USMLE First Aid Rapid Review - Classic Presentations

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Can you name the Classic Presentations of diseases?

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Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, DIC
Fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, diffuse rash
Fibrous plaques in soft tissue of penis
Renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastomas, angiomatosis, pheochromocytoma
Fat, female, forty, and fertile
Thyroid and parathyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma
Pink complexion, dyspnea, hyperventilation
Slow, progressive muscle weakness in boys
Streak ovaries, congenital heart disease, horseshoe kidney
Dark purple skin / mouth nodules
Palpable purpura, joint pain, abdominal pain (child)
Achilles tendon xanthoma
Smooth, flat, moist white lesions on genitals
Unilateral facial dropping invoving forhead
No lactation postpartum, absent menstruation, cold intolerance
Red urine in the morning, fragile RBCs
WBC casts in urine
Hamartamous GI polyps, hyperpigmentation of mouth / feet / hands
Bluish line on gingiva
Single palm crease
Hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia
Abdominal pain, ascites, hepatomegaly
Red “currant jelly” sputum in alcoholic or diabetic patients
Hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis
Hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts
Polyuria, acidosis, growth failure, electrolyte imbalances
Chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps
Chest pain, pericardial effusion / friction rub, persistent fever following MI
Dysphagia (esophageal webs), glossitis, iron deficiency anemia
Indurated, painful ulcerated genital lesion with exudates
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (hexosaminidase
Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis
Keratin pearls in a skin biopsy
Toe extension / fanning upon plantar scrape
Dog or cat bite resulting in infection
Back pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss
“Strawberry tongue” (Strep. pyogenes)
Cutaneous / dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition
Resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, postural instability
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (vascular)
Swollen gums, mucous leeding, poor wound healing, spots on skin
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Facial muscle spasm upon tapping
Green-yellow rings around peripheral cornea
Oscillating slow/fast breathing
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, anti-basement membrane antibodies
Weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, adenopathy
Infant with hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, and hepatomegaly
Short stature, ↑ incidence of tumors / leukemia, aplastic anemia
Elastic skin, hypermobility of joints
Positive anterior “drawer sign”
Continuous “machinery” heart murmur
Small, irregular red spots on buccal / inguinal mucosa with blue-white centers
Chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration
Hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis, neurologic symptoms
“Strawberry tongue” (Staph. aureus)
Pupil accommodates but doesn’t react
Painful, raised red lesions on palms and soles
Rash on palms and soles
Multiple colon polyps, osteomas / soft tissue tumors, impacted / supernumerary teeth
Painless jaundice
Red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple areola
Infant with microcephaly, rocker-bottom feet, clenched hands, and structural heart defect
Situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis
Bounding pulses, diastolic heart murmur, head bobbing
Calf pseudohypertrophy
Café-au-lait spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty
Hypercoagulability leading to migrating DVTs and vascultitis
Male child, recurrent infections, no mature B cells
Rash on palms and soles
Erytheroderma, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, atypical T cells
Vascular birthmark (port-wine stain)
Child with fever develops red rash on face that spread to body
Recurrent colds unusual eczema, high serum IgE
Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis
Sudden swollen / painful big toe joint, tophi
Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperdocility
Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo)
Arachnodactyly, lens discoloration, aortic dissection, hyperflexible joints
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas
Painful, pale, cold fingers / toes
Urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis in a male
Indurated, non-painful ulcerated genital lesion
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
“Waxy” casts with very low urine flow
Fever, chills, headache, myalgia following antibiotic treatment for syphilis
Blue sclera
Gout, mental retardation, self-mutilating behavior in boy
Neonate with arm paralysis following difficult birth
Conjugate lateral gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia
Retinal hemorrhages with pale centers
Vasculitis from exposure to endotoxin causing glomerular thrombosis
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (sphingomyelinase)
Cold intolerance
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, c-ANCA positive
“Worst headache of my life”
Fever, night sweats, weight loss
Dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, polyneuropathy
Vomiting blood following esophagogastric lacerations
Child uses arms to stand up from squat
Pancreatic, pituitary, parathyroid tumors
“Strawberry tongue” (Vasculitis)
Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails
Painful blue fingers toes, hemolytic anemia
Severe RLQ pain with rebound tenderness
Skin hyperpigmentation
Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea
Enlarged, hard left supraclavicular node
Swollen, hard, painful finger joints
Deep labored breathing / hyperventilation
Athlete with polycythemia
Infant with failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, neurodegeneration
Rapidly progressive leg weakness that ascends (following GI/upper respiratory infection)
Large rash with bull’s-eye appearance
Muscoal bleeding and prolonged bleeding time
Painful erythematous lesions on palms and soles
Ptosis, miosis, anhydrosis
Severe jaundice in neonate
Restrictive cardiomyopathy (juvenile form: cardiomegaly), exercise intolerance
Lucid interval after traumatic brain injury
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas, bilateral acoustic neuromas
Jaundice, RUQ pain, fever
Nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech, bilateral intranuclear opthalmoplegia
Bone pain, bone enlargement, arthritis

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