Enviroscience Review

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Can you name the Enviroscience terms ?

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chapters 1-3 terms
Growth in which some quantity, such as population size or economic output, increases at a constant rate per unit of time. An example is the growth sequence 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, and
Biological scientist who studies relationships between living organisms and their environment.
Study of the interactions of living organisms with one another and with their nonliving environment of matter and energy; study of the structure and functions of nature.
All external conditions and factors, living and nonliving (chemicals and energy), that affect an organism or other specified system during its lifetime.
Interdisciplinary study that uses information from the physical sciences and social sciences to learn how the earth works, how we interact with the earth, and how to deal with envi
Asocial movement dedicated to protecting the earth’s life support systems for us and other species.
Person who is concerned about the impact of people on environmental quality and believes that some human actions are degrading parts of the earth’s life-support systems for human
Ability of a system to survive for some specified (finite) time.
The earth’s natural materials and processes that sustain life on the earth and our economies.
Annual market value of all goods and services produced by all firms and organizations, foreign and domestic, operating within a country.
An essentially inexhaustible resource on a human time scale. Solar energy is an example.
Resource that can be replenished rapidly (hours to several decades) through natural processes. Examples include trees in forests, grasses in grasslands, wild animals, fresh surface
Highest rate at which a potentially renewable resource can be used without reducing its available supply throughout the world or in a particular area.
Depletion or destruction of a potentially renewable resource such as soil, grassland, forest, or wildlife that is used faster than it is naturally replenished. If such use continue
Resource that people normally are free to use; each user can deplete or degrade the available supply. Most such resources are renewable and owned by no one. Examples include clean
Depletion or degradation of a potentially renewable resource to which people have free and unmanaged access. An example is the depletion of commercially desirable fish species in t
Single identifiable source that discharges pollutants into the environment. Examples include the smokestack of a power plant or an industrial plant, drainpipe of a meatpacking plan
A particular chemical or form of energy that can adversely affect the health, survival, or activities of humans or other living organisms.
An undesirable change in the physical, chemical, or biological characteristics of air, water, soil, or food that can adversely affect the health, survival, or activities of humans
Device or process that prevents a potential pollutant from forming or entering the environment or sharply reduces the amount entering the environment.
Large or dispersed land areas such as crop fields, streets, and lawns that discharge pollutants into the environment over a large area.
Anything obtained from the living and nonliving environment to meet human needs and wants. It can also be applied to other species.
Collecting and reprocessing a resource so that it can be made into new products. An example is collecting aluminum cans, melting them down, and using the aluminum to make new cans
Resource that can be replenished rapidly (hours to several decades) through natural processes. Examples include trees in forests, grasses in grasslands, wild animals, fresh surface
Using a product over and over again in the same form. An example is collecting, washing, and refilling glass beverage bottles.
Resource that exists in a fixed amount (stock) in various places in the earth’s crust and has the potential for renewal by geological, physical, and chemical processes taking pla
Capacity to do work by performing mechanical, physical, chemical, or electrical tasks or to cause a heat transfer between two objects at different temperatures. energy efficiency P
Material that can be broken down into simpler substances (elements and compounds) by bacteria or other decomposers. Paper and most organic wastes such as animal manure are biodegra
Potentially polluting chemical that is broken down completely or reduced to acceptable levels by natural physical, chemical, and biological processes
Material that is slowly broken down into simpler chemicals or reduced to acceptable levels by natural physical, chemical, and biological processes
In any physical or chemical change, matter is neither created nor destroyed but merely changed from one form to another; in physical and chemical changes, existing atoms are rearra
In any physical or chemical change, no detectable amount of energy is created or destroyed, but energy can be changed from one form to another; you cannot get more energy out of so
In any conversion of heat energy to useful work, some of the initial energy input is always degraded to lower-quality, more dispersed, less useful energy—usually low-temperature
chapters 1-3 terms
Matter that is concentrated and contains a high concentration of a useful resource
The situation in most advanced industrialized countries, in which ever-increasing economic growth is sustained by maximizing the rate at which matter and energy resources are used,
Matter that is dilute or dispersed or contains a low concentration of a useful resource.
Smallest living unit of an organism
Group of organisms that resemble one another in appearance, behavior, chemical makeup and processes, and genetic structure.
Group of individual organisms of the same species living in a particular area.
Place or type of place where an organism or population of organisms lives.
Populations of all species living and interacting in an area at a particular time.
Community of different species interacting with one another and with the chemical and physical factors making up its nonliving environment.
The whole mass of air surrounding the earth.
Innermost layer of the atmosphere. It contains about 75% of the mass of earth’s air and extends about 17 kilometers (11 miles) above sea level.
Second layer of the atmosphere, extending about 17–48 kilometers (11–30 miles) above the earth’s surface. It contains small amounts of gaseous ozone (O3), which filters out a
Outer shell of the earth, composed of the crust and the rigid, outermost part of the mantle outside the asthenosphere; material found in the earth’s plates.
The earth’s liquid water (oceans, lakes, other bodies of surface water, and underground water), frozen water (polar ice caps, floating ice caps, and ice in soil, known as permafr
Zone of the earth where life is found. It consists of parts of the atmosphere (the troposphere), hydrosphere (mostly surface water and groundwater), and lithosphere (mostly soil an
A natural effect that releases heat in the atmosphere (troposphere) near the earth’s surface. Water vapor, carbon dioxide, ozone, and other gases in the lower atmosphere (troposp
Gases in the earth’s lower atmosphere (troposphere) that cause the greenhouse effect. Examples include carbon dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons, ozone, methane, water vapor, and nitro
nonliving
living
Consumer organism that feeds on detritus, parts of dead organisms, and cast-off fragments and wastes of living organisms. The two principal types are detritus feeders and decompose
Animal that can use both plants and other animals as food sources. Examples include pigs, rats, cockroaches, and humans.
Variety of different species (species diversity), genetic variability among individuals within each species (genetic diversity), variety of ecosystems (ecological diversity), and f
Organic matter produced by plants and other photosynthetic producers; total dry weight of all living organisms that can be supported at each trophic level in a food chain or web; d
Range of chemical and physical conditions that must be maintained for populations of a particular species to stay alive and grow, develop, and function normally.
Single factor that limits the growth, abundance, or distribution of the population of a species in an ecosystem
Too much or too little of any abiotic factor can limit or prevent growth of a population of a species in an ecosystem, even if all other factors are at or near the optimal range o
Process in which certain organisms (mostly specialized bacteria) extract inorganic compounds from their environment and convert them into organic nutrient compounds without the pre
Organism that cannot synthesize the organic nutrients it needs and gets its organic nutrients by feeding on the tissues of producers or of other consumers; generally divided into p
Organism that digests parts of dead organisms and cast-off fragments and wastes of living organisms by breaking down the complex organic molecules in those materials into simpler i
All organisms that are the same number of energy transfers away from the original source of energy (for example, sunlight) that enters an ecosystem
Series of organisms in which each eats or decomposes the preceding one.
Complex network of many interconnected food chains and feeding relationships
Cyclic movement of nitrogen in different chemical forms from the environment to organisms and then back to the environment.
chapters 1-3 terms
Cyclic movement of carbon in different chemical forms from the environment to organisms and then back to the environment.
Natural processes that recycle nutrients in various chemical forms from the nonliving environment to living organisms and then back to the nonliving environment. Examples include t
Country that is highly industrialized and has a high per capita GNP.
Country that has low to moderate industrialization and low to moderate per capita GNP. Most are located in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
In any physical or chemical change, no detectable amount of energy is created or destroyed, but energy can be changed from one form to another; you cannot get more energy out of so
any form of life
Organism that uses solar energy (green plants) or chemical energy (some bacteria) to manufacture the organic compounds it needs as nutrients from simple inorganic compounds obtaine
Biogeochemical cycle that collects, purifies, and distributes the earth’s fixed supply of water from the environment to living organisms and then back to the environment.
The full potential range of the physical, chemical, and biological factors a species can use if it does not face any competition from other species.
Parts of the fundamental niche of a species that are actually used by that species.
Species with a broad ecological niche. They can live in many different places, eat a variety of foods, and tolerate a wide range of environmental conditions. Examples include flies
Species with a narrow ecological niche. They may be able to live in only one type of habitat, tolerate only a narrow range of climatic and other environmental conditions, or use on
Evolution in which two or more species interact and exert selective pressures on each other that can lead each species to undergo adaptations
Process by which humans select one or more desirable genetic traits in the population of a plant or animal species and then use selective breeding to produce populations containing
Insertion of an alien gene into an organism to give it a beneficial genetic trait.
Insertion of an alien gene into an organism to give it a beneficial genetic trait.
Organism whose genetic makeup has been altered by genetic engineering.
Total way of life or role of a species in an ecosystem. It includes all physical, chemical, and biological conditions that a species needs to live and reproduce in an ecosystem.
this never makes it to earth
insects are part of a group called
the easiest way to tell whether an arthropod is an insect or a pider is to
how many pairs of legs are there on most body parts of centipedes
the compound eyes of insects
in 1960 scientists discovered that ___ transmitted the bubonic-plague bacterium
in 1909 typhus is discovered to be transmitted by
in 1924 African sleeping sickness was discovered to be transmitted by a protest which was transmitted by the
an insecticide was used for the first time during ww2 to control the spread of typhus and outbreaks of malaria
the use of the above insecticide was restricted because
Blackflies transmit ___which is caused by roundworm. this was problematic in West Africain 1974
in 1999 the city of NY experiences an out break of West Nile Virus which is the first sighting of the disease in the Western Hemisphere. The disease is spread by
larve-pupa-adult-egg
1st stage of nymph-(molt)-2nd stage of nymph-3rd stage of nymph- 4th stage of nymph- 5th stage of nymph- adult- egg

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Created Jan 13, 2010ReportNominate
Tags:1-3, chapter, enviroscience, review, term