Sedimentary 1

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Introduction
Consolidation of loose sediment by burial and cementation 
Understanding of modern environments to infer past conditions 
Two main categories of sedimentary rock (space separated) 
The most widely used scale for grainsize 
Logarithmic transformation of this scale 
Latin roots, largest to smallest (space separated) 
3 aspects of grain morphology 
Measure of grain size distribution 
Triangular classification system most people from rock skills appear to dislike 
Measure of how far the sediment has been transported 
Post Depositional Change
Formed on a slope when liquefaction occurs 
Forms when water is lost on consolidation 
When upper part of a foreset bed is upturned in downstream direction 
Created by upwards fluid drag, these have sweeping edges 
Bulbous sandstone segments 
Mud penetrating the above 
First diagenetic change in rocks 
Contact when hardnesses are equal 
Disappearing mineral in concavo-conex boundaries goes into (x) 
The most common cements are calcium carbonates, clay minerals and (x) 
Form as a result of localised increased sedimentation 
Gives red sandstone it's colour 
% of above sufficient to provide deep red colouration 
High surface area interpenetrating horizons 
The coal series is Peat, (x), (y), (z) 
Long chained hydrocarbon on the way to forming oil 
Impermeable barrier preventing oil from rising 
Fluids & Transport
Large block of gravity fallen material 
Number characterising how a flow behaves 
Flow that pertains when this number is under 500 
Flow that pertains when the number is above 2000 
Sediment is carried by rolling, saltation and (x) 
Related to a tapered pipe, this effect causes saltation 
Plot of flow velocity against grain size showing how sediment is behaving 
This number summarises hydrodynamic conditions of a fluid flow 
The three flow regimes recognised by this number 
Collective term for morphological structures on sediment bed 
If velocity changes during the life of a flow (x) occurs 
Related to the above, (x) indicates waning flow 
In flows (x) are preserved as large scale cross bedding 
Layering under 1mm thickness 
The names for the rising and falling sides of a ripple (in order and space separated) 
A cross bedding series created by one structure 
Sedimentary structures formed by erosion 
Carbonate Petrology
What percentage of CaCO3 must be in a limestone before it can be classed as such 
Stable form of CaCO3 and its structure 
Unstable form of CaCO3 and its structure 
(x) may replace both these forms of CaCO3 
Skeletal and non skeletal grains 
The cement 
Fine grained matrix 
Name a marine macrofossil group commonly found in limestone 
Chambered microfossils used widely for zoning 
Fossil group mentioned in this lecture but not Palaeontology 
Sand sized micrite grains most likely of faecal origin 
Grains or flakes of local, recently lithified sediment 
Concentrically coated nuclei 
Maximum diameter of the above (mm) 
Grainsize classification scheme 
Grains over 2mm 
Grains 0.62-2mm 
Grains under 0.62mm 
Scheme based on composition 
Scheme based on texture 

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