USMLE First Aid Rapid Review - Classic Presentations

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Can you name the Classic Presentations of diseases?

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Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas, bilateral acoustic neuromas
Dog or cat bite resulting in infection
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas
Abdominal pain, ascites, hepatomegaly
Infant with hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, and hepatomegaly
Chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps
Restrictive cardiomyopathy (juvenile form: cardiomegaly), exercise intolerance
Rash on palms and soles
Hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts
Nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech, bilateral intranuclear opthalmoplegia
Dysphagia (esophageal webs), glossitis, iron deficiency anemia
Enlarged, hard left supraclavicular node
Streak ovaries, congenital heart disease, horseshoe kidney
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (vascular)
Jaundice, RUQ pain, fever
Cutaneous / dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition
Cold intolerance
Resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, postural instability
Red “currant jelly” sputum in alcoholic or diabetic patients
Back pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss
Indurated, non-painful ulcerated genital lesion
Elastic skin, hypermobility of joints
Red urine in the morning, fragile RBCs
Palpable purpura, joint pain, abdominal pain (child)
Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis
Retinal hemorrhages with pale centers
Fat, female, forty, and fertile
Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea
Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo)
Arachnodactyly, lens discoloration, aortic dissection, hyperflexible joints
Swollen, hard, painful finger joints
Adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, DIC
Rapidly progressive leg weakness that ascends (following GI/upper respiratory infection)
Fever, chills, headache, myalgia following antibiotic treatment for syphilis
Pupil accommodates but doesn’t react
Vascular birthmark (port-wine stain)
Dark purple skin / mouth nodules
Single palm crease
Renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastomas, angiomatosis, pheochromocytoma
Lucid interval after traumatic brain injury
Child with fever develops red rash on face that spread to body
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, c-ANCA positive
Painful, raised red lesions on palms and soles
Athlete with polycythemia
Painful, pale, cold fingers / toes
Deep labored breathing / hyperventilation
Muscoal bleeding and prolonged bleeding time
Achilles tendon xanthoma
Ptosis, miosis, anhydrosis
“Strawberry tongue” (Vasculitis)
Painless jaundice
Multiple colon polyps, osteomas / soft tissue tumors, impacted / supernumerary teeth
No lactation postpartum, absent menstruation, cold intolerance
Gout, mental retardation, self-mutilating behavior in boy
Polyuria, acidosis, growth failure, electrolyte imbalances
Blue sclera
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (hexosaminidase
Hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis, neurologic symptoms
“Strawberry tongue” (Staph. aureus)
Hypercoagulability leading to migrating DVTs and vascultitis
Chest pain, pericardial effusion / friction rub, persistent fever following MI
Painful blue fingers toes, hemolytic anemia
Neonate with arm paralysis following difficult birth
Facial muscle spasm upon tapping
Unilateral facial dropping invoving forhead
Vomiting blood following esophagogastric lacerations
Red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple areola
WBC casts in urine
Positive anterior “drawer sign”
Swollen gums, mucous leeding, poor wound healing, spots on skin
Bone pain, bone enlargement, arthritis
Dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, polyneuropathy
Skin hyperpigmentation
Indurated, painful ulcerated genital lesion with exudates
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (sphingomyelinase)
Short stature, ↑ incidence of tumors / leukemia, aplastic anemia
Urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis in a male
Pink complexion, dyspnea, hyperventilation
“Strawberry tongue” (Strep. pyogenes)
Bounding pulses, diastolic heart murmur, head bobbing
Smooth, flat, moist white lesions on genitals
Situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
“Waxy” casts with very low urine flow
Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails
Hamartamous GI polyps, hyperpigmentation of mouth / feet / hands
Fibrous plaques in soft tissue of penis
Male child, recurrent infections, no mature B cells
Fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, diffuse rash
Green-yellow rings around peripheral cornea
Conjugate lateral gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia
Café-au-lait spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, anti-basement membrane antibodies
Toe extension / fanning upon plantar scrape
Rash on palms and soles
Severe jaundice in neonate
Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperdocility
Keratin pearls in a skin biopsy
Recurrent colds unusual eczema, high serum IgE
Calf pseudohypertrophy
Painful erythematous lesions on palms and soles
Infant with failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, neurodegeneration
Fever, night sweats, weight loss
Child uses arms to stand up from squat
Infant with microcephaly, rocker-bottom feet, clenched hands, and structural heart defect
Slow, progressive muscle weakness in boys
Continuous “machinery” heart murmur
Small, irregular red spots on buccal / inguinal mucosa with blue-white centers
Oscillating slow/fast breathing
Hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia
Chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration
Pancreatic, pituitary, parathyroid tumors
“Worst headache of my life”
Weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, adenopathy
Sudden swollen / painful big toe joint, tophi
Large rash with bull’s-eye appearance
Bluish line on gingiva
Vasculitis from exposure to endotoxin causing glomerular thrombosis
Hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis
Erytheroderma, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, atypical T cells
Severe RLQ pain with rebound tenderness
Thyroid and parathyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma
Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis

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