USMLE First Aid Rapid Review - Classic Presentations

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Can you name the Classic Presentations of diseases?

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Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails
Painless jaundice
Palpable purpura, joint pain, abdominal pain (child)
Rash on palms and soles
“Strawberry tongue” (Staph. aureus)
Neonate with arm paralysis following difficult birth
Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea
Indurated, non-painful ulcerated genital lesion
Single palm crease
Fever, night sweats, weight loss
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas
Bounding pulses, diastolic heart murmur, head bobbing
“Waxy” casts with very low urine flow
Situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis
Toe extension / fanning upon plantar scrape
Polyuria, acidosis, growth failure, electrolyte imbalances
No lactation postpartum, absent menstruation, cold intolerance
Recurrent colds unusual eczema, high serum IgE
Jaundice, RUQ pain, fever
Achilles tendon xanthoma
Dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, polyneuropathy
Urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis in a male
Red urine in the morning, fragile RBCs
Lucid interval after traumatic brain injury
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas, bilateral acoustic neuromas
Painful blue fingers toes, hemolytic anemia
Small, irregular red spots on buccal / inguinal mucosa with blue-white centers
Pink complexion, dyspnea, hyperventilation
Hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia
Calf pseudohypertrophy
Rapidly progressive leg weakness that ascends (following GI/upper respiratory infection)
“Worst headache of my life”
Conjugate lateral gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia
Red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple areola
Vascular birthmark (port-wine stain)
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (hexosaminidase
Large rash with bull’s-eye appearance
Ptosis, miosis, anhydrosis
Cold intolerance
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, c-ANCA positive
Blue sclera
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps
Retinal hemorrhages with pale centers
Adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, DIC
Fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, diffuse rash
Deep labored breathing / hyperventilation
Keratin pearls in a skin biopsy
Infant with hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, and hepatomegaly
Thyroid and parathyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma
Arachnodactyly, lens discoloration, aortic dissection, hyperflexible joints
Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperdocility
Severe jaundice in neonate
Streak ovaries, congenital heart disease, horseshoe kidney
Chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration
Renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastomas, angiomatosis, pheochromocytoma
Indurated, painful ulcerated genital lesion with exudates
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, anti-basement membrane antibodies
Male child, recurrent infections, no mature B cells
Continuous “machinery” heart murmur
Abdominal pain, ascites, hepatomegaly
Gout, mental retardation, self-mutilating behavior in boy
Bluish line on gingiva
Swollen, hard, painful finger joints
Child with fever develops red rash on face that spread to body
Muscoal bleeding and prolonged bleeding time
Dog or cat bite resulting in infection
Infant with failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, neurodegeneration
Pupil accommodates but doesn’t react
Chest pain, pericardial effusion / friction rub, persistent fever following MI
WBC casts in urine
Nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech, bilateral intranuclear opthalmoplegia
Bone pain, bone enlargement, arthritis
Positive anterior “drawer sign”
Infant with microcephaly, rocker-bottom feet, clenched hands, and structural heart defect
Fever, chills, headache, myalgia following antibiotic treatment for syphilis
Elastic skin, hypermobility of joints
Painful, raised red lesions on palms and soles
Enlarged, hard left supraclavicular node
Sudden swollen / painful big toe joint, tophi
Severe RLQ pain with rebound tenderness
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (vascular)
Hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis, neurologic symptoms
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis
Pancreatic, pituitary, parathyroid tumors
Resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, postural instability
Vomiting blood following esophagogastric lacerations
Hamartamous GI polyps, hyperpigmentation of mouth / feet / hands
Hypercoagulability leading to migrating DVTs and vascultitis
Fat, female, forty, and fertile
Short stature, ↑ incidence of tumors / leukemia, aplastic anemia
Skin hyperpigmentation
Erytheroderma, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, atypical T cells
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (sphingomyelinase)
Oscillating slow/fast breathing
Hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts
Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo)
Smooth, flat, moist white lesions on genitals
Painful erythematous lesions on palms and soles
Painful, pale, cold fingers / toes
Weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, adenopathy
Fibrous plaques in soft tissue of penis
Vasculitis from exposure to endotoxin causing glomerular thrombosis
Multiple colon polyps, osteomas / soft tissue tumors, impacted / supernumerary teeth
Child uses arms to stand up from squat
Red “currant jelly” sputum in alcoholic or diabetic patients
Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis
“Strawberry tongue” (Vasculitis)
Facial muscle spasm upon tapping
Cutaneous / dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition
Slow, progressive muscle weakness in boys
Swollen gums, mucous leeding, poor wound healing, spots on skin
Unilateral facial dropping invoving forhead
Rash on palms and soles
Dysphagia (esophageal webs), glossitis, iron deficiency anemia
Green-yellow rings around peripheral cornea
Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis
“Strawberry tongue” (Strep. pyogenes)
Dark purple skin / mouth nodules
Restrictive cardiomyopathy (juvenile form: cardiomegaly), exercise intolerance
Athlete with polycythemia
Café-au-lait spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty
Back pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss

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