USMLE First Aid Rapid Review - Classic Presentations

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Can you name the Classic Presentations of diseases?

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Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, adenopathy
“Waxy” casts with very low urine flow
Calf pseudohypertrophy
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (hexosaminidase
Erytheroderma, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, atypical T cells
Hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts
Palpable purpura, joint pain, abdominal pain (child)
Bluish line on gingiva
Dark purple skin / mouth nodules
Hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis, neurologic symptoms
Vascular birthmark (port-wine stain)
Fat, female, forty, and fertile
Painful blue fingers toes, hemolytic anemia
Pancreatic, pituitary, parathyroid tumors
Positive anterior “drawer sign”
Painful, raised red lesions on palms and soles
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas, bilateral acoustic neuromas
Green-yellow rings around peripheral cornea
Adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, DIC
Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea
Polyuria, acidosis, growth failure, electrolyte imbalances
Continuous “machinery” heart murmur
Male child, recurrent infections, no mature B cells
Deep labored breathing / hyperventilation
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (vascular)
Rash on palms and soles
Athlete with polycythemia
“Strawberry tongue” (Vasculitis)
Facial muscle spasm upon tapping
Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis
Infant with microcephaly, rocker-bottom feet, clenched hands, and structural heart defect
Infant with hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, and hepatomegaly
Gout, mental retardation, self-mutilating behavior in boy
Painful erythematous lesions on palms and soles
Muscoal bleeding and prolonged bleeding time
“Worst headache of my life”
Bounding pulses, diastolic heart murmur, head bobbing
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, anti-basement membrane antibodies
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas
Child uses arms to stand up from squat
Back pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Small, irregular red spots on buccal / inguinal mucosa with blue-white centers
Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperdocility
Toe extension / fanning upon plantar scrape
Dog or cat bite resulting in infection
Red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple areola
Chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps
Unilateral facial dropping invoving forhead
Smooth, flat, moist white lesions on genitals
Fever, chills, headache, myalgia following antibiotic treatment for syphilis
Swollen, hard, painful finger joints
Hypercoagulability leading to migrating DVTs and vascultitis
Rapidly progressive leg weakness that ascends (following GI/upper respiratory infection)
WBC casts in urine
Keratin pearls in a skin biopsy
Fibrous plaques in soft tissue of penis
Fever, night sweats, weight loss
Resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, postural instability
Situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis
Swollen gums, mucous leeding, poor wound healing, spots on skin
Blue sclera
Large rash with bull’s-eye appearance
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, c-ANCA positive
Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails
Ptosis, miosis, anhydrosis
Retinal hemorrhages with pale centers
Indurated, non-painful ulcerated genital lesion
Recurrent colds unusual eczema, high serum IgE
Renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastomas, angiomatosis, pheochromocytoma
Dysphagia (esophageal webs), glossitis, iron deficiency anemia
Short stature, ↑ incidence of tumors / leukemia, aplastic anemia
Cold intolerance
Restrictive cardiomyopathy (juvenile form: cardiomegaly), exercise intolerance
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (sphingomyelinase)
Conjugate lateral gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia
Sudden swollen / painful big toe joint, tophi
Vasculitis from exposure to endotoxin causing glomerular thrombosis
Infant with failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, neurodegeneration
Nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech, bilateral intranuclear opthalmoplegia
Multiple colon polyps, osteomas / soft tissue tumors, impacted / supernumerary teeth
Vomiting blood following esophagogastric lacerations
Café-au-lait spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis
Red urine in the morning, fragile RBCs
Lucid interval after traumatic brain injury
Indurated, painful ulcerated genital lesion with exudates
Severe RLQ pain with rebound tenderness
“Strawberry tongue” (Staph. aureus)
Painful, pale, cold fingers / toes
Hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis
“Strawberry tongue” (Strep. pyogenes)
Bone pain, bone enlargement, arthritis
Urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis in a male
No lactation postpartum, absent menstruation, cold intolerance
Chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration
Slow, progressive muscle weakness in boys
Painless jaundice
Dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, polyneuropathy
Child with fever develops red rash on face that spread to body
Streak ovaries, congenital heart disease, horseshoe kidney
Thyroid and parathyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma
Enlarged, hard left supraclavicular node
Abdominal pain, ascites, hepatomegaly
Severe jaundice in neonate
Cutaneous / dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition
Neonate with arm paralysis following difficult birth
Fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, diffuse rash
Chest pain, pericardial effusion / friction rub, persistent fever following MI
Jaundice, RUQ pain, fever
Pink complexion, dyspnea, hyperventilation
Hamartamous GI polyps, hyperpigmentation of mouth / feet / hands
Elastic skin, hypermobility of joints
Hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia
Red “currant jelly” sputum in alcoholic or diabetic patients
Oscillating slow/fast breathing
Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo)
Single palm crease
Pupil accommodates but doesn’t react
Achilles tendon xanthoma
Rash on palms and soles
Skin hyperpigmentation
Arachnodactyly, lens discoloration, aortic dissection, hyperflexible joints

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