Diseases in Infection and Immunity

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Can you name the Diseases in Infection and Immunity?

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AreaDiseaseClue
Infection/InflammationCefotaxime/Ceftriaxone often prescribed. Caused by N. meningitidis, H. influenzae, S. pneumoniae, L. monocytogenes, possible C. albicans...
VirusT cells increase but there are less T cells
Immune DeficiencyNeutrophilia, no pus, defective fucose metabolism (affects selectins), decreased rolling
FungusMore common where earth is being moved. In lungs.
Side EffectAminoglycoside SE
InflammationHomocysteine implicated
Risk FactorIncreases risk of ATS
InflammationNeutrophil driven, often causes cyanosis, hypoxia and right heart failure. Mucous is a problem!
Immune DeficiencyRecurrent bacterial infections, no pus, Leukocytes don't adhere to endothelium
Parasite (Helminth)Live in subcutaneous tissue and lymphatic tissue. Adults discharge tiny babies which can be ingested by insects. Can cause Elephantiasis and River Blindness.
BacteriaSusceptible to Linezolid but not vancomycin
BacteriaOften cause gut infection after oral broad spectrum antibiotic
Side EffectTetracyclin forms ROS causing damage
FungusCaused by Yeast
Systemic InflammationRF present but not Rheumatoid Arthritis. Often features in 'House'
Parasite (Helminth)S. mansoni, S. haematobium, S. japonicus. Use water snail as intermediate host (can also have secondary host)
Side EffectCan be caused by Clindamycin. Killing all susceptible bacteria in gut using a broad spectrum antibiotic can cause...
InfectionIsoniazid/Ethambutol/Pyrazinamide/Rifampicin prescribed
ArthopodsScalp itching
InflammationTh2 (IL-4,5 & 13) and Eosinophil driven. Hyperresponsiveness
ArthopodsMite burrows into epidermis. Papular eruption.
AreaDiseaseClue
Virus/InflammationRibavirin used, can be caused by alcohol
FungusCaused by trichophyton (mould) often
Parasite (Helminth)If humans are primary host, no morbidity. Worm just stays in gut. Intermediate host causes morbidity as organism in tissues
Parasite (Protozoa)They multiply in Liver then RBCs. Can cause severe anaemia, haemolysis, pulmonary oedema, metabolic acidosis and hypoglycaemia. Most serious in P. falciparum
Side EffectPenicillin can cause this in about 5% of people
Risk Factor - BacteriaCo-morbidity with ATS
VirusMost common cold causer
Parasite (Helminth)Egg dropped in faeces and mature in soil. they are ingested and hatch in intestine. they penetrate the gut wall and migrate to liver then heart then lung. they grow and are then coughed up and swallowed.10-30cm adult can escape from any orifice though larval migration causes most morbidity.
VirusHemaglutinnin, Neuraminidase, ...
Side EffectDeath after Chloramphenicol
Mendelian DisorderLDLR doesn't recognise ApoA or ApoE
Parasite (Protozoa)Multiplies in blood and CSF disturbing circadian rythms. avoids immune system by using cyclical antigen coats.
ArthopodsItching in Pubic Area
Parasite (Protozoa)Short stage in blood then muscle (esp. heart).
BacteriaSusceptible to few drugs, often causes septicaemia. Susceptible to Ceftazidime, Cefoperazone, Cefepime, Cefpirome, Imipenem, Polymixins, Ciprofloxacin
Mendelian disorderABCA1 doesn't work so ApoA1 can't pick up cholesterol
BacteriaOften susceptible to vancomycin and linezolid but resistant to Methicillin
VirusCauses SARS
InflammationChronic Inflammation, Synovium (Hyaluronan, PGE2), MMPs (TIMP & Serpin inactivation), TNFa, IL-1b, Pannus formation
Skin DiseaseTetracycline often applied topically to cure
FungusCan be oral or vaginal. Often treated with oral miconazole.

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