USMLE First Aid Rapid Review - Classic Presentations

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Can you name the Classic Presentations of diseases?

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Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Multiple colon polyps, osteomas / soft tissue tumors, impacted / supernumerary teeth
Rash on palms and soles
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, anti-basement membrane antibodies
Pink complexion, dyspnea, hyperventilation
Bluish line on gingiva
Retinal hemorrhages with pale centers
Unilateral facial dropping invoving forhead
Dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, polyneuropathy
WBC casts in urine
Dysphagia (esophageal webs), glossitis, iron deficiency anemia
Dark purple skin / mouth nodules
Infant with hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, and hepatomegaly
Severe jaundice in neonate
Fever, night sweats, weight loss
Lucid interval after traumatic brain injury
Green-yellow rings around peripheral cornea
Nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech, bilateral intranuclear opthalmoplegia
Restrictive cardiomyopathy (juvenile form: cardiomegaly), exercise intolerance
Swollen gums, mucous leeding, poor wound healing, spots on skin
Painful, raised red lesions on palms and soles
No lactation postpartum, absent menstruation, cold intolerance
Muscoal bleeding and prolonged bleeding time
Rash on palms and soles
“Strawberry tongue” (Staph. aureus)
Chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas, bilateral acoustic neuromas
Swollen, hard, painful finger joints
Painless jaundice
Facial muscle spasm upon tapping
“Worst headache of my life”
Single palm crease
Achilles tendon xanthoma
Hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts
Dog or cat bite resulting in infection
Enlarged, hard left supraclavicular node
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, c-ANCA positive
Indurated, painful ulcerated genital lesion with exudates
Neonate with arm paralysis following difficult birth
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (sphingomyelinase)
Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperdocility
Red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple areola
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Rapidly progressive leg weakness that ascends (following GI/upper respiratory infection)
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas
Hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis
Positive anterior “drawer sign”
Gout, mental retardation, self-mutilating behavior in boy
Athlete with polycythemia
Skin hyperpigmentation
Urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis in a male
Renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastomas, angiomatosis, pheochromocytoma
Elastic skin, hypermobility of joints
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (hexosaminidase
Fever, chills, headache, myalgia following antibiotic treatment for syphilis
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (vascular)
Fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, diffuse rash
Weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, adenopathy
Erytheroderma, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, atypical T cells
Pupil accommodates but doesn’t react
Recurrent colds unusual eczema, high serum IgE
Hypercoagulability leading to migrating DVTs and vascultitis
Painful, pale, cold fingers / toes
Small, irregular red spots on buccal / inguinal mucosa with blue-white centers
Calf pseudohypertrophy
Keratin pearls in a skin biopsy
Deep labored breathing / hyperventilation
Streak ovaries, congenital heart disease, horseshoe kidney
Conjugate lateral gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia
Cutaneous / dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition
Pancreatic, pituitary, parathyroid tumors
Chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration
Large rash with bull’s-eye appearance
Infant with microcephaly, rocker-bottom feet, clenched hands, and structural heart defect
Palpable purpura, joint pain, abdominal pain (child)
Cold intolerance
Hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia
Bone pain, bone enlargement, arthritis
Short stature, ↑ incidence of tumors / leukemia, aplastic anemia
Red “currant jelly” sputum in alcoholic or diabetic patients
Café-au-lait spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty
Hamartamous GI polyps, hyperpigmentation of mouth / feet / hands
“Strawberry tongue” (Vasculitis)
Slow, progressive muscle weakness in boys
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis, neurologic symptoms
Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis
Jaundice, RUQ pain, fever
Child uses arms to stand up from squat
Adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, DIC
Vasculitis from exposure to endotoxin causing glomerular thrombosis
Resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, postural instability
Arachnodactyly, lens discoloration, aortic dissection, hyperflexible joints
Severe RLQ pain with rebound tenderness
“Strawberry tongue” (Strep. pyogenes)
Ptosis, miosis, anhydrosis
Blue sclera
Smooth, flat, moist white lesions on genitals
Vascular birthmark (port-wine stain)
Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis
Back pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss
Sudden swollen / painful big toe joint, tophi
“Waxy” casts with very low urine flow
Chest pain, pericardial effusion / friction rub, persistent fever following MI
Indurated, non-painful ulcerated genital lesion
Bounding pulses, diastolic heart murmur, head bobbing
Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo)
Continuous “machinery” heart murmur
Oscillating slow/fast breathing
Thyroid and parathyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma
Infant with failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, neurodegeneration
Toe extension / fanning upon plantar scrape
Red urine in the morning, fragile RBCs
Abdominal pain, ascites, hepatomegaly
Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails
Polyuria, acidosis, growth failure, electrolyte imbalances
Fat, female, forty, and fertile
Fibrous plaques in soft tissue of penis
Situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis
Painful erythematous lesions on palms and soles
Vomiting blood following esophagogastric lacerations
Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea
Painful blue fingers toes, hemolytic anemia
Child with fever develops red rash on face that spread to body
Male child, recurrent infections, no mature B cells

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