USMLE First Aid Rapid Review - Classic Presentations

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Can you name the Classic Presentations of diseases?

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Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Swollen, hard, painful finger joints
Severe RLQ pain with rebound tenderness
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas
Situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis
“Strawberry tongue” (Vasculitis)
Café-au-lait spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty
Streak ovaries, congenital heart disease, horseshoe kidney
Polyuria, acidosis, growth failure, electrolyte imbalances
WBC casts in urine
Fever, night sweats, weight loss
Painful blue fingers toes, hemolytic anemia
Thyroid and parathyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma
Hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia
Chest pain, pericardial effusion / friction rub, persistent fever following MI
Fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, diffuse rash
Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea
Indurated, painful ulcerated genital lesion with exudates
Multiple colon polyps, osteomas / soft tissue tumors, impacted / supernumerary teeth
Red “currant jelly” sputum in alcoholic or diabetic patients
Arachnodactyly, lens discoloration, aortic dissection, hyperflexible joints
Rash on palms and soles
Smooth, flat, moist white lesions on genitals
Athlete with polycythemia
Muscoal bleeding and prolonged bleeding time
Severe jaundice in neonate
Large rash with bull’s-eye appearance
Recurrent colds unusual eczema, high serum IgE
Swollen gums, mucous leeding, poor wound healing, spots on skin
Dog or cat bite resulting in infection
“Strawberry tongue” (Strep. pyogenes)
Cold intolerance
Pancreatic, pituitary, parathyroid tumors
Infant with failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, neurodegeneration
Dysphagia (esophageal webs), glossitis, iron deficiency anemia
Child with fever develops red rash on face that spread to body
Oscillating slow/fast breathing
Gout, mental retardation, self-mutilating behavior in boy
Dark purple skin / mouth nodules
Continuous “machinery” heart murmur
Erytheroderma, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, atypical T cells
Fever, chills, headache, myalgia following antibiotic treatment for syphilis
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas, bilateral acoustic neuromas
Elastic skin, hypermobility of joints
Toe extension / fanning upon plantar scrape
Red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple areola
Adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, DIC
Unilateral facial dropping invoving forhead
Small, irregular red spots on buccal / inguinal mucosa with blue-white centers
Restrictive cardiomyopathy (juvenile form: cardiomegaly), exercise intolerance
Red urine in the morning, fragile RBCs
Vascular birthmark (port-wine stain)
Painful, raised red lesions on palms and soles
Hypercoagulability leading to migrating DVTs and vascultitis
Abdominal pain, ascites, hepatomegaly
Palpable purpura, joint pain, abdominal pain (child)
Infant with microcephaly, rocker-bottom feet, clenched hands, and structural heart defect
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (sphingomyelinase)
Child uses arms to stand up from squat
Skin hyperpigmentation
Back pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss
Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperdocility
Hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (hexosaminidase
Weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, adenopathy
Renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastomas, angiomatosis, pheochromocytoma
“Worst headache of my life”
Ptosis, miosis, anhydrosis
Keratin pearls in a skin biopsy
Rash on palms and soles
Conjugate lateral gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia
Bluish line on gingiva
Chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration
No lactation postpartum, absent menstruation, cold intolerance
Infant with hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, and hepatomegaly
Pupil accommodates but doesn’t react
Fat, female, forty, and fertile
Resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, postural instability
Rapidly progressive leg weakness that ascends (following GI/upper respiratory infection)
Painful, pale, cold fingers / toes
Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis
Achilles tendon xanthoma
Positive anterior “drawer sign”
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Retinal hemorrhages with pale centers
Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo)
Sudden swollen / painful big toe joint, tophi
Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis
Urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis in a male
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (vascular)
Vasculitis from exposure to endotoxin causing glomerular thrombosis
Calf pseudohypertrophy
Pink complexion, dyspnea, hyperventilation
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, anti-basement membrane antibodies
Hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis
Short stature, ↑ incidence of tumors / leukemia, aplastic anemia
Blue sclera
Enlarged, hard left supraclavicular node
Bone pain, bone enlargement, arthritis
Neonate with arm paralysis following difficult birth
Painful erythematous lesions on palms and soles
“Strawberry tongue” (Staph. aureus)
“Waxy” casts with very low urine flow
Facial muscle spasm upon tapping
Vomiting blood following esophagogastric lacerations
Green-yellow rings around peripheral cornea
Bounding pulses, diastolic heart murmur, head bobbing
Hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis, neurologic symptoms
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, c-ANCA positive
Male child, recurrent infections, no mature B cells
Nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech, bilateral intranuclear opthalmoplegia
Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails
Indurated, non-painful ulcerated genital lesion
Hamartamous GI polyps, hyperpigmentation of mouth / feet / hands
Deep labored breathing / hyperventilation
Cutaneous / dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition
Dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, polyneuropathy
Lucid interval after traumatic brain injury
Slow, progressive muscle weakness in boys
Chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps
Fibrous plaques in soft tissue of penis
Single palm crease
Painless jaundice
Jaundice, RUQ pain, fever

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