Biology Exam 3-2

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Lipids and proteins are inserted into new membranes as they are being formed in the _____ and then are used to form _____ for vitrually all of the sub-cellular organelles
As membranes move from compartment to another, they get ______
If you look at the two lipid ______, the phospholipids are _______, the outer leaflet has types of phospholipids that the inner leaflet lacks and vice versa.
The asymmetry of the phospholipids, the asymmetry is established in the _____
The cytosolic side of membrane buds will be found on the __ side of the target membrane, Golgi complex and _ membrane. It will change orientation to stay on the __ side
Most membrane lipds are made entirely in the ____
The only lipids not made in the ER are those destined for mitochondria and _________ with produce their phospholipds with their own _________ enzymes
Also, _______ and glycolipids get completed in the ________
Phospholipids are made on the ______ side of the ER by _________proteins
Some phospholipids are destined for the inner leaflet and are flipped to that _______ side by enzymes called _______
The newly made phospholipids are carried from the _____ to the golgi complex in budded ______
Membranes in different organelles have different knids of phospholipids. The _______ are modified as they move from the ER to other parts of the cell
The _ are how you can make the phospholipids on the inner and outer leaflets different
Vesicles have ______- in them that can covert one phospholipd to another, like __________ to phosphatidylcholine
Some phospholipids are incorporated in some _______ and some phospholipds are _____
In some cases, phospholipids can be transported through the ______ by phospholipid - ________ proteins to other organelles
In the endoplasmic reticulum, a majority of the phospholipids are __________.
Phosphatidylserine is found in ____ of the membranes
________ is found mainly in the plasma membrane
Phospholipids of one membrane can differ from those of a bud from the same membrane. ________ heads are modified enzymatically in the ______ membrane
Phospholipids buds differ from the same membrane because secondaly, phospholipids of one type can ________ in the area where a ____ will form
Phospholipids buds differ from the same membrane by thirdly transferring phospholipids of one membrnae to another membrane via ___________
Almost all proteins made on the _____ become glycosylated
________ is critical for intermolecular interactions and for proper folding of _______
The kind of sugars and their order is precise on _________
The precise order of glycoproteins is accomplished by a family of _______ bound enzymes called _________
________ transfer a specific sugar from a nucletoide sugar to the growing end of a _______ chain
The order of sugars is precise bc the glycosyltransferases are aligned spatially so when one __ is added, the molecule moves to the next _
Oly __________ oligosaccharides are placed on polypeptides in the RER. _ oligiosacharies are put on in the golgi
N-linked has ______ on the protein and the first sugar is the ________
The oligosaccharide is first constructed on a lipid molcule called ___________ which is embedded in the lipid bilayer. The monomeric sugars are then added individually in a precise
The ocmpleted oligosaccharide is then transferred as a block to the _______
Adding sugars for N-linked oligosaccharides is as follows: 1. _ is added to the dilichol phosphate 2. A second N-acetylglucosamine added. 3. Nine ___ 4.three ___
Once the sequence of sugars is completed, the _______ is trasnferred to the polypeptide while the _____ polypeptide is still entering the RER
Mutations that affect the _______ are usually fatal
After the first five mannoses are added to the dolichol phosphate, it flips to the ________
Once the oligosaccharides are attached to the _________, they get modified
For modification, two of the _____- are removed
Then ________ molecules, ________ and calreticulin examine the protein for quality control.
The glycosylated protein then has the _____ glucose removed and the chaperones _______
The polypeptide is then inspected again by a _____________ enzyme
If the protein does not pass inspection, a _______ is added back to the oligosaccharide, it gets re-folded and a new inspection occurs
If the protein passes inspection, the _______ is removed and the protein is ready for use.
The process of adding back a fluocse and re-inspecting can occur several times, but if it fails the protein undergoes ______. This is all called ________response
Vesicles bud from smooth areas of the _____ and move toward the cis-golgi
The vesicles leaving the RER to the cis-golgi are often attached to each by small ______
The golgi complex consists of 6-8 flattened, ___-like structures that have a ____-like deression in the middle.
The individual discs of the golgi are called _______ and are _____ micron in thickness
A golgi cisternae is connected to the next by _______ and arranged in ribbon-like form.______ bud from the periphery of the cisternae
The order of the golgi is the _____, the medial and the ______
From the _____ golgi vesicles go off to the plasma membrane, organelles, etc.
The __is closet to the RER and is a sorting station that either sends vesilces to the _ cisternae or back to the RER. It is composed of a series of interconnected network of
The _____ is also an interconnected network of tubules and is the exit level of ________ vesicles
The entire golgi cmplex is held in place by _______ elements which form and un-fom to allow the assemby and disassmeby of the golgi complex during cell _______
The golgi complex is a _______ organelle
Proteins in vesivles move from the ____ to the ____-golgi network and undergo specific modifications as they move
Certain modification like glycosylation of ________ membrane proteins and _______proteins
When a glycosylated proten leaves the ____, the glucose residues have been removed.
During movement from cis to trans golgi, most of the _ are remobed and other sugars are added by the __
The modified N-linked olgiosaccharides put on the polypeptide in the __________ are determined by which _______ are used and their spatial arrangement
______ residues are on the surfaces of all our cells, often terminal molecules, is a monosaccharide, has a _____ carbon backbone and can bind to _______
The golgi produces of most complex __, including the _ of proteogylcans. In plants, the golgi complex produces of ___ and pectin
The coat of the vesicles of the RER and ______ provide _______ support and provides a _______ for selecting cargo to be carried by the vesicle
There are two distinct layers of these coated vesicles, an ________ or scaffolidng and an inner layer of _____ that bind to the vesicles cargo
There are three classes of coats of vesicles the ______, COPI, and _____
COPII move vesicles from the ____ to the ERGIC to the _____
_____ moves vesicles from the golgi to the ____ and from trans to ___
Clathrin-coated vesicles move materials from _-golgi to endosomes __ and plant vaculoes
Vesicular tubular carriers sometimes asist __&__vesicles
COPII selectively concentrate components for transport from the __ to the __ by way of the ____ and the ERGIC .
Integral membrane proteins in the RER memb are captured by the ______ coated vesicle becuase they have _____ singals on their cytoplasmic tails
Proteins selected by the COPII-coats are ___ to be used by the golgi, such as _______
Proteins selected by the COPII-coats are ______ proteins imprtnat for docking and ____ wiht the target vesicle
Proteins selected by the COPII-coats are membrane molecules capable of binding ______ cargo
A ___ protein called Sar1 is necessary to signal formation of the COPII-coated vesicle.
Sar1 is recruited to the ____membrane and then the G-protein has its GDP --> _____and undergoes a conformational change. This causes a bend in the ____ membrane and induces the for
After Sar1 is used, two other proteins are then recruited, _____ & _____, that further increase the bending of the forming vesicle and act as an “______proteins” that causes th
Once the COPII coat is assembled, the bud separates from the ____ as a mature COPII-coated vesicle
On arriving at the Golgi complex, the COPII coat is disassembled, coat is released into the _, bc the _____ on the Sar 1 molecule is hydrolysedm replaced by __is
COPI also require GTP to bind to a membrane protein,___
COPI-coated vesicles carry materials from the Golgi back to the ____. This can occur from the _____, medial or cis Golgi. T
COPI vesicles carry proteins back to the ____because they were put in _____ vesicles by mistake or they carry ______ proteins that were carried away from the ER and must be returne
When _____-coated vesicles return to the RER, the _____is hydrolyzed and the COPI coat disassembles.
Retention of ______ in the RER is accomplished because large complex proteins and integral membrane proteins have short ______ tails and are not bound by______receptors
Retrieval of “escaped” molecules occurs because they have short ________ sequences on their ___-terminus tails and these short tails act as “_______signals.”
Retrieval of misplaced proteins with ___ cytoplasmic _occurs because the sequences on these __ ___includes KDEL (____-asp-____-leu). KDEL receptors are in the membranes of __
Sorting of proteins for their final destinations occurs in the _____ network
When lysosomal proteins get to the ___, a _____ residue on the glycosylated region of the proteins is _ and this acts as a sorting signal for trans-Golgi network.
The lysosomal enzymes are then selectively placed in a vesicle which is given a _______ coat. Adaptor proteins (______) associated with the clathrin coat then bind the enzymes as t
GGAs bind to ____molecules on one end and to the cytosolic domains of the ____ receptor on the other end.
The M6P receptor binds the enzymes on the inside. This arrangement concentrates the ____in the vesicle
After these vesicle bud off of the _____-Golgi network, the clathrin coat disassembles. Likewise, the _____ receptors are released and they are returned to the _____
______ engulg nutrients from the enviroment by engulging particles, bringing them into the ctoplasm, fusing wiht _____ and digesting the contents
Vertebrates have types of white blood cells that are professional _____ and include _____ and neutriophils
In phagocytosis, the engulfed vesicle is called a __ then fuses witha _ to become a __. After fusion occurs, the proton pump is acitvated and the ___drops.
Neutropgils are also called ______
Monocytes become _____
Pathogens generally have specific molecules on surgaces that are called __________
In addition, reactive oxygen intermediates (__ and hydrogen peroxide) are produced and are toxic.

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