develops red rash on face that spread to body
Blue sclera
Erytheroderma, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, atypical T cells
Recurrent colds unusual eczema, high serum IgE
Arachnodactyly, lens discoloration, aortic dissection, hyperflexible joints
Vomiting blood following esophagogastric lacerations
Smooth, flat, moist white lesions on genitals
Neonate with arm paralysis following difficult birth
WBC casts in urine
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (hexosaminidase
Muscoal bleeding and prolonged bleeding time
Oscillating slow/fast breathing
Facial muscle spasm upon tapping
Back pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Rash on palms and soles
Hypercoagulability leading to migrating DVTs and vascultitis
Chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration
Cold intolerance
Severe jaundice in neonate
Indurated, painful ulcerated genital lesion with exudates
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (sphingomyelinase)
Pink complexion, dyspnea, hyperventilation
Child uses arms to stand up from squat
Fibrous plaques in soft tissue of penis
Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperdocility
Hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia
Fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, diffuse rash
Vascular birthmark (port-wine stain)
Infant with failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, neurodegeneration
Athlete with polycythemia
Unilateral facial dropping invoving forhead
Situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis
Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis
Rash on palms and soles
Painful blue fingers toes, hemolytic anemia
Chest pain, pericardial effusion / friction rub, persistent fever following MI
Abdominal pain, ascites, hepatomegaly
Hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts
Bluish line on gingiva
Renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastomas, angiomatosis, pheochromocytoma
Swollen, hard, painful finger joints
Positive anterior “drawer sign”
No lactation postpartum, absent menstruation, cold intolerance
Small, irregular red spots on buccal / inguinal mucosa with blue-white centers
Retinal hemorrhages with pale centers
Thyroid and parathyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma
Toe extension / fanning upon plantar scrape
Painless jaundice
Bounding pulses, diastolic heart murmur, head bobbing
Red “currant jelly” sputum in alcoholic or diabetic patients
Hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis, neurologic symptoms
Red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple areola
Fever, chills, headache, myalgia following antibiotic treatment for syphilis
Pupil accommodates but doesn’t react

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