USMLE First Aid Rapid Review - Classic Presentations

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Can you name the Classic Presentations of diseases?

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Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Red urine in the morning, fragile RBCs
Painful, pale, cold fingers / toes
Smooth, flat, moist white lesions on genitals
Painless jaundice
Neonate with arm paralysis following difficult birth
Vascular birthmark (port-wine stain)
Male child, recurrent infections, no mature B cells
Enlarged, hard left supraclavicular node
Adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, DIC
WBC casts in urine
Recurrent colds unusual eczema, high serum IgE
Rash on palms and soles
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, c-ANCA positive
Deep labored breathing / hyperventilation
Lucid interval after traumatic brain injury
Blue sclera
Indurated, painful ulcerated genital lesion with exudates
Bluish line on gingiva
Muscoal bleeding and prolonged bleeding time
Dog or cat bite resulting in infection
Abdominal pain, ascites, hepatomegaly
Fever, chills, headache, myalgia following antibiotic treatment for syphilis
Infant with failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, neurodegeneration
Nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech, bilateral intranuclear opthalmoplegia
Short stature, ↑ incidence of tumors / leukemia, aplastic anemia
Palpable purpura, joint pain, abdominal pain (child)
Single palm crease
Large rash with bull’s-eye appearance
Facial muscle spasm upon tapping
Urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis in a male
Jaundice, RUQ pain, fever
Fat, female, forty, and fertile
Back pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss
Swollen gums, mucous leeding, poor wound healing, spots on skin
Thyroid and parathyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma
Renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastomas, angiomatosis, pheochromocytoma
Retinal hemorrhages with pale centers
Severe RLQ pain with rebound tenderness
Painful, raised red lesions on palms and soles
Chest pain, pericardial effusion / friction rub, persistent fever following MI
Indurated, non-painful ulcerated genital lesion
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
“Waxy” casts with very low urine flow
Weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, adenopathy
Pink complexion, dyspnea, hyperventilation
Café-au-lait spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty
Red “currant jelly” sputum in alcoholic or diabetic patients
Small, irregular red spots on buccal / inguinal mucosa with blue-white centers
Hamartamous GI polyps, hyperpigmentation of mouth / feet / hands
Rash on palms and soles
Pancreatic, pituitary, parathyroid tumors
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (vascular)
Skin hyperpigmentation
Conjugate lateral gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia
Hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis, neurologic symptoms
Swollen, hard, painful finger joints
Restrictive cardiomyopathy (juvenile form: cardiomegaly), exercise intolerance
Elastic skin, hypermobility of joints
Hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis
Severe jaundice in neonate
Calf pseudohypertrophy
Erytheroderma, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, atypical T cells
“Strawberry tongue” (Vasculitis)
Polyuria, acidosis, growth failure, electrolyte imbalances
Arachnodactyly, lens discoloration, aortic dissection, hyperflexible joints
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas, bilateral acoustic neuromas
Bone pain, bone enlargement, arthritis
Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea
Resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, postural instability
Slow, progressive muscle weakness in boys
Achilles tendon xanthoma
Unilateral facial dropping invoving forhead
Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis
Continuous “machinery” heart murmur
Gout, mental retardation, self-mutilating behavior in boy
Situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis
Toe extension / fanning upon plantar scrape
Dysphagia (esophageal webs), glossitis, iron deficiency anemia
Chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps
Hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts
Child uses arms to stand up from squat
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (sphingomyelinase)
Fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, diffuse rash
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Streak ovaries, congenital heart disease, horseshoe kidney
Hypercoagulability leading to migrating DVTs and vascultitis
“Worst headache of my life”
Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo)
Pupil accommodates but doesn’t react
Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis
Cold intolerance
Multiple colon polyps, osteomas / soft tissue tumors, impacted / supernumerary teeth
Green-yellow rings around peripheral cornea
Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperdocility
Athlete with polycythemia
Infant with microcephaly, rocker-bottom feet, clenched hands, and structural heart defect
Keratin pearls in a skin biopsy
Hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia
Rapidly progressive leg weakness that ascends (following GI/upper respiratory infection)
Fever, night sweats, weight loss
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, anti-basement membrane antibodies
Child with fever develops red rash on face that spread to body
No lactation postpartum, absent menstruation, cold intolerance
Fibrous plaques in soft tissue of penis
Infant with hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, and hepatomegaly
“Strawberry tongue” (Strep. pyogenes)
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (hexosaminidase
Vomiting blood following esophagogastric lacerations
Ptosis, miosis, anhydrosis
Chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration
Vasculitis from exposure to endotoxin causing glomerular thrombosis
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas
Dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, polyneuropathy
Oscillating slow/fast breathing
Cutaneous / dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition
Painful blue fingers toes, hemolytic anemia
Painful erythematous lesions on palms and soles
Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails
Bounding pulses, diastolic heart murmur, head bobbing
Dark purple skin / mouth nodules
“Strawberry tongue” (Staph. aureus)
Red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple areola
Positive anterior “drawer sign”
Sudden swollen / painful big toe joint, tophi

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