Diseases in Infection and Immunity

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Can you name the Diseases in Infection and Immunity?

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AreaDiseaseClue
InflammationTh2 (IL-4,5 & 13) and Eosinophil driven. Hyperresponsiveness
FungusCan be oral or vaginal. Often treated with oral miconazole.
ArthopodsScalp itching
Parasite (Helminth)S. mansoni, S. haematobium, S. japonicus. Use water snail as intermediate host (can also have secondary host)
ArthopodsItching in Pubic Area
Mendelian disorderABCA1 doesn't work so ApoA1 can't pick up cholesterol
FungusCaused by trichophyton (mould) often
FungusMore common where earth is being moved. In lungs.
VirusCauses SARS
Parasite (Helminth)If humans are primary host, no morbidity. Worm just stays in gut. Intermediate host causes morbidity as organism in tissues
FungusCaused by Yeast
Mendelian DisorderLDLR doesn't recognise ApoA or ApoE
Side EffectPenicillin can cause this in about 5% of people
Infection/InflammationCefotaxime/Ceftriaxone often prescribed. Caused by N. meningitidis, H. influenzae, S. pneumoniae, L. monocytogenes, possible C. albicans...
Side EffectDeath after Chloramphenicol
BacteriaOften susceptible to vancomycin and linezolid but resistant to Methicillin
Side EffectTetracyclin forms ROS causing damage
InflammationHomocysteine implicated
Side EffectAminoglycoside SE
Immune DeficiencyRecurrent bacterial infections, no pus, Leukocytes don't adhere to endothelium
Virus/InflammationRibavirin used, can be caused by alcohol
AreaDiseaseClue
BacteriaSusceptible to Linezolid but not vancomycin
Parasite (Helminth)Live in subcutaneous tissue and lymphatic tissue. Adults discharge tiny babies which can be ingested by insects. Can cause Elephantiasis and River Blindness.
Parasite (Protozoa)Short stage in blood then muscle (esp. heart).
Side EffectCan be caused by Clindamycin. Killing all susceptible bacteria in gut using a broad spectrum antibiotic can cause...
InflammationChronic Inflammation, Synovium (Hyaluronan, PGE2), MMPs (TIMP & Serpin inactivation), TNFa, IL-1b, Pannus formation
Immune DeficiencyNeutrophilia, no pus, defective fucose metabolism (affects selectins), decreased rolling
Skin DiseaseTetracycline often applied topically to cure
InfectionIsoniazid/Ethambutol/Pyrazinamide/Rifampicin prescribed
VirusHemaglutinnin, Neuraminidase, ...
BacteriaSusceptible to few drugs, often causes septicaemia. Susceptible to Ceftazidime, Cefoperazone, Cefepime, Cefpirome, Imipenem, Polymixins, Ciprofloxacin
Parasite (Protozoa)Multiplies in blood and CSF disturbing circadian rythms. avoids immune system by using cyclical antigen coats.
Parasite (Helminth)Egg dropped in faeces and mature in soil. they are ingested and hatch in intestine. they penetrate the gut wall and migrate to liver then heart then lung. they grow and are then coughed up and swallowed.10-30cm adult can escape from any orifice though larval migration causes most morbidity.
Risk Factor - BacteriaCo-morbidity with ATS
Risk FactorIncreases risk of ATS
BacteriaOften cause gut infection after oral broad spectrum antibiotic
InflammationNeutrophil driven, often causes cyanosis, hypoxia and right heart failure. Mucous is a problem!
VirusMost common cold causer
VirusT cells increase but there are less T cells
ArthopodsMite burrows into epidermis. Papular eruption.
Parasite (Protozoa)They multiply in Liver then RBCs. Can cause severe anaemia, haemolysis, pulmonary oedema, metabolic acidosis and hypoglycaemia. Most serious in P. falciparum
Systemic InflammationRF present but not Rheumatoid Arthritis. Often features in 'House'

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