USMLE First Aid Rapid Review - Classic Presentations

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Can you name the Classic Presentations of diseases?

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Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Retinal hemorrhages with pale centers
Arachnodactyly, lens discoloration, aortic dissection, hyperflexible joints
“Waxy” casts with very low urine flow
Restrictive cardiomyopathy (juvenile form: cardiomegaly), exercise intolerance
Athlete with polycythemia
Indurated, painful ulcerated genital lesion with exudates
Dark purple skin / mouth nodules
Multiple colon polyps, osteomas / soft tissue tumors, impacted / supernumerary teeth
Chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration
Hamartamous GI polyps, hyperpigmentation of mouth / feet / hands
Bounding pulses, diastolic heart murmur, head bobbing
Lucid interval after traumatic brain injury
“Worst headache of my life”
Elastic skin, hypermobility of joints
Hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis
Polyuria, acidosis, growth failure, electrolyte imbalances
“Strawberry tongue” (Staph. aureus)
Vasculitis from exposure to endotoxin causing glomerular thrombosis
No lactation postpartum, absent menstruation, cold intolerance
Hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia
Weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, adenopathy
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (hexosaminidase
Red urine in the morning, fragile RBCs
Positive anterior “drawer sign”
Skin hyperpigmentation
“Strawberry tongue” (Vasculitis)
Rapidly progressive leg weakness that ascends (following GI/upper respiratory infection)
Jaundice, RUQ pain, fever
Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperdocility
Pancreatic, pituitary, parathyroid tumors
Unilateral facial dropping invoving forhead
Chest pain, pericardial effusion / friction rub, persistent fever following MI
“Strawberry tongue” (Strep. pyogenes)
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, c-ANCA positive
Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo)
Chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps
Short stature, ↑ incidence of tumors / leukemia, aplastic anemia
Café-au-lait spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty
Bluish line on gingiva
Continuous “machinery” heart murmur
Vomiting blood following esophagogastric lacerations
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis in a male
Green-yellow rings around peripheral cornea
Dog or cat bite resulting in infection
Achilles tendon xanthoma
Resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, postural instability
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (sphingomyelinase)
Adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, DIC
Enlarged, hard left supraclavicular node
Child uses arms to stand up from squat
Painful erythematous lesions on palms and soles
Abdominal pain, ascites, hepatomegaly
Ptosis, miosis, anhydrosis
Pupil accommodates but doesn’t react
Erytheroderma, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, atypical T cells
Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis
Dysphagia (esophageal webs), glossitis, iron deficiency anemia
Conjugate lateral gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia
Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea
WBC casts in urine
Hypercoagulability leading to migrating DVTs and vascultitis
Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails
Painful blue fingers toes, hemolytic anemia
Thyroid and parathyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma
Indurated, non-painful ulcerated genital lesion
Facial muscle spasm upon tapping
Slow, progressive muscle weakness in boys
Rash on palms and soles
Swollen, hard, painful finger joints
Cold intolerance
Red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple areola
Nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech, bilateral intranuclear opthalmoplegia
Muscoal bleeding and prolonged bleeding time
Calf pseudohypertrophy
Streak ovaries, congenital heart disease, horseshoe kidney
Pink complexion, dyspnea, hyperventilation
Severe jaundice in neonate
Palpable purpura, joint pain, abdominal pain (child)
Large rash with bull’s-eye appearance
Keratin pearls in a skin biopsy
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas, bilateral acoustic neuromas
Oscillating slow/fast breathing
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Deep labored breathing / hyperventilation
Infant with failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, neurodegeneration
Painful, raised red lesions on palms and soles
Child with fever develops red rash on face that spread to body
Situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis
Smooth, flat, moist white lesions on genitals
Infant with hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, and hepatomegaly
Severe RLQ pain with rebound tenderness
Fever, chills, headache, myalgia following antibiotic treatment for syphilis
Rash on palms and soles
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (vascular)
Bone pain, bone enlargement, arthritis
Hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis, neurologic symptoms
Single palm crease
Recurrent colds unusual eczema, high serum IgE
Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis
Dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, polyneuropathy
Painless jaundice
Hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts
Sudden swollen / painful big toe joint, tophi
Male child, recurrent infections, no mature B cells
Swollen gums, mucous leeding, poor wound healing, spots on skin
Blue sclera
Fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, diffuse rash
Cutaneous / dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition
Vascular birthmark (port-wine stain)
Renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastomas, angiomatosis, pheochromocytoma
Small, irregular red spots on buccal / inguinal mucosa with blue-white centers
Gout, mental retardation, self-mutilating behavior in boy
Infant with microcephaly, rocker-bottom feet, clenched hands, and structural heart defect
Toe extension / fanning upon plantar scrape
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, anti-basement membrane antibodies
Fibrous plaques in soft tissue of penis
Painful, pale, cold fingers / toes
Neonate with arm paralysis following difficult birth
Back pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss
Red “currant jelly” sputum in alcoholic or diabetic patients
Fat, female, forty, and fertile
Fever, night sweats, weight loss

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