USMLE First Aid Rapid Review - Classic Presentations

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Can you name the Classic Presentations of diseases?

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Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Painful blue fingers toes, hemolytic anemia
Deep labored breathing / hyperventilation
Polyuria, acidosis, growth failure, electrolyte imbalances
Painless jaundice
Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis
Conjugate lateral gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia
“Strawberry tongue” (Vasculitis)
Pupil accommodates but doesn’t react
Dark purple skin / mouth nodules
Large rash with bull’s-eye appearance
Swollen, hard, painful finger joints
Resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, postural instability
Red urine in the morning, fragile RBCs
Hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts
Painful, pale, cold fingers / toes
Enlarged, hard left supraclavicular node
Green-yellow rings around peripheral cornea
Ptosis, miosis, anhydrosis
Infant with microcephaly, rocker-bottom feet, clenched hands, and structural heart defect
Palpable purpura, joint pain, abdominal pain (child)
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas
Bounding pulses, diastolic heart murmur, head bobbing
“Worst headache of my life”
Cutaneous / dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition
Unilateral facial dropping invoving forhead
Gout, mental retardation, self-mutilating behavior in boy
Oscillating slow/fast breathing
Fat, female, forty, and fertile
Bone pain, bone enlargement, arthritis
Fever, night sweats, weight loss
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, anti-basement membrane antibodies
Red “currant jelly” sputum in alcoholic or diabetic patients
Rash on palms and soles
Small, irregular red spots on buccal / inguinal mucosa with blue-white centers
Muscoal bleeding and prolonged bleeding time
Painful, raised red lesions on palms and soles
Chest pain, pericardial effusion / friction rub, persistent fever following MI
Red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple areola
No lactation postpartum, absent menstruation, cold intolerance
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas, bilateral acoustic neuromas
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (sphingomyelinase)
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, DIC
Continuous “machinery” heart murmur
Restrictive cardiomyopathy (juvenile form: cardiomegaly), exercise intolerance
Toe extension / fanning upon plantar scrape
Severe RLQ pain with rebound tenderness
Retinal hemorrhages with pale centers
Bluish line on gingiva
Streak ovaries, congenital heart disease, horseshoe kidney
Painful erythematous lesions on palms and soles
Fever, chills, headache, myalgia following antibiotic treatment for syphilis
Sudden swollen / painful big toe joint, tophi
Child with fever develops red rash on face that spread to body
Lucid interval after traumatic brain injury
Athlete with polycythemia
Elastic skin, hypermobility of joints
Chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration
Severe jaundice in neonate
Fibrous plaques in soft tissue of penis
Erytheroderma, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, atypical T cells
WBC casts in urine
Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (hexosaminidase
Recurrent colds unusual eczema, high serum IgE
Weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, adenopathy
Cold intolerance
Arachnodactyly, lens discoloration, aortic dissection, hyperflexible joints
Café-au-lait spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty
Short stature, ↑ incidence of tumors / leukemia, aplastic anemia
Child uses arms to stand up from squat
Hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia
Abdominal pain, ascites, hepatomegaly
Calf pseudohypertrophy
Infant with failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, neurodegeneration
Achilles tendon xanthoma
“Strawberry tongue” (Strep. pyogenes)
Renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastomas, angiomatosis, pheochromocytoma
Chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps
Dog or cat bite resulting in infection
Urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis in a male
Vomiting blood following esophagogastric lacerations
Infant with hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, and hepatomegaly
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Jaundice, RUQ pain, fever
Single palm crease
Male child, recurrent infections, no mature B cells
Facial muscle spasm upon tapping
Pink complexion, dyspnea, hyperventilation
Neonate with arm paralysis following difficult birth
Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperdocility
Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo)
Dysphagia (esophageal webs), glossitis, iron deficiency anemia
Skin hyperpigmentation
Situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis
Rash on palms and soles
Hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis
Hypercoagulability leading to migrating DVTs and vascultitis
Multiple colon polyps, osteomas / soft tissue tumors, impacted / supernumerary teeth
Vascular birthmark (port-wine stain)
“Waxy” casts with very low urine flow
Nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech, bilateral intranuclear opthalmoplegia
Blue sclera
Smooth, flat, moist white lesions on genitals
Vasculitis from exposure to endotoxin causing glomerular thrombosis
Indurated, non-painful ulcerated genital lesion
Indurated, painful ulcerated genital lesion with exudates
Pancreatic, pituitary, parathyroid tumors
Dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, polyneuropathy
Fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, diffuse rash
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, c-ANCA positive
Positive anterior “drawer sign”
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (vascular)
“Strawberry tongue” (Staph. aureus)
Swollen gums, mucous leeding, poor wound healing, spots on skin
Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea
Slow, progressive muscle weakness in boys
Thyroid and parathyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma
Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails
Rapidly progressive leg weakness that ascends (following GI/upper respiratory infection)
Hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis, neurologic symptoms
Back pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss
Hamartamous GI polyps, hyperpigmentation of mouth / feet / hands
Keratin pearls in a skin biopsy

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