USMLE First Aid Rapid Review - Classic Presentations

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Can you name the Classic Presentations of diseases?

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Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Multiple colon polyps, osteomas / soft tissue tumors, impacted / supernumerary teeth
Small, irregular red spots on buccal / inguinal mucosa with blue-white centers
Café-au-lait spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty
Vomiting blood following esophagogastric lacerations
Enlarged, hard left supraclavicular node
Unilateral facial dropping invoving forhead
Abdominal pain, ascites, hepatomegaly
Indurated, non-painful ulcerated genital lesion
Conjugate lateral gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia
Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperdocility
Infant with microcephaly, rocker-bottom feet, clenched hands, and structural heart defect
Bone pain, bone enlargement, arthritis
Deep labored breathing / hyperventilation
Short stature, ↑ incidence of tumors / leukemia, aplastic anemia
Achilles tendon xanthoma
Dark purple skin / mouth nodules
Severe RLQ pain with rebound tenderness
Elastic skin, hypermobility of joints
Dysphagia (esophageal webs), glossitis, iron deficiency anemia
Polyuria, acidosis, growth failure, electrolyte imbalances
Resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, postural instability
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas, bilateral acoustic neuromas
Male child, recurrent infections, no mature B cells
Indurated, painful ulcerated genital lesion with exudates
Keratin pearls in a skin biopsy
Fever, night sweats, weight loss
Vasculitis from exposure to endotoxin causing glomerular thrombosis
Vascular birthmark (port-wine stain)
“Strawberry tongue” (Vasculitis)
Pupil accommodates but doesn’t react
Painful erythematous lesions on palms and soles
Fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, diffuse rash
Muscoal bleeding and prolonged bleeding time
Fat, female, forty, and fertile
Chest pain, pericardial effusion / friction rub, persistent fever following MI
Bounding pulses, diastolic heart murmur, head bobbing
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (sphingomyelinase)
Child with fever develops red rash on face that spread to body
Single palm crease
Severe jaundice in neonate
Bluish line on gingiva
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Smooth, flat, moist white lesions on genitals
Ptosis, miosis, anhydrosis
Red urine in the morning, fragile RBCs
Arachnodactyly, lens discoloration, aortic dissection, hyperflexible joints
Painless jaundice
“Strawberry tongue” (Strep. pyogenes)
Situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis
Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea
Fibrous plaques in soft tissue of penis
Hypercoagulability leading to migrating DVTs and vascultitis
Hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis, neurologic symptoms
WBC casts in urine
Chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps
Oscillating slow/fast breathing
Hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts
Recurrent colds unusual eczema, high serum IgE
Retinal hemorrhages with pale centers
Pancreatic, pituitary, parathyroid tumors
Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo)
Palpable purpura, joint pain, abdominal pain (child)
Painful blue fingers toes, hemolytic anemia
Toe extension / fanning upon plantar scrape
Facial muscle spasm upon tapping
Rash on palms and soles
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, anti-basement membrane antibodies
Blue sclera
Lucid interval after traumatic brain injury
Urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis in a male
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, c-ANCA positive
Large rash with bull’s-eye appearance
Cold intolerance
Calf pseudohypertrophy
Skin hyperpigmentation
No lactation postpartum, absent menstruation, cold intolerance
Hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis
Adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, DIC
Swollen gums, mucous leeding, poor wound healing, spots on skin
Sudden swollen / painful big toe joint, tophi
Infant with hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, and hepatomegaly
Dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, polyneuropathy
Weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, adenopathy
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
“Strawberry tongue” (Staph. aureus)
Hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas
“Worst headache of my life”
Painful, pale, cold fingers / toes
Dog or cat bite resulting in infection
Fever, chills, headache, myalgia following antibiotic treatment for syphilis
Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (vascular)
Streak ovaries, congenital heart disease, horseshoe kidney
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (hexosaminidase
Nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech, bilateral intranuclear opthalmoplegia
Green-yellow rings around peripheral cornea
Red “currant jelly” sputum in alcoholic or diabetic patients
Neonate with arm paralysis following difficult birth
“Waxy” casts with very low urine flow
Back pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss
Slow, progressive muscle weakness in boys
Painful, raised red lesions on palms and soles
Pink complexion, dyspnea, hyperventilation
Gout, mental retardation, self-mutilating behavior in boy
Infant with failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, neurodegeneration
Athlete with polycythemia
Positive anterior “drawer sign”
Chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration
Erytheroderma, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, atypical T cells
Thyroid and parathyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma
Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails
Rapidly progressive leg weakness that ascends (following GI/upper respiratory infection)
Rash on palms and soles
Hamartamous GI polyps, hyperpigmentation of mouth / feet / hands
Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis
Restrictive cardiomyopathy (juvenile form: cardiomegaly), exercise intolerance
Renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastomas, angiomatosis, pheochromocytoma
Cutaneous / dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition
Red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple areola
Child uses arms to stand up from squat
Continuous “machinery” heart murmur
Swollen, hard, painful finger joints
Jaundice, RUQ pain, fever

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