USMLE First Aid Rapid Review - Classic Presentations

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Can you name the Classic Presentations of diseases?

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Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Hamartamous GI polyps, hyperpigmentation of mouth / feet / hands
Adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, DIC
Infant with microcephaly, rocker-bottom feet, clenched hands, and structural heart defect
Painful, pale, cold fingers / toes
Painful erythematous lesions on palms and soles
Palpable purpura, joint pain, abdominal pain (child)
Renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastomas, angiomatosis, pheochromocytoma
Fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, diffuse rash
Single palm crease
Indurated, non-painful ulcerated genital lesion
Ptosis, miosis, anhydrosis
Conjugate lateral gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia
Child with fever develops red rash on face that spread to body
Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis
Enlarged, hard left supraclavicular node
Polyuria, acidosis, growth failure, electrolyte imbalances
Hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis, neurologic symptoms
Red urine in the morning, fragile RBCs
Slow, progressive muscle weakness in boys
Hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis
Unilateral facial dropping invoving forhead
“Waxy” casts with very low urine flow
Blue sclera
Fibrous plaques in soft tissue of penis
Urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis in a male
Toe extension / fanning upon plantar scrape
Café-au-lait spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas, bilateral acoustic neuromas
Cold intolerance
Gout, mental retardation, self-mutilating behavior in boy
Infant with failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, neurodegeneration
Pupil accommodates but doesn’t react
Bluish line on gingiva
Streak ovaries, congenital heart disease, horseshoe kidney
Bone pain, bone enlargement, arthritis
Severe RLQ pain with rebound tenderness
Hypercoagulability leading to migrating DVTs and vascultitis
Hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts
Smooth, flat, moist white lesions on genitals
Short stature, ↑ incidence of tumors / leukemia, aplastic anemia
Restrictive cardiomyopathy (juvenile form: cardiomegaly), exercise intolerance
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Abdominal pain, ascites, hepatomegaly
Hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia
Male child, recurrent infections, no mature B cells
Painless jaundice
Chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration
Keratin pearls in a skin biopsy
Pink complexion, dyspnea, hyperventilation
Bounding pulses, diastolic heart murmur, head bobbing
Swollen gums, mucous leeding, poor wound healing, spots on skin
“Strawberry tongue” (Staph. aureus)
Fat, female, forty, and fertile
Continuous “machinery” heart murmur
Nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech, bilateral intranuclear opthalmoplegia
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, c-ANCA positive
Rash on palms and soles
Red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple areola
“Worst headache of my life”
Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperdocility
Rapidly progressive leg weakness that ascends (following GI/upper respiratory infection)
Vomiting blood following esophagogastric lacerations
Deep labored breathing / hyperventilation
Chest pain, pericardial effusion / friction rub, persistent fever following MI
Small, irregular red spots on buccal / inguinal mucosa with blue-white centers
Jaundice, RUQ pain, fever
Thyroid and parathyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma
Green-yellow rings around peripheral cornea
No lactation postpartum, absent menstruation, cold intolerance
Neonate with arm paralysis following difficult birth
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, anti-basement membrane antibodies
Dark purple skin / mouth nodules
Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea
Resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, postural instability
Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis
Chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps
Erytheroderma, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, atypical T cells
“Strawberry tongue” (Vasculitis)
Recurrent colds unusual eczema, high serum IgE
Dysphagia (esophageal webs), glossitis, iron deficiency anemia
Facial muscle spasm upon tapping
Oscillating slow/fast breathing
Muscoal bleeding and prolonged bleeding time
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Calf pseudohypertrophy
WBC casts in urine
Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails
Achilles tendon xanthoma
Vascular birthmark (port-wine stain)
Fever, chills, headache, myalgia following antibiotic treatment for syphilis
Pancreatic, pituitary, parathyroid tumors
Elastic skin, hypermobility of joints
Red “currant jelly” sputum in alcoholic or diabetic patients
Arachnodactyly, lens discoloration, aortic dissection, hyperflexible joints
Indurated, painful ulcerated genital lesion with exudates
“Strawberry tongue” (Strep. pyogenes)
Retinal hemorrhages with pale centers
Sudden swollen / painful big toe joint, tophi
Cutaneous / dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition
Swollen, hard, painful finger joints
Lucid interval after traumatic brain injury
Infant with hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, and hepatomegaly
Fever, night sweats, weight loss
Weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, adenopathy
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas
Athlete with polycythemia
Vasculitis from exposure to endotoxin causing glomerular thrombosis
Dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, polyneuropathy
Back pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss
Rash on palms and soles
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (sphingomyelinase)
Painful, raised red lesions on palms and soles
Dog or cat bite resulting in infection
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (hexosaminidase
Painful blue fingers toes, hemolytic anemia
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (vascular)
Severe jaundice in neonate
Positive anterior “drawer sign”
Child uses arms to stand up from squat
Multiple colon polyps, osteomas / soft tissue tumors, impacted / supernumerary teeth
Large rash with bull’s-eye appearance
Skin hyperpigmentation
Situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis
Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo)

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