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Individual Differences: AS Psychology Key Terms
Can you name the key terms of Individual Differences?
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The scientific study of psychological disorders, their nature and causes.
The view that key influence on behaviour is how an individual thinks about the situation.
Abnormality is seen as deviating from ideal mental health. This ideal would include a positive attitude towards self resistance to stress and accurate perception of reality.
The administration of a controlled electrical current through electrodes placed on the scalp to induce a seizure which can be effective in relieving an episode of manic depression.
A cognitive behavioural therapy to treat phobias and other problems. Client is gradually exposed to the situation under relaxed conditions until anxiety reaction is extinguished.
Using criteria of adequate functioning, mentally healthy people are judged as being able to operate within certain acceptable limits.
The view that behaviour can all be explained in terms of biological mechanisms such as hormones, neurotransmitters, brain activity and influences inherited via genes.
A neurotransmitter linked to schizophrenia.
A theory that explains behavior with certain disorders as both a result of biological and genetic factors (nature), and life experiences (nurture).
The view that all behaviour is learned through experience as a result of classical or operant conditioning.
A unit of inheritance which forms part of a chromosome. These control the characteristics that we inherit from parents.
A form of psychotherapy developed by Sigmund Freud that aims to help patients become aware of long-repressed unconscious feelings and issues using techniques like free association.
A cognitive behavioural treatment to help people change dysfunctional behaviours by making them aware of self-defeating beliefs, then modifying these to remove the unwanted states.
Abnormal behaviour is seen as a deviation from implicit rules about how one 'ought' to behave.
Literally an approach that explains the dynamics of behaviour - what motivates a person. Freud suggested that unconscious forces and early experience are the prime motivators.
Low levels of this neurotransmitter are related to depression and high levels have been linked to anxiety.
The view that behaviour cannot be judged properly unless it is viewed in the context of the culture in which it originates.
This develops between the ages of three and six, and embodies our conscience and sense of right and wrong.
The reception of genetically coded traits through transmission from parent to offspring.
The irrational, primitive part of personality. Present at birth, demands immediate satisfaction and is ruled by the pleasure principle.
Unconscious methods, such as repression and displacement, which help the ego deal with feelings of anxiety and thus 'defend' the ego.
The conscious rational part of personality. Develops by the end of the infant's first year, as child interacts with constraints of reality and is governed by 'reality principle'.
Psychological condition or behaviour that departs from 'the norm' or is harmful and distressing to the individual or those around them.
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