USMLE First Aid Rapid Review - Classic Presentations

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Can you name the Classic Presentations of diseases?

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Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, polyneuropathy
Smooth, flat, moist white lesions on genitals
Positive anterior “drawer sign”
Indurated, painful ulcerated genital lesion with exudates
Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea
Red urine in the morning, fragile RBCs
Jaundice, RUQ pain, fever
Child with fever develops red rash on face that spread to body
Restrictive cardiomyopathy (juvenile form: cardiomegaly), exercise intolerance
Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails
No lactation postpartum, absent menstruation, cold intolerance
Hypercoagulability leading to migrating DVTs and vascultitis
Polyuria, acidosis, growth failure, electrolyte imbalances
Recurrent colds unusual eczema, high serum IgE
Child uses arms to stand up from squat
Pink complexion, dyspnea, hyperventilation
Abdominal pain, ascites, hepatomegaly
Cutaneous / dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition
Adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, DIC
Multiple colon polyps, osteomas / soft tissue tumors, impacted / supernumerary teeth
Dog or cat bite resulting in infection
Fever, chills, headache, myalgia following antibiotic treatment for syphilis
Nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech, bilateral intranuclear opthalmoplegia
Painful blue fingers toes, hemolytic anemia
Painless jaundice
Bone pain, bone enlargement, arthritis
Back pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss
Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis
Elastic skin, hypermobility of joints
Indurated, non-painful ulcerated genital lesion
Red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple areola
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, anti-basement membrane antibodies
Hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis, neurologic symptoms
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas, bilateral acoustic neuromas
Lucid interval after traumatic brain injury
“Strawberry tongue” (Strep. pyogenes)
Severe jaundice in neonate
Hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts
Vomiting blood following esophagogastric lacerations
Chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps
Hamartamous GI polyps, hyperpigmentation of mouth / feet / hands
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Oscillating slow/fast breathing
Ptosis, miosis, anhydrosis
Enlarged, hard left supraclavicular node
Hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia
Urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis in a male
Café-au-lait spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty
Small, irregular red spots on buccal / inguinal mucosa with blue-white centers
Retinal hemorrhages with pale centers
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (vascular)
Resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, postural instability
“Strawberry tongue” (Staph. aureus)
Palpable purpura, joint pain, abdominal pain (child)
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, c-ANCA positive
Chest pain, pericardial effusion / friction rub, persistent fever following MI
Toe extension / fanning upon plantar scrape
Swollen gums, mucous leeding, poor wound healing, spots on skin
Short stature, ↑ incidence of tumors / leukemia, aplastic anemia
“Strawberry tongue” (Vasculitis)
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (hexosaminidase
Swollen, hard, painful finger joints
Rash on palms and soles
Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperdocility
Pancreatic, pituitary, parathyroid tumors
Vasculitis from exposure to endotoxin causing glomerular thrombosis
Sudden swollen / painful big toe joint, tophi
Hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis
Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis
Situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis
Blue sclera
Dysphagia (esophageal webs), glossitis, iron deficiency anemia
Vascular birthmark (port-wine stain)
Fever, night sweats, weight loss
Fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, diffuse rash
Fat, female, forty, and fertile
Rapidly progressive leg weakness that ascends (following GI/upper respiratory infection)
Cold intolerance
WBC casts in urine
“Waxy” casts with very low urine flow
Infant with hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, and hepatomegaly
Arachnodactyly, lens discoloration, aortic dissection, hyperflexible joints
Facial muscle spasm upon tapping
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (sphingomyelinase)
Athlete with polycythemia
Dark purple skin / mouth nodules
Unilateral facial dropping invoving forhead
Painful, raised red lesions on palms and soles
Weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, adenopathy
Green-yellow rings around peripheral cornea
Renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastomas, angiomatosis, pheochromocytoma
Gout, mental retardation, self-mutilating behavior in boy
Painful, pale, cold fingers / toes
Bounding pulses, diastolic heart murmur, head bobbing
Achilles tendon xanthoma
Large rash with bull’s-eye appearance
Pupil accommodates but doesn’t react
Rash on palms and soles
Muscoal bleeding and prolonged bleeding time
Skin hyperpigmentation
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas
Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo)
Severe RLQ pain with rebound tenderness
Deep labored breathing / hyperventilation
Erytheroderma, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, atypical T cells
Continuous “machinery” heart murmur
Male child, recurrent infections, no mature B cells
Painful erythematous lesions on palms and soles
Neonate with arm paralysis following difficult birth
Single palm crease
Bluish line on gingiva
Infant with failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, neurodegeneration
Thyroid and parathyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma
Calf pseudohypertrophy
Keratin pearls in a skin biopsy
Conjugate lateral gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia
“Worst headache of my life”
Chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration
Slow, progressive muscle weakness in boys
Fibrous plaques in soft tissue of penis
Red “currant jelly” sputum in alcoholic or diabetic patients
Streak ovaries, congenital heart disease, horseshoe kidney
Infant with microcephaly, rocker-bottom feet, clenched hands, and structural heart defect

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