USMLE First Aid Rapid Review - Classic Presentations

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Can you name the Classic Presentations of diseases?

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Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Sudden swollen / painful big toe joint, tophi
Small, irregular red spots on buccal / inguinal mucosa with blue-white centers
Indurated, non-painful ulcerated genital lesion
Back pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss
Jaundice, RUQ pain, fever
Slow, progressive muscle weakness in boys
Short stature, ↑ incidence of tumors / leukemia, aplastic anemia
Rapidly progressive leg weakness that ascends (following GI/upper respiratory infection)
Adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, DIC
Severe RLQ pain with rebound tenderness
Dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, polyneuropathy
Palpable purpura, joint pain, abdominal pain (child)
Infant with microcephaly, rocker-bottom feet, clenched hands, and structural heart defect
Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails
Polyuria, acidosis, growth failure, electrolyte imbalances
“Strawberry tongue” (Staph. aureus)
Fever, chills, headache, myalgia following antibiotic treatment for syphilis
Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperdocility
Retinal hemorrhages with pale centers
Restrictive cardiomyopathy (juvenile form: cardiomegaly), exercise intolerance
Hypercoagulability leading to migrating DVTs and vascultitis
Bounding pulses, diastolic heart murmur, head bobbing
Bone pain, bone enlargement, arthritis
Red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple areola
Unilateral facial dropping invoving forhead
Fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, diffuse rash
Café-au-lait spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty
Rash on palms and soles
Streak ovaries, congenital heart disease, horseshoe kidney
Erytheroderma, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, atypical T cells
Vomiting blood following esophagogastric lacerations
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (hexosaminidase
Deep labored breathing / hyperventilation
Athlete with polycythemia
Swollen gums, mucous leeding, poor wound healing, spots on skin
Calf pseudohypertrophy
Ptosis, miosis, anhydrosis
Situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis
“Strawberry tongue” (Vasculitis)
Infant with hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, and hepatomegaly
Weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, adenopathy
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Cutaneous / dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition
Multiple colon polyps, osteomas / soft tissue tumors, impacted / supernumerary teeth
Arachnodactyly, lens discoloration, aortic dissection, hyperflexible joints
Cold intolerance
Hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts
Nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech, bilateral intranuclear opthalmoplegia
Painful, pale, cold fingers / toes
Lucid interval after traumatic brain injury
Large rash with bull’s-eye appearance
Neonate with arm paralysis following difficult birth
Red urine in the morning, fragile RBCs
WBC casts in urine
Conjugate lateral gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia
Indurated, painful ulcerated genital lesion with exudates
Single palm crease
Resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, postural instability
Severe jaundice in neonate
Smooth, flat, moist white lesions on genitals
Green-yellow rings around peripheral cornea
Hamartamous GI polyps, hyperpigmentation of mouth / feet / hands
Pancreatic, pituitary, parathyroid tumors
Achilles tendon xanthoma
Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea
Fever, night sweats, weight loss
Dog or cat bite resulting in infection
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (sphingomyelinase)
“Worst headache of my life”
Dark purple skin / mouth nodules
Painful blue fingers toes, hemolytic anemia
Skin hyperpigmentation
Enlarged, hard left supraclavicular node
Vascular birthmark (port-wine stain)
No lactation postpartum, absent menstruation, cold intolerance
Facial muscle spasm upon tapping
Swollen, hard, painful finger joints
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, anti-basement membrane antibodies
Positive anterior “drawer sign”
“Waxy” casts with very low urine flow
Infant with failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, neurodegeneration
Chest pain, pericardial effusion / friction rub, persistent fever following MI
Painful, raised red lesions on palms and soles
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps
Urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis in a male
Male child, recurrent infections, no mature B cells
Blue sclera
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas
Red “currant jelly” sputum in alcoholic or diabetic patients
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas, bilateral acoustic neuromas
Vasculitis from exposure to endotoxin causing glomerular thrombosis
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, c-ANCA positive
Continuous “machinery” heart murmur
Thyroid and parathyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma
Hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia
Chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration
Dysphagia (esophageal webs), glossitis, iron deficiency anemia
Bluish line on gingiva
Oscillating slow/fast breathing
Painless jaundice
Renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastomas, angiomatosis, pheochromocytoma
Gout, mental retardation, self-mutilating behavior in boy
Muscoal bleeding and prolonged bleeding time
Abdominal pain, ascites, hepatomegaly
Elastic skin, hypermobility of joints
Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis
Rash on palms and soles
Fat, female, forty, and fertile
Toe extension / fanning upon plantar scrape
Hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis
Keratin pearls in a skin biopsy
Hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis, neurologic symptoms
Pupil accommodates but doesn’t react
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (vascular)
Child with fever develops red rash on face that spread to body
Fibrous plaques in soft tissue of penis
Recurrent colds unusual eczema, high serum IgE
Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo)
Painful erythematous lesions on palms and soles
Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis
“Strawberry tongue” (Strep. pyogenes)
Pink complexion, dyspnea, hyperventilation
Child uses arms to stand up from squat

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