USMLE First Aid Rapid Review - Classic Presentations

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Can you name the Classic Presentations of diseases?

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Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Streak ovaries, congenital heart disease, horseshoe kidney
Male child, recurrent infections, no mature B cells
Hypercoagulability leading to migrating DVTs and vascultitis
Positive anterior “drawer sign”
Rash on palms and soles
Vomiting blood following esophagogastric lacerations
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas, bilateral acoustic neuromas
Infant with failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, neurodegeneration
Rash on palms and soles
Conjugate lateral gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia
Nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech, bilateral intranuclear opthalmoplegia
Oscillating slow/fast breathing
Recurrent colds unusual eczema, high serum IgE
Indurated, painful ulcerated genital lesion with exudates
Toe extension / fanning upon plantar scrape
Arachnodactyly, lens discoloration, aortic dissection, hyperflexible joints
Short stature, ↑ incidence of tumors / leukemia, aplastic anemia
Fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, diffuse rash
Gout, mental retardation, self-mutilating behavior in boy
Swollen, hard, painful finger joints
Severe RLQ pain with rebound tenderness
Pancreatic, pituitary, parathyroid tumors
Painful, raised red lesions on palms and soles
Restrictive cardiomyopathy (juvenile form: cardiomegaly), exercise intolerance
Abdominal pain, ascites, hepatomegaly
Vascular birthmark (port-wine stain)
Chest pain, pericardial effusion / friction rub, persistent fever following MI
Bounding pulses, diastolic heart murmur, head bobbing
Pupil accommodates but doesn’t react
Slow, progressive muscle weakness in boys
Weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, adenopathy
Painless jaundice
Café-au-lait spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty
Situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis
Unilateral facial dropping invoving forhead
Elastic skin, hypermobility of joints
Enlarged, hard left supraclavicular node
Lucid interval after traumatic brain injury
Rapidly progressive leg weakness that ascends (following GI/upper respiratory infection)
Red “currant jelly” sputum in alcoholic or diabetic patients
Green-yellow rings around peripheral cornea
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Painful, pale, cold fingers / toes
Small, irregular red spots on buccal / inguinal mucosa with blue-white centers
Blue sclera
Continuous “machinery” heart murmur
Fever, night sweats, weight loss
Facial muscle spasm upon tapping
Palpable purpura, joint pain, abdominal pain (child)
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas
“Worst headache of my life”
Swollen gums, mucous leeding, poor wound healing, spots on skin
Bone pain, bone enlargement, arthritis
Infant with microcephaly, rocker-bottom feet, clenched hands, and structural heart defect
Hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis, neurologic symptoms
Cold intolerance
WBC casts in urine
Child with fever develops red rash on face that spread to body
Hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts
Child uses arms to stand up from squat
Erytheroderma, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, atypical T cells
Pink complexion, dyspnea, hyperventilation
Polyuria, acidosis, growth failure, electrolyte imbalances
Resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, postural instability
Deep labored breathing / hyperventilation
Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo)
Hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis
Cutaneous / dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition
Calf pseudohypertrophy
Thyroid and parathyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma
Severe jaundice in neonate
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, c-ANCA positive
Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (hexosaminidase
Renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastomas, angiomatosis, pheochromocytoma
Dark purple skin / mouth nodules
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (sphingomyelinase)
Hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia
Multiple colon polyps, osteomas / soft tissue tumors, impacted / supernumerary teeth
Painful erythematous lesions on palms and soles
Athlete with polycythemia
Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperdocility
Hamartamous GI polyps, hyperpigmentation of mouth / feet / hands
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Single palm crease
“Waxy” casts with very low urine flow
Fibrous plaques in soft tissue of penis
Indurated, non-painful ulcerated genital lesion
Red urine in the morning, fragile RBCs
Sudden swollen / painful big toe joint, tophi
Dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, polyneuropathy
Painful blue fingers toes, hemolytic anemia
Chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps
Adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, DIC
Achilles tendon xanthoma
Infant with hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, and hepatomegaly
Back pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss
Smooth, flat, moist white lesions on genitals
Muscoal bleeding and prolonged bleeding time
Jaundice, RUQ pain, fever
“Strawberry tongue” (Vasculitis)
Neonate with arm paralysis following difficult birth
“Strawberry tongue” (Staph. aureus)
Skin hyperpigmentation
Bluish line on gingiva
“Strawberry tongue” (Strep. pyogenes)
Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea
Large rash with bull’s-eye appearance
Vasculitis from exposure to endotoxin causing glomerular thrombosis
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, anti-basement membrane antibodies
Chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration
Urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis in a male
Dysphagia (esophageal webs), glossitis, iron deficiency anemia
Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails
Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (vascular)
Fever, chills, headache, myalgia following antibiotic treatment for syphilis
Red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple areola
Dog or cat bite resulting in infection
No lactation postpartum, absent menstruation, cold intolerance
Keratin pearls in a skin biopsy
Fat, female, forty, and fertile
Retinal hemorrhages with pale centers
Ptosis, miosis, anhydrosis

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