USMLE First Aid Rapid Review - Classic Presentations

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Can you name the Classic Presentations of diseases?

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Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Continuous “machinery” heart murmur
Chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration
Smooth, flat, moist white lesions on genitals
Bluish line on gingiva
Vomiting blood following esophagogastric lacerations
Rash on palms and soles
No lactation postpartum, absent menstruation, cold intolerance
Sudden swollen / painful big toe joint, tophi
Enlarged, hard left supraclavicular node
Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea
Dysphagia (esophageal webs), glossitis, iron deficiency anemia
Toe extension / fanning upon plantar scrape
Back pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss
Deep labored breathing / hyperventilation
Hamartamous GI polyps, hyperpigmentation of mouth / feet / hands
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, c-ANCA positive
Green-yellow rings around peripheral cornea
Pink complexion, dyspnea, hyperventilation
Slow, progressive muscle weakness in boys
Short stature, ↑ incidence of tumors / leukemia, aplastic anemia
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, anti-basement membrane antibodies
Athlete with polycythemia
Achilles tendon xanthoma
Adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, DIC
Neonate with arm paralysis following difficult birth
“Strawberry tongue” (Vasculitis)
Positive anterior “drawer sign”
Infant with failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, neurodegeneration
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas, bilateral acoustic neuromas
Swollen gums, mucous leeding, poor wound healing, spots on skin
Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis
Pancreatic, pituitary, parathyroid tumors
Skin hyperpigmentation
Painful blue fingers toes, hemolytic anemia
Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails
Painful, raised red lesions on palms and soles
Fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, diffuse rash
Fat, female, forty, and fertile
Restrictive cardiomyopathy (juvenile form: cardiomegaly), exercise intolerance
Vascular birthmark (port-wine stain)
Palpable purpura, joint pain, abdominal pain (child)
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Fever, night sweats, weight loss
Café-au-lait spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty
Dog or cat bite resulting in infection
Streak ovaries, congenital heart disease, horseshoe kidney
Calf pseudohypertrophy
“Waxy” casts with very low urine flow
Fever, chills, headache, myalgia following antibiotic treatment for syphilis
Small, irregular red spots on buccal / inguinal mucosa with blue-white centers
Hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis, neurologic symptoms
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas
Rapidly progressive leg weakness that ascends (following GI/upper respiratory infection)
Urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis in a male
Lucid interval after traumatic brain injury
Cold intolerance
Chest pain, pericardial effusion / friction rub, persistent fever following MI
Recurrent colds unusual eczema, high serum IgE
Weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, adenopathy
Erytheroderma, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, atypical T cells
“Strawberry tongue” (Strep. pyogenes)
Vasculitis from exposure to endotoxin causing glomerular thrombosis
Infant with microcephaly, rocker-bottom feet, clenched hands, and structural heart defect
Retinal hemorrhages with pale centers
Cutaneous / dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition
Polyuria, acidosis, growth failure, electrolyte imbalances
Hypercoagulability leading to migrating DVTs and vascultitis
Hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia
Blue sclera
Child with fever develops red rash on face that spread to body
Infant with hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, and hepatomegaly
Painless jaundice
Unilateral facial dropping invoving forhead
Child uses arms to stand up from squat
Painful erythematous lesions on palms and soles
Bone pain, bone enlargement, arthritis
Nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech, bilateral intranuclear opthalmoplegia
Red urine in the morning, fragile RBCs
Red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple areola
Hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts
Elastic skin, hypermobility of joints
Painful, pale, cold fingers / toes
WBC casts in urine
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Indurated, non-painful ulcerated genital lesion
Red “currant jelly” sputum in alcoholic or diabetic patients
Chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps
Bounding pulses, diastolic heart murmur, head bobbing
“Worst headache of my life”
Severe jaundice in neonate
Pupil accommodates but doesn’t react
Multiple colon polyps, osteomas / soft tissue tumors, impacted / supernumerary teeth
Dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, polyneuropathy
Swollen, hard, painful finger joints
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (vascular)
“Strawberry tongue” (Staph. aureus)
Male child, recurrent infections, no mature B cells
Large rash with bull’s-eye appearance
Gout, mental retardation, self-mutilating behavior in boy
Severe RLQ pain with rebound tenderness
Single palm crease
Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperdocility
Indurated, painful ulcerated genital lesion with exudates
Thyroid and parathyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma
Oscillating slow/fast breathing
Facial muscle spasm upon tapping
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (sphingomyelinase)
Hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis
Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis
Fibrous plaques in soft tissue of penis
Rash on palms and soles
Resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, postural instability
Renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastomas, angiomatosis, pheochromocytoma
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (hexosaminidase
Keratin pearls in a skin biopsy
Jaundice, RUQ pain, fever
Arachnodactyly, lens discoloration, aortic dissection, hyperflexible joints
Ptosis, miosis, anhydrosis
Conjugate lateral gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia
Abdominal pain, ascites, hepatomegaly
Dark purple skin / mouth nodules
Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo)
Muscoal bleeding and prolonged bleeding time
Situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis

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