USMLE First Aid Rapid Review - Classic Presentations

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Can you name the Classic Presentations of diseases?

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Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, DIC
Cutaneous / dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition
Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis
Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis
Unilateral facial dropping invoving forhead
Back pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss
Child uses arms to stand up from squat
Conjugate lateral gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia
Ptosis, miosis, anhydrosis
Polyuria, acidosis, growth failure, electrolyte imbalances
Jaundice, RUQ pain, fever
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas, bilateral acoustic neuromas
Dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, polyneuropathy
Fever, night sweats, weight loss
Café-au-lait spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty
Vasculitis from exposure to endotoxin causing glomerular thrombosis
Palpable purpura, joint pain, abdominal pain (child)
Bone pain, bone enlargement, arthritis
Hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis, neurologic symptoms
“Strawberry tongue” (Strep. pyogenes)
Arachnodactyly, lens discoloration, aortic dissection, hyperflexible joints
“Strawberry tongue” (Vasculitis)
Severe jaundice in neonate
Fibrous plaques in soft tissue of penis
Weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, adenopathy
Dysphagia (esophageal webs), glossitis, iron deficiency anemia
Resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, postural instability
Rapidly progressive leg weakness that ascends (following GI/upper respiratory infection)
Swollen gums, mucous leeding, poor wound healing, spots on skin
Hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia
Green-yellow rings around peripheral cornea
Dark purple skin / mouth nodules
Erytheroderma, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, atypical T cells
Smooth, flat, moist white lesions on genitals
Painful, raised red lesions on palms and soles
Red urine in the morning, fragile RBCs
Vascular birthmark (port-wine stain)
WBC casts in urine
Lucid interval after traumatic brain injury
Infant with hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, and hepatomegaly
Blue sclera
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Painful blue fingers toes, hemolytic anemia
Abdominal pain, ascites, hepatomegaly
Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperdocility
Hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis
Indurated, painful ulcerated genital lesion with exudates
Gout, mental retardation, self-mutilating behavior in boy
Renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastomas, angiomatosis, pheochromocytoma
Recurrent colds unusual eczema, high serum IgE
Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma), pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas
Bounding pulses, diastolic heart murmur, head bobbing
Bluish line on gingiva
Fat, female, forty, and fertile
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (sphingomyelinase)
Rash on palms and soles
No lactation postpartum, absent menstruation, cold intolerance
Urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis in a male
Swollen, hard, painful finger joints
Deep labored breathing / hyperventilation
Pink complexion, dyspnea, hyperventilation
Calf pseudohypertrophy
Pupil accommodates but doesn’t react
Child with fever develops red rash on face that spread to body
Multiple colon polyps, osteomas / soft tissue tumors, impacted / supernumerary teeth
Fever, chills, headache, myalgia following antibiotic treatment for syphilis
Short stature, ↑ incidence of tumors / leukemia, aplastic anemia
Hamartamous GI polyps, hyperpigmentation of mouth / feet / hands
Painful, pale, cold fingers / toes
Streak ovaries, congenital heart disease, horseshoe kidney
Muscoal bleeding and prolonged bleeding time
Oscillating slow/fast breathing
Small, irregular red spots on buccal / inguinal mucosa with blue-white centers
Chest pain, pericardial effusion / friction rub, persistent fever following MI
Hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts
Continuous “machinery” heart murmur
Sudden swollen / painful big toe joint, tophi
Situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis
Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo)
Skin hyperpigmentation
Retinal hemorrhages with pale centers
Fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, diffuse rash
Painful erythematous lesions on palms and soles
Clinical PresentationDiagnosis, Disease, ConditionCharacteristic Info
Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails
Painless jaundice
Severe RLQ pain with rebound tenderness
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (vascular)
Dog or cat bite resulting in infection
Athlete with polycythemia
Achilles tendon xanthoma
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, c-ANCA positive
Slow, progressive muscle weakness in boys
Cold intolerance
“Cherry-red spot” on macula (hexosaminidase
Facial muscle spasm upon tapping
Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea
Toe extension / fanning upon plantar scrape
Hypercoagulability leading to migrating DVTs and vascultitis
Vomiting blood following esophagogastric lacerations
Single palm crease
Indurated, non-painful ulcerated genital lesion
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis, anti-basement membrane antibodies
Elastic skin, hypermobility of joints
Keratin pearls in a skin biopsy
Red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple areola
“Strawberry tongue” (Staph. aureus)
Thyroid and parathyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma
Rash on palms and soles
Red “currant jelly” sputum in alcoholic or diabetic patients
Chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps
Positive anterior “drawer sign”
Infant with failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, neurodegeneration
Nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech, bilateral intranuclear opthalmoplegia
Male child, recurrent infections, no mature B cells
“Waxy” casts with very low urine flow
Large rash with bull’s-eye appearance
Enlarged, hard left supraclavicular node
“Worst headache of my life”
Pancreatic, pituitary, parathyroid tumors
Infant with microcephaly, rocker-bottom feet, clenched hands, and structural heart defect
Restrictive cardiomyopathy (juvenile form: cardiomegaly), exercise intolerance
Neonate with arm paralysis following difficult birth
Chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration

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